* E-mail of the corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract
There is an urgent need to have the e-wastemanagement and information security framework in Tanzania in order to rescue the country from the danger brought by improper management of e-waste and loose regulations for illegal importation of the devices from the developed countries. Tanzania like other non-industrialized /industrializing/developing countries is greatly affected by the e-waste problem as it can’t escape from the tremendous advancement in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector which contributes to the speedy growth of the e-waste in the country, worse enough the country does not have; formal recycling industries or any other formal method to manage the e-waste appropriately, legislations and regulations specifically for e-wastemanagement to protect the environment and human health. The e-waste dealt with under the scope of this paper are those produced from the ICT devices specifically desktop computers, Servers and Laptops. This study is about identifying the current practices in e-wastemanagement in Tanzania. From this general objective, the following specific objectives were derived; identify the awareness of the electronic device users on e-waste issues, identify the existing strategies on e-wastemanagement, identifying the available facilities for e-wastemanagement, identify the sources of e-waste and finally identify the treatment of e-waste in Tanzania. It was realized from the findings of the study that in the e-wastemanagement in Tanzania there was a lack of the following; Awareness to ICT device users and other stakeholders on the e-waste problem, Appropriate e-wastemanagement mechanism, Use of proper data removal tool for complete sterilization of the data from the computers before they enter the e-waste stream, ICT experts involvement in solving the e-waste problem and formulation of the legislation, regulations and the framework for the management of the e-waste. Most of the Green IT and Green computing issues require ICT expert participation, centralized database that contain information of all ICT devices country wise, E-waste specific legislation, regulations and the framework for e- wastemanagement that will address the issues of; illegal importation of obsolete ICT devices, implementation of the extended producer responsibilities (EPR)/ take-back systems and the component of information security. Keywords: E-waste, ICT (Information and Communication Technology), ICT devices (Desktop Computers, Laptops and Servers), obsolete ICT devices, E-waste from ICT devices, Information security.
Kigali's demand for EEE has increased significantly due to overall economic development and transformation due to the strong demand for various ICT tools as end-user equipment, the increases of EEEs for the side of human health and environment protection needs further treatmentstrategies of waste from EEEs after end of life of the equipment, and this is very complicated and due to the high price of e-waste collection, facilities are still needed, which can handle e-waste from different sources. According to a survey conducted between November 2014 and January 2015, Rwanda’s imports of EEE increased fivefold. The annual growth rate of EEE imports during 2010-2014 is estimated to be approximately 5.95% and had annual generation of 9 417 tons of e-waste; 7 677 tons (81.52%) were from individuals, 1,143 tons (12.14%) were from public institutions, and 597 tons (6.34%) were from private institutions, the estimation per capita was 0.9kg/inh.
6. On 4 January, 2011, the Government announced an implementation plan for wastemanagementstrategies following a review of the “Policy Framework”. The review aims to bring into action a comprehensive wastemanagement solution for our city in the long run. The implementation plan sets "reduce, recycle and proper wastemanagement" as the objective, with three core strategies including : (i) to strengthen efforts in promoting waste reduction at source and recycling; (ii) to introduce modern facilities for wastetreatment; and ( iii) to extend the existing landfills in a timely manner. The three strategies each plays an indispensable role in our wastemanagement solution. To start with, reduction at source will relieve the pressure on waste disposal. We must further strengthen our effort in this area through raising public awareness. While it is important to provide more facilities and hardware to facilitate recycling, we also need to ensure enough support is given to our partners to underpin district programmes. Waste reduction and recovery would continue to be our priority, but the experience of other places shows that waste recovery alone cannot provide a total solution to the waste problem. Take Germany as an example. With its recycling rate at 63%, there still remains a considerable amount of wastes that have to be treated. . This explains the need to introduce modern wastetreatmentfacilities to Hong Kong. As a proven technology, such facilities will help significantly reduce the volume of waste by up to 90%, while recovering energy for electricity generation during the process of incineration. The last, yet also indispensable, element of our wastemanagement strategy is the timely extension of landfills. We need to ensure that sufficient landfill space is made available to cope with wastes that are not treated by IWMF due to capacity constraints and house the residual ash from incineration.
