Furn (2004) conducted interviews with the locals living near Noyyal and noted the presence of skin diseases and allergic diseases in people bathing with well, dam or riverwater. Most locals also reported hair loss when bathing in polluted surface water. The study points to the urgent need to set up healthcare programmes specific to the affected areas along the Noyyal. Rajan (2012), in an article entitled ‘Water of infertility’, reports on how the polluted Noyyalwater has turned the land, animals and people (in chronological order) barren. Due to the increase in infertility cases, the number of new fertility clinics is growing every day in Tiruppur, Erode, Karur and Coimbatore. The hospitals in the worst affected districts, Erode and Tiruppur, report an increase in infertility treatments for people dwelling near the Noyyal. The doctors report a 67% decrease in sperm count (from 120 million to 40 million) from men living downstream of the polluting industries and effluent discharge. Dr. S. Dhanabagiyam, a well-known specialist in in vitro fertilization (IVF), conducted an independent survey to assess the level of infertility in the area. She noted that a staggering number, 30 to 40 couples per day, visit the infertility clinics and claimed that 80% of impotency cases were related to contact with water pollution. According to Rajan (2012), Dr. S. Dhanabagiyam found that the water pollution resulted in decrease in male sperm count, while in females, it created ovarian complications and hormonal changes, leading to loss of oestrogen and abortions. The farmers are slowly realizing that the water pollution has finally ‘caught’ up to the humans, after decreasing the field productivity, followed by decreasing farm animal productivity.
Research suggests that River Luni has experienced several extreme flood events over the past few centuries, with the 1979 flood being a historical event (Kale, 2003; Dhir et al., 1982). Sometimes a day of rainfall, which alters soil moisture content in parts of the catchment, can trigger a water surge in the river (Sharma and Vangani, 1982). The annual average rainfall for the upper Luni basin is 300-400mm, however over a 5-day period in 1979, the rainfall received far exceeded this average, with the Guhiya sub-basin receiving 613.5 mm, followed by the Upper Luni (586.5 mm), Bandi (568.8 mm) and Jojri (553.3 mm) sub-basins (Sharma et al, 1982). This historic flood resulted in the destruction of over 93,000 homes, the loss of more than 100,000 cattle, damage to over 3,000 wells, and at least 374 human lives being lost and 119 missing, as well as over 55, 000 ha of land being rendered unproductive due to sand-casting (Sharma &
Thus, while it was stated in the year 2000 that the Segura was the only riverbasin district with a structural deficit  , it is now estimated that, due to the current reduction in water resources and increase in expected demands, the situation will change. Within the next two decades the ri- ver basin districts of Jucar, Guadiana, Guadalqui- vir, Inland River Basins of Catalonia, Guadalete- Barbate and the Mediterranean River Basins, and parts of the Tagus and Ebro, may also be cou- nted in the same situation of structural deficit, comprising approximately half of the Peninsula. All of the above necessarily leads to a situation of complete unsustainability and a veritable hy- drological and environmental collapse in just a few years’ time in much of the country.
M. N. Bhatti __________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________ Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal (LASSIJ) 69 and West Punjab according to the contiguous areas of the Muslim and non-Muslim majority. Contrary to that the Radcliffe Award assigned various Muslim majority areas to India and never assigned a single area of the Hindu majority to Pakistan. Due to the injustice done in the Award, seven contiguous Muslim majority tehsils were awarded to India. It is worth noting that these areas were allotted to India to give the control of irrigation supplies because both headworks at Modopur and Ferozpur were situated in those Muslim majority areas. By granting complete control of the crucial canal headworks to India, the Radcliffe award put the economy of West Pakistan in danger. This hypothesis proved right on 1 st April 1948 when India cut off the supply of water to every canal flowing into Pakistan from Madhopur and Ferozpur headworks. During this disastrous situation, Pakistan sent a delegation to Delhi on May 3, 1948, to solve the problem under the headship of the then Finance Minister, Mr. Ghulam Muhammad. The said delegation met with their Indian counterparts in Delhi where a joint statement was signed on April 4, 1948, in which India agreed to restore the flow of water provided, Pakistan would deposit some amount as escrow to cover certain disputed payments. The signing of the joint statement was a grave mistake by Pakistan because, thereafter, India made the contents of the joint statement the basis of all future negotiations. Due to differences over the interpretation of the Joint Statement of May 4, 1948, Pakistan terminated it by stating that it was signed under ‘duress’ but India rejected these allegations. Ultimately, under the auspices of the World Bank, the dispute was resolved by signing the Indus Water Treaty in 1960.
