Top PDF Water Hyacinth - The Green Potential

Water Hyacinth - The Green Potential

Water Hyacinth - The Green Potential

“Africa has particularly been affected by the introduction and spread of water hyacinth, facilitated in part due to a lack of naturally occurring enemies. In a review of water hyacinth infestation in eastern, southern and central Africa, reports that the weed was first recorded in Zimbabwe in 1937. The plant was recorded from Victoria in 1989–1990. Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and currently supports approximately 30 million people. Infestation of water hyacinth in the lake has been a serious nuisance, generating public outcry. At its peak, it was estimated that the weed was growing at 3 hectares (12 acres) per day on the lake. The plant also spread fast throughout Uganda’s lakes and rivers in just 10 years.
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Spectroscopic analyses of water hyacinth: FTIR and 
modeling approaches

Spectroscopic analyses of water hyacinth: FTIR and modeling approaches

modified water hyacinth is utilized to a wastewater containing Cd, the results were satisfactory in time as short as 2 hours [19]. A model is prepared in order to describe the mechanism of its interaction with the surrounding inorganic structures [20]. Furthermore, the investigation was conducted for comparison between the plants physical as well as chemical treatment. It is shown that the crystallinity of the plant is partially enhanced after microwave heating; which means that physical treatment of the plant could enhance its atomic arrangements [21]. Based upon these studies water hyacinth could be described as cellulose like material [21, 22]. Recently microsphere from chitosan and dried water hyacinth was prepared. The prepared microsphere shows the potential of removing Pb from wastewater 1.62 times higher than the dried water hyacinth [23].
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Impact of Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes) as a Feedstock for Biogas Production

Impact of Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes) as a Feedstock for Biogas Production

Abstract: Globally, biogas is considered as a clean and renewable form of energy that could replace the increasing non- renewable energy usages. In view of this, there is an increasing demand for energy crops and animal manures for an eco- friendly energy source to supplement fossil fuel, aid in heat production and for electricity generation. Biochemical methane potential test is generally used to determine the possible methane that can be obtained from feedstocks. This study, however, aims at optimizing the anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth, Eicchornia crassipes with cattle manure in a biochemical methane potential test, controlled at mesophilic temperature (37 ± 1). Biodigester A (with the least methane yield) contained only the inoculum and was used as the blank, biodigester B (1:1 feedstock to inoculum ratio) and biodigester C (highest methane yield at 1:4 feedstocks to inoculum ratio) contained both the inoculum and the feedstock at different loading rates. Methane production was measured for a retention period of 30 days using three 1000ml Schott bottles as biodigesters in batch mode. Eicchornia crassipes was characterized in the batch reactor to enable the inoculum activity and the biogas volume reported during the 30 days. Qualitatively, the highest methane composition was found to be 60% whiles quantitatively, the cumulative average methane yield was 77ml throughout the study. The higher yield of methane observed in this study gives an indication of lower cost in the purification of the carbon dioxide from the produced biogas to be used in biofuels for electricity generation and also for combined heat and power production. Therefore, water hyacinth has the potential to produce biomethane which can be used to ease the dependency on fossil fuel derived energy and as an alternative energy source for combined heat and energy which is eco-friendly.
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Development of Biodegradable Board using Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes)

Development of Biodegradable Board using Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes)

consume product. The increasing demand for wood based products will impact on increasing the amount of logging, both industrial plantations and forests in general. Intensive use of wood can cause environmental problems such as deforestation, floods, and also global warming. To overcome these problems, researchers have focused on finding others renewable resources to replace the use of wood for some uses. There is some non-wood which potential resources to be use as pulping material and other wood based product. Intensive use of wood as main cellulose source can be decreased by substituted by other cellulose source material such as biomass.
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Anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth with primary sludge