E-waste is a popular, informal name for electronic products coming to the end of their “useful life”. As per the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2003, e-waste can be defined as “Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment including all components, sub-assemblies. Electronic waste, abbreviated as E-waste, consists of discarded old computers, TVs, refrigerators, radios –basically any electrical or electronic appliance that has reached its end of life.
new applications. Seeking a new application, a manufacturer of glazed tiles was identified as a potential user of the obtained glass. Regarding the electronic components of the printed circuit boards, the aim was to recover and reuse the elements of high value (memories, transistors, condensers, etc), and to extract the hazardous components (batteries, etc). A robotized disassembling cell was set up, where a 6 axis industrial collaborative robot shares the workplace with a human operator. Operation in this cell is as follows: a transportation belt is used to enter CRTs into this cell. A vision-based system identifies the presence of lead in the panel glass, which determines further treatment of the CRT, sending appropriated commands to the robot and other machines. If the panel is lead free, the CRT must be separated in two parts: funnel and panel; otherwise it can be shredded without previous separation. The robot cooperates with humans in performing the first steps of separation. The worker shows the robot where to cut cables or take out small components, etc. After that, the robot uses a vacuum gripper to handle the CRT and transport it to next workstations, where a rotating saw cuts the CRT along the joining line between panel and funnel. Funnel glass and mixed parts (metal, silicone) fall in a container. Then, the robot moves to next station, only with panel part and metallic band
ABSTRACT: In day to day life, one the most important thing is to manage the domestic garbage in the cities. Overflowing garbage bins which are placed at public places pollute the environment and are source of many deadly diseases. The situation is worst at some of the places in under developed countries. To solve this problem, we are proposing the work using the concept of Internet of Things (IOT) “Based WasteManagement for Smart Cities”. We are using multiple dustbins located throughout the city or the Campus. These dustbins are provided with low cost embedded device which helps in tracking the level of the garbage bins and a unique ID will be provided for every dustbin in the city so that it is easy to identify which garbage bin is full. When the level reaches the threshold limit, the device will transmit the level along with the unique ID provided. These details can be accessed by the concern authorities from their place with the help of Internet and an immediate action can be made to clean the dustbins and make the city clean and garbage free.
Ime i prezime: Karolina Cuković
Naslov rada: Waste-to-energy postrojenja
Sve većim porastom stanovnika i pojavom tehnologije dolazi do problema zbrinjavanja otpada. Neiskorištavanjem otpada nastaje smeće i samim time gube se sva vrijedna svojstva koja taj otpad posjeduje. Odlaganjem na odlagališta dolazi do dugoročnih posljedica na okoliš i zdravlje ljudi kao što su dugotrajne razgradnje pojedinih komponenti otpada, promjene kakvoće podzemnih i površinskih voda, pojačanih emisija stakleničkih plinova, pojačava se mogućnost od požara i eksplozija zbog emisija metana te se mijenja i kakvoća tla. Kretanje prema kružnom gospodarstvu, smanjenje odlaganja otpada i ograničavajući oporavak energije iz materijala koji se ne mogu reciklirati ima veliki utjecaj na ulaganja u WtE. Glavni procesi WtE su spaljivanje otpada u postrojenjima za sagorijevanje (npr. elektrane) i u proizvodnji cementa i vapna, spaljivanje otpada u posebnim objektima, anaerobna digestija biorazgradivog otpada, proizvodnja krutog, tekućeg ili plinovitog goriva iz otpada te ostali postupci uključujući neizravno spaljivanje nakon koraka pirolize ili rasplinjavanja. U radu se posebno opisuje spaljivanje budući da je zastupljeno u 99 % postupaka termičke obrade. U Europi je 2015. godine radilo 507 postrojenja s ukupnim godišnjim kapacitetom od 90,77 milijuna tona otpada te se svake godine gradi novih 7 do 10 spalionica. Iako spaljivanje ima svoje nedostatke (visoka početna ulaganja, nastajanje šljake i lebdećeg pepela za koje su potrebna odlagališta, činjenica da nisu svi materijali pogodni za spaljivanje) prednosti spaljivanja nadilaze nedostatke. Prednosti su da značajno smanjuju volumen i količinu otpada, imaju malu emisiju štetnih tvari, ostaci su uglavnom inertni i najvažnije, omogućuje proizvodnju električne i toplinske energije.
ABSTRACT: Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste is a popular and informal name for electronic products which have completed their useful life. Discarded computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, fax machines, electric lamps, cell phones, audio equipments, batteries etc are some examples of e-waste. This waste also includes non biodegradable plastics which possess serious threat to the environment. Basel Action Network estimates that the 500 million computers in the world contains about 2.87 billions kgs of plastics, 717.67 kgs of lead and 286700 kgs of mercury. A single 14 inch monitor contains about 2.5-4.0 kgs of lead. This may have a drastic effect on the environment, if left untreated. In India, e-wastemanagement assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own waste but also due to the dumping of e-wastes by the developed countries. Many of these products can be recycled, reused in an eco-friendly manner. A comprehensive methodology that provides e-wastes regulation, management and proper disposal as well as recycling techniques is the need of the hour. This paper highlights the hazards of e-waste, their effects and the various recycling methods to get rid of them in context of Indian scenario. The proper handling methods of harmful, toxic materials produced from e-waste are also focused in the paper.
(C), which enables the fermentation gas that has developed in the storage bottle to enter the measuring tube, passes through the bottom of the eudiometer tube. The connecting tube is held in position (E) by glass rods on four sides. The lower end of the eudiometer tube has a glass hose-coupling from which a sufficiently long hose connection (F) leads to a levelling bulb (G) made of glass or plastic (volume of at least 750 ml). The upper end of the eudiometer tube is fitted with a conical stopcock (H) for removal of gas samples and for adjusting the zero point (D)." [DIN 38414 Part 8, page 3]
Sustainable wastemanagement was introduced to maintain the balance between the environment, social and economic aspects through several ways such as acts implementation, and techniques in managing waste. Therefore, it is essential to identify current wastemanagement system adopted by industry in order to make adjustment and improvement in moving towards sustainable wastemanagement. The increasing number of municipal solid wastemanagement has become the biggest environmental problem in Malaysia. Population growth has led to the increase in generation of solid wastes in Malaysia and it has become a crucial issue to be solved.
Results: A total of 489 health workers were included in the study. The respondents were pre- scribers in private dispensaries, public dispensaries, and community pharmacies. Participants included medical officers (3.7%), clinical officers (38%), pharmacists (5.7%), and pharmaceutical technicians (3.9%). Nearly all workers in the public dispensaries and about 50% of workers in private dispensaries and community pharmacies were aware of recommended first-line malaria treatment. The difference in the proportion of health workers with adequate knowledge about the new recommended antimalarial medicine in public and private dispensaries was statistically significant (P , 0.0001). There was a higher proportion of workers in public dispensaries who had adequate knowledge about doses of artemether-lumefantrine for adults compared with work- ers in private dispensaries (P = 0.001). Only 58.0% of respondents were able to state correctly the recommended doses in private dispensaries as compared with 77.0% in public dispensaries. Knowledge about the requirement for a concomitant fatty meal was not significantly different between workers in public and private dispensaries (P = 0.280) or between those working in public dispensaries and pharmacies (P = 0.622).