Anaerobic co-digestion of water hyacinth with primary sludge

The country’s economy mainly depends on the energy resources available and utilized. Energy has been exploited since the prehistoric times. With the advent of industrial revolution use of fossil fuels began growing and increasing till date. The dependence on fossil fuel as primary energy source has led to global climate change, environment degradation and human health problems 1 . With increasing prices of oil and gas the world looks towards alternative and green energy resources. Anaerobic digestion (AD) offers a very attractive route to utilize certain categories of biomass for meeting partial energy needs. AD can successfully treat the organic fraction of biomass 2 . AD is the controlled degradation of biodegradable waste in absence of oxygen and presence of different consortia of bacteria that catalyze series of complex microbial reactions 3 . The process is one of the most promising for biomass wastes as it provides a source of energy while simultaneously resolving ecological and agrochemical issues 4 .
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Valuable Product from Water Hyacinth – Review Paper

Valuable Product from Water Hyacinth – Review Paper

Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms called water hyacinth could be a free-floating perennial aquatic plant happiness to the Pontederiaceae. It’s one in every of the foremost productive plants on the planet and is taken into account the world’s worst aquatic weed. The weed is thought as Jal khumbe in Hindi, Pisachitha tamara in Telugu, Akasa or Vengaya tamarai in Tamil and as Kola vazha in Malayalam (Vidya & Girish, 2014). Water hyacinth (WH) could be a free floating, perennial water plant originated from Amazon River basin and have distributed throughout the globe. It’s exhibited extraordinarily high growth rates and therefore the coverage of waterways by WH has created many issues as well as destruction of eco systems, irrigation issues and additionally as a dipteron breeding place resulting in increase in dipteron population. it's thought-about because the most efficient plant on earth and currently thought-about as a significant threat to biodiversity(Sindhu et al, 2017).In the last 3 decades a interest within the world is aroused by the potential of victimisation the biological ways within the waste water treatment, whose application as of natural and not artificial procedures of tertiary process of effluents provides the effluents of needed quality in a very economically acceptable manner within the technically simple structures. The capability of water plant(Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach) as a very promising plant with tremendous application in wastewater treatment is already proven(Jafari, 2010).This weed may be a drawback particularly in tropical and semitropical countries wherever environmental conditions give a year spherical growing amount. The natural loss of water from the water
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Analysis of Feasibility Meubel Industry Based on Water Hyacinth

Analysis of Feasibility Meubel Industry Based on Water Hyacinth

Table 3. Data potential market and profit from 2014 – 2016 As for potential market in local market , can be seen that potential market follows linear trend and declining year by year about 100 units in each of product but the selling price is stagnan. If we calculate of profit so we get the income like stateg below (Assuming the capacity of industry.

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Biogas Generation from Combination of Food Waste and Water Hyacinth

Biogas Generation from Combination of Food Waste and Water Hyacinth

Food waste are mainly generated in houses, hotels, hostels, restaurants, the waste produce her includes rotten fruits and vegetables, rice , Chapati, oils etc. Food waste are disposed off by dumping, spreading on land or by feeding to animals. One way of solving the problem is to make use of this waste for production of biogas which could suitably utilized in the surrounding areas and the digested slurry as organic manure. Due to high biodegradability and biochemical methane potential, it can be looked upon as a very useful and promising feedstock for biogas generation. The most promising alternative to incinerating and composting the biodegradable wastes is to digest its organic matter using anaerobic digestion. Water hyacinth (WH) is a perennial macrophyte belongs to the pickerelweed family. It is a free floating weed known for its production abilities and pollutant removal. It is listed as one of the most productive plants on earth and is considered one of the world's worst aquatic plants. These dense mats interfere with navigation, recreation, irrigation, and power generation. Water hyacinth is blamed for reduction of biodiversity and increased evapotranspiration. It also acts as a good breeding place for mosquitoes, snails and snakes. Therefore, there is a need to manage its spread through suitable control measures. However, the fact remains that the water hyacinth has successfully resisted all attempts of its eradication by chemical, biological, mechanical, or hybrid means. Water hyacinth has attracted the attention of scientists to use it as a potential biomass as it is rich in nitrogen, essential nutrients and has a high content of fermentable matter. (Patil et al.,(2011)).
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Temperature Effect On Carbonization Of Water Hyacinth As A Solid Biofuel