ABSTRACT: Frequent drug shortage, poor storage conditions and inadequate knowledge of health care workers for inventory management are among the factors affecting the supply chain of antimalarial drugs in Tanzania. These factors largely contribute to poor quality, shortage and irrational use of antimalarial drugs in the public health facilities. The aim of this study was to assess the management of antimalarial drugs in the public health facilities in Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania. Thirty two (32) pharmaceutical personnel were interviewed regarding management of antimalarial drugs in the health facilities. The average time stock-out of antimalarial drugs was assessed for the period of January to December 2010. Adequate storage conditions and handling of medicines procedures were also assessed. About two thirds of drug store managers had poor knowledge on quantification concept. All drug store managers had inadequate knowledge on the concept of procurement, and there were no effective and efficient procurement systems in all the health facilities. The percentage time for stock-out of antimalarial drugs was 25% for Artemether- Lumefantrine (ALu), 25.7% for quinine tablets and 6.4% for quinine injections. All facilities had no cold storage facilities with temperature charts, and medicines were kept directly on the floor in most of the health facilities. Frequent stock-outs of ALu in the public health facilities is mainly due to poor pharmaceutical management of antimalarial medicines in these facilities. Provision of regular on-job training and continuing education among pharmaceutical personnel in the public health facilities is necessary to address this problem.
Onitsha, in Anambra State houses one of the biggest markets in West Africa. Several containers of electronic goods including those that are brand new and fairly used come into the commercial city on daily basis. Due to the current urbanization trend, traders from various countries, states and tribes live in the city or visit the town steadily. This has increased exponentially the amount of e-waste generated. The informal waste collectors (scavengers) are mainly the set of people that sort and collect these e- wastes from waste bins and dumps in the city. The sca- vengers, technicians and repairers process these e-wastes in unsound environmental manner even without their per- sonal protective equipment. All these contravene the pro- visions of the “National Environmental (Electrical/Elec- tronic Sector), 2011”; the enforcement/implementation of which is yet below sea level. Hence, there is an urgent need to ascertain the peoples’ level of awareness of the provisions of the regulation, whether they adhere to it or have concern for their immediate environment. The study equally seeks to find out people’s mode of disposal of the e-wastes and their awareness of the dangers inherent in improper handling and disposal of wastes. This will not only inform the government on the extent of awareness creation needed but will also make plans to embark on an e-waste recycling program that at least provides deposit centers for the people .
E-toxic components in computers could be summarized as circuit boards containing heavy metals like lead & cadmium; batteries containing cadmium; cathode ray tubes with lead oxide & barium; brominated flame retardants used on printed circuit boards, cables and plastic casing; poly vinyl chloride (PVC) coated copper cables and plastic computer casings that release highly toxic dioxins & furans when burnt to recover valuable metals; mercury switches; mercury in flat screens; poly chlorinated biphenyl's (PCB's) present in older capacitors; transformers; etc . Basel Action Network (BAN) estimates that the 500 million computers in the world contain 2.87 billion kgs of plastics, 716.7 million kgs of lead and 286,700 kgs of mercury. The average 14-inch monitor uses a tube that contains an estimated 2.5 to 4 kgs of lead . The lead can seep into the ground water from landfills thereby contaminating it. If the tube is crushed and burned, it emits toxic fumes into the air.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a new management strategy which focuses on long‐term relationship with customers. This concept has some similarities to relationship market‐ ing concept, but with significant differences. Unlike relationship marketing CRM analyzes more in depth the relationship with customers. It covers all activities starting with creation of organiza‐ tional structure and other development tools (business culture, etc) up to specific programs for set‐ up of long term relationship. In relationship marketing focus is more on finalization and specific programs of setting long term relationship (communication channels, offer adapting, loyalty pro‐ grams, etc).
Selective collection of wastes should be di- rected to recyclable materials whose voluminal and mass share are the most significant in the municiap-type waste. In the stream of municipal- type waste generated in hospitals, the highest share is represented by fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and textiles. On their basis it is possible to conduct a variant economic analysis for the wastemanagement in a medical facility. Among the ana- lysed variants the costs of municipal-type wastes for 100% selective collection of paper and card- board waste and separately 100% selective collec- tion of paper, cardboard and plastics can be consid- ered. Both of these variants analyse the situation with sale and without sale of recyclable materials.