Temperature Effect On Carbonization Of Water Hyacinth As A Solid Biofuel

Renewable energy is one of the most efficient government initiatives to meet the sustainable development advocated by the government. Hence, the government of Malaysia has introduced a number of policies like National Green Technology Policies 2009 and Nation Renewable Energy 2010 where the aimed is to encourage the use of renewable energy. According to Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 2014which held at Beijing, a new goal was announced by President of United States which need to double renewable energy used by 2030 (Schroeder, 2014). There are many renewable energy sources such as biomass.
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Impacts of Water Hyacinth Treatment on Water Quality in a Tidal Estuarine Environment

Impacts of Water Hyacinth Treatment on Water Quality in a Tidal Estuarine Environment

To test whether the pre-treatment water quality anomalies were different than the post-treatment water quality anomalies we used a GLMM, which was similar to the GLMM used for the local scale analysis. For this test, the GLMM we used was equivalent to a one-way ANOVA including only a main effect for time (before, after) with a random effect for site. As in the tests for differences in and around patches, the ANOVA also included a random effect for site nested within year to properly pair samples on the same site within a treatment season. This method tests for differences among groups while accounting for taking multiple measurements on the same site. We fit separate models for each water quality parameter. As with the BACI models, models for differences in anomalies were fit using function lmer in package lme4 (Bates et al. 2015). Tests of significance were performed using a likelihood ratio test against a null (intercept-only) version of the model (anova; R Core Team 2016; test statistic = D). To make this information more widely applicable to any potential treatment site, it is useful to know whether we should expect the value of each water quality parameter to go up or down following treatment with herbicides and whether these values differ from the regional averages. To determine this information, we calculated marginal means and standard deviations using the models from the second question (function ref.grid, package lsmeans; Lenth 2016). These marginal means represent the expected value of water quality anomalies at a site before or after treatment, regardless of the site in question.
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Study on biomethanation of water hyacinth using primary sludge as inoculum

Study on biomethanation of water hyacinth using primary sludge as inoculum

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a noxious weed that has attracted worldwide attention due to its fast spread and congested growth, leading to serious problems in fishing, evapotranspiration, navigation, irrigation, power generation, and reduction in biodiversity. However it is a potential source of biomass to produce ecofriendly biogas. In this study, primary sludge from sewage treatment plant was used as inoculum to increase biogas production from biomethanation of water hyacinth at mesophilic condition. Series of laboratory experiments using 250 ml biodigesters were performed in batch operation mode. 4 grams of completely dried and ground water hyacinth were fed to each biodigester and mixed with primary sludge inoculums (PSI) and water in different combinations resulting in five different fermentation slurries (PSI-0, PSI-25, PSI-50, PSI-75 and PSI-100) with different total solids of 3.8, 5.5, 7.2, 8.9 and 10.6% respectively. The results showed that the PSI inoculated to biodigester improved biogas yield significantly and was almost two times, compared to Water Hyacinth substrate without PSI. The best performance for biogas production was from the digester PSI-75 followed by PSI-50 and PSI- 100 whose TS contents are 8.9, 7.2 and 10.6% respectively. These results suggest that, TS content affects the biogas yield and optimum total solids content for biogas production is between 7 and 9 %.
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Grey Water Treatment by Water Hyacinth A Review

Grey Water Treatment by Water Hyacinth A Review

Rajendra B. Magar (2017) defines that the roots of Water hyacinths (WH) naturally absorb pollutants including lead, mercury, and strontium90, as well as some organic compounds which are carcinogenic and have concentrations of approximately 10,000 time that is present as in generically found water. This study attempts to evaluate the effect of WH in two different type of sewer or drainage line, one from water closet and another from bath or shower room. Further, the reading for various parameters like Potential of hydrogen (pH), Turbidity, Chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride and colour has been periodically taken every 24 hrs for 5 days. The effect of WH has resulted in significant decrease in turbidity and due to which the reduction of flocs and reduction in organic matters in water have been observed.
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Bioethanol from Water Hyacinth by White Rot Fungi in Biodegradation