The results of the first six contextual variables included in both models show the impact of widely analyzed drivers on wastemanagement cost. The degree of urbanization that presents positive values i.e. in urbanized areas some economies of density can emerge because of population higher density. Moreover, being a coastal municipality is associated with a higher average cost. Then the altitude above sea level shows heterogeneous evidence. In addition, the lower the level of urbanization, the higher the cost, and the fact the more urbanized municipalities tend to have a higher population density that is associated with scale economy in operations can explain the evidence. The following two variables resemble information about the about the per capita production of waste wp and percentage of sorted waste sw. Consistently with previous literature findings inherent to the production per capita of waste show different results; so do results related to the percentage of sorted waste. The last variable before those related to facilities refer to the scale of the service sc, i.e., a measure that comprises municipalities' population, area, kilometers of road, and waste production, confirm previous literature indicating the role of scale economies in the wastemanagement service, ceteris paribus.
responsible for penalization. Such penalty will be obligatory on the violator if specific rules and laws on e-waste area unit profaned. Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB) of India is finalizing the set of rules and last issued a proper set of tips for correct and eco-friendly handling and disposal of the e-waste. The Ministry of surroundings and Forests is currently process the principles framed by natural philosophy instrumentation makers with the assistance of NGOs. in line with the new tips issued by CPCB in 2007, e- waste is enclosed in schedules one, two, and three of the “Hazardous Waste(Management and Handling) Rules 2003” and Municipal Solid WasteManagement Rule, 2000. Every manufacturer of a laptop, music system, itinerant, or the other electronic contrivance are “personally” chargeable for the ultimate safe disposal of the merchandise once it becomes a bit of e- waste. Department of data Technology (DIT), Ministry of Communication and knowledge Technology, has conjointly printed and circulated a comprehensive technical guide “Environmental Management for data Technology business in Republic of India.” Demonstration comes have conjointly been set-up by the dot at the Indian phone Industries for the recovery of copper from computer circuit Boards. 5 As a trial to
Risks in the environment include safety and security for people, equipment, and other material; the handling of hazardous materials and waster; the potential for fire; the use of medical equipment; and utility systems. High-level written management plans help the hospital manage risks. These plans are not the same as opera- tional plans, but they do provide a framework for managing the environment of care. These plans should also address the scope and objectives of risk assessment and management, describe the responsibilities of individu- als or groups, and give time frames for specific activities identified in the plan. Note: It is not necessary to have a separate plan for each of the areas identified in the standard; the plans may all be contained in a single document.
Solid and liquid wastemanagement is one of the main challenges that face sustainable environment and communities. Effluents from wastetreatment and disposal facilities have direct and indirect impacts on the environment and welfare of humans. The direct impacts entail the destruction of materials, loss of aesthetic value, and damage to people’s health. On the other hand, the indirect effects are principally on long term, which encompass climate change, and ecosystem imbalance. The challenge of managing waste has become greater because of high population growth rate, urbanization, economic expansion, and industrial growth. This review presents the effect of various wastemanagement methods, wastewater treatment plants, refining and desalination plants in polluting the atmosphere. The results of this study indicate that these plants contribute to the presence of high levels of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur oxides (SO x ). In addition, it was found that the airborne microbial count exceeded the limit in the air near the area where the wastetreatment and disposal facilities are present, resulting in bad odors dominating in the air. Moreover, the cost of health care due to the effects of air pollution in these sites is on the rise. Annually, many people die due to air pollution and this number is expected to rise significantly in the future, which would further put a burden on the governments and healthcare facilities. Therefore, this issue requires robust plans and policies to address the escalating impacts if not properly managed. In response to this problem, improvement of an effective municipal wastemanagement approaches that confer adequate economic and environmental efficacies is paramount at the national levels.