Bioethanol from Water Hyacinth by White Rot Fungi in Biodegradation

Bioethanol is one of the most potential liquid fuels since the natural resources from fossil fuels become limited. Nowadays renewable energy become as an alternative energy to reduce fossil fuels consumption. Therefore, the study of water hyacinth and water lettuce was chosen as potential source of biofuel due to its abundant and easy to cultivate in nature. The study aims to investigate the potential of floating aquatic macrophytes to provide enough supply for bioethanol production. Study on feasibility of biological pretreatment on water hyacinth and water lettuce using white rot fungi by monitoring lignin and hemicellulose biodegradation. The potential of bioethanol production was determined by sugar consumption rate and percentage of fermentable sugar by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The experiment was fabricated with two tanks contain macrophytes which Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes. Weight of both species was recorded for consecutive three days to monitor the optimum growth rate. Both species were pretreated with white rot fungi. The parameters involved are sugar content, lignin by Klasson method and hemicellulose by Chesson method. Water hyacinth was fermented with different yeast concentration and DNS method was used for sugar determination. The results showed that P. stratiotes has higher growth rate than E. crassipes. However, E. crassipes more feasible for lignin and hemicellulose biodegradation compared to P. stratiotes. Sugar consumption rate was influenced by yeast concentration and fermentable sugar of water hyacinth filtrate which recorded up to 70%.
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The Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Compost on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Growth Attributes, Yield Potential and Heavy Metal Levels

The Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Compost on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Growth Attributes, Yield Potential and Heavy Metal Levels

There was a significant increase in the yield at increasing compost application rate and the increase in yield was significantly different compared to the un-amended rate. This can be explained by the comparatively high K content in the water hyacinth compost (0.42 mg·kg −1 ) compared to 0.09 mg −1 in the un-amended soil. Potassium is essential in water regulation in the plant. It is also a key component in enzymic activities, carbohydrate meta- bolism and translocation, nitrogen metabolism and protein synthesis; therefore, its increase with increasing con- centration increases the efficiency of the tomato plant in the production and distribution of photosynthates lead- ing to higher yields. Increasing K content is believed to improve the yield of tomato (fruit) crops [24] as it is re- sponsible for tomato growth vigor and it stimulates early flowering and fruit setting thereby increasing the number of tomato fruits per plant and thus increasing yield. Based on the trend of increasing yield with increas- ing compost rates, one would have expected the yield at compost rate of 74.1 t·ha −1 to double the yield achieved at compost rate of 34.7 t·ha −1 but this was not the case, it should therefore be noted that under field conditions K availability can be affected by the growth habit of tomato variety, high soil K fixation potential and competing ion effects [25].
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Performance Analysis of Nutrient Removal in Pond Water Using Water Hyacinth and Azolla With Papaya Stem

Performance Analysis of Nutrient Removal in Pond Water Using Water Hyacinth and Azolla With Papaya Stem

It may result in increase in turbidity,plant and animal biomass increase, sedimentation rate increase there by reducing the lifespan of the lake,species diversity decreases. The most notable effect in eutrophication is algal blooms. When a bloom occurs, water body is covered with algae,which is usually bright green which blocks the light from reaching the surface of the water.This reduces the photosynthesizing of plants, which decrease the oxygen content of the water.If the bloom increases due to excess sewage it would cause organisms to die. When the oxygen in water becomes too low,this stage is called hypoxic.If hypoxia increases, no life would survive and a dead zone is created. Finally whole environment would be devasted.
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Vermicomposting of water hyacinth with poultry litter using rotary drum reactor

Vermicomposting of water hyacinth with poultry litter using rotary drum reactor

The trend of using inorganic fertilizers is on a boom amongst agricultural society, farmers are magnetized towards the short term advantages privileged by inorganic fertilizers, but they are unable to understand the ill effects these fertilizers on human health and soil fertility. This has necessitated looking for traditional fertilizers like vermicompost. Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) is one of the world's most destructive and noxious weed that has prolific growth rate. Many efforts were made to eradicate this weed but it has successfully resisted all the attempts. When looked from a resource angle, it has high organic content which makes it a potential source for vermicompost production. Hence possibility of converting water hyacinth to vermicompost with poultry litter as supplement was carried out in a rotary drum reactor. The reactor was fed 70% ground water hyacinth paste (3.5 kg), 10% aged poultry litter (0.5 kg) and 20% shredded cardboard (1 kg) along with 0.25 kg of Eisenia fetida earthworms. The reactor was rotated gently to facilitate better aeration and porosity. Moisture content, pH, carbon content, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were analyzed for every 15 days. After 45 days the product had 30% moisture, 9.67% Carbon with pH 7.26 while N, P, and K values were 0.72%, 0.51% and 0.60% respectively.
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Impact of incubation period of primary sludge inoculum on biomethanation of water hyacinth

Impact of incubation period of primary sludge inoculum on biomethanation of water hyacinth

Water hyacinth was introduced as an ornamental crop species in many countries more than a century ago, because of their attractive blue, lilac to purplish flowers and round to oval leaves. Soon, it was realized to be most invasive and noxious weed. Due to its fast spread and congested growth, it clogs up rivers, hydroelectric plants, waterways and entire lakes, killing aquatic life, hampering river transport and fisheries, endangering the livelihoods of millions of poor people. Many efforts were made to eradicate this weed but it has successfully resisted all the attempts. When looked from a resource angle, it has high content of fermentable matter which makes it a potential source for biogas production. Hence possibility of converting water hyacinth to biogas has been an area of major interest for researchers. In the present work experiments were performed in 250 ml batch digesters with primary sludge inoculum of different incubation period to understand the impact of incubation period on biomethanation of water hyacinth. All the digesters were operated in mesophilic condition with detention time of 60 days. Results showed inoculums of different incubation periods have remarkable effect on biogas production. In particular the digester with primary sludge inoculum of 30 days incubation period produced 0.44 l/gVS which was 91% more in comparison with the control digester.
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Kinetic Modeling of Anaerobic Co-digestion of Water Hyacinth and Poultry Litter

Kinetic Modeling of Anaerobic Co-digestion of Water Hyacinth and Poultry Litter

Energy is one of the most important factors to global prosperity. The dependence on fossil fuels as a primary energy source has led to global climate change, environmental degradation, and human health problems. It has been predicted that by the year 2040, the world will have a population of 9 to 10 billion people that must be provided with energy and materials 1 . Moreover, the recent rise in oil and natural gas prices may drive the current economy towards alternative energy sources. Anaerobic digestion is a biological process that converts organic matter into biogas which mainly consists of methane (55 to 75%) and carbon dioxide (25 to 45%) with calorific value of 20 MJ/m3 2-3 . The potential of this process is wide, because anaerobic digestion can be applied to a large variety of biodegradable organic waste and effluents from urban, industrial, or agricultural origins.
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Thermo-Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Water Hyacinth Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Thermo-Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Water Hyacinth Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, often called biocomposites, are now preferred over artificial fiber reinforced composites as natural fiber composites have outstanding advantages of environment friendliness, biodegradability, recyclability, cost-effectiveness, and better physico-mechanical properties [1-6]. The using of bio- based lignocellulosic natural fibers as reinforcing materials for manufacturing of biocomposites is gaining more and more approval day by day due to their flexibility during processing (require low processing temperature), higher specific stiffness, lightweight, non toxic properties, and low cost. So far, numerous researches have been carried out on the polymer composites [7-13], where different natural fibers such as wood fibers and flour, kenaf fibers, sago, rice starch, corn starch, pineapple leaf fibers, and coir fibers were used as fillers in polymer matrices. Among various natural fibers easily available to human beings, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the cheapest fibers and quite new in reinforcing thermoplastics. An experimental study to evaluate the mechanical and thermal properties of water hyacinth (WH) fiber reinforced low density polyethylene (LDPE) composites was conducted by Supri et al.[14]. This study appears to be the first attempt of using WH fibers as a reinforcing material. They observed good mechanical properties of WH-LDPE composites lead to concluded that WH fibers have a great potential to use as a filler materials
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SORPTION OF URANIUM BY IMMOBILIZED WATER HYACINTH ROOTS

SORPTION OF URANIUM BY IMMOBILIZED WATER HYACINTH ROOTS

Based on the above results, it is clear that sorption of uranium by any sorbent change by changing the pH of the solution. The studied sorbents showed different behaviors which could be attributed the change in proton concentration modifying the redox potential of sorbates and sorbents, provoke dissolution of the sorbent material and modify chemical speciation of sorbates as well as surface charge of sorbents which change the ability to absorb uranium [Volesky, (2003).

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