In recent years, watermanagement in the DjR basin has been facing some significant challenges, such as rapid population growth, urbanization, industrial development, reduc- tion of agricultural land use, ecological degradation, and annual fluctuation of river flow due to natural and human-induced factors, including climate change. As the discrepancies between increasing water demands and shrinking water supply, as well as seasonal and pollution-induced water shortages, are increasingly acute, DjR basinwater allocation is becoming the most important issue. In particular, during the three consecutive dry years of 2002–2004, the recorded annual precipitation was about 30% less than normal, while other issues, such as salt tide intrusion and water pollution, also have frequently occurred in the Pearl River Delta. Thus, the contradiction between water supply and demand has become increasingly prominent (Liu, Yang, Lu, Deng, & Immanuel, 2012).
As institutional analysts have studied natural resource management in general—and in some instances, water resource management in particular—they have identified patterns that either encourage or inhibit the constructive coordination of individuals’ behavior. Much of this work is summarized in Bromley (1989), Ostrom (1990) and Ostrom, Gardner and Walker (1994). An extensive literature review can be found in Dinar and Saleth (2004, Chapter 3). Among the key considerations identified in these literatures are: asymmetries of power, information, or other resources distribution among individuals; the history of past interactions among individuals and their anticipations concerning future interactions; the extent to which individuals are allowed or encouraged to innovate, experiment, and pursue trial-and-error learning with respect to institutional arrangements; social (or otherwise derived) norms of trust and reciprocity; and cultural or other differences among the individuals who are attempting to coordinate behavior or whose cooperation is needed. For this study, we have operationalized those broad categories into empirical variables, and formulated hypotheses about how each variable might contribute to the likelihood of successful or unsuccessful decentralization of riverbasinmanagement.
Water licensing: CH staff are responsible for reviewing and approving applications for water concessions (licenses for use of water in the public domain). The granting of concessions must be consistent with basin plan priorities and objectives, however, and concessions for drinking water must adhere to regulations for drinking water quality. The procedure for granting a concession is as follows: 1) the prospective user files a request with the CH; 2) CH staff analyze the request for its technical feasibility, compatibility with the basin plan, and potential competition or conflict with other licensed or requested projects; 3) the request is published to allow for public review and comment, and in some instances review and comment are solicited from the CA and other interested stakeholders; 5 4) the staff complete their technical report with a recommendation concerning the request; 5) the CH governing board decides whether to grant or deny the request. When a license is rejected, an applicant is provided information of the reason(s). In some cases, the applicant can modify and resubmit an application. In cases (thus far rare) where an application for a high-volume groundwater license is filed, the CH encourages the formation of a water user association. Once the association is set up, the license is granted to the association rather than the individual user. Thereafter, the CH deals with the association, and the association deals with the individual users. The CH is required by law to maintain a publicly accessible registry of authorized water users.
Abstract- Transboundary water resources need the cooperation of national governments in the development of policies and strategies for development. A holistic approach on sustainable development with an emphasis on protection of the waterbasin for the continued use o the resources for all partners is ideal but often hard to achieve. Despite this, there have been 295 water agreements made over the world compared to 327 conflicts. As climate change and anthropogenic activities continues to hold ground as major aspects in water resource management, sustainability is key in ensuring development, peace and adaptation reign. Focusing on the Omo Riverbasin, a DPSIR with qualitative analysis was done on policies and strategies that are will come into effect and are already in place to establish their social, cultural, economic and environmental effects. Based on the current trend, the main focus of both governments seems to be on economic development with an avoidance of any possible negative effects of energy, agricultural and industrial projects.
The SWAT model was used to simulate the rainfall-runoff at the KRB known for its distinct geographical and land use differences between up-and downstream parts. As a wide and geographically diverse riverbasin, it is rather complicated to come up with a joint set of parameters for sensitivity analysis as well as the correlation of the observed and simulated streamflow. This is so when one considers that there is only one cropping season per year at the upstream but crop rotation at the downstream of the KRB. Hence, the parameterization of SWAT model for these two conditions requires extra time and calculations. It is vital to estimate the available streamflow in any watershed/riverbasin for the production of streamflow management plans, drought response plans as well as to ensure fair allocation among different water users and the environment. The resultant simulations could be improved if hydrological modelling could be used at the spatially disaggregated level. The existing data requires careful handling if used for water resources management and investment plans keeping in view the issues with improvement of the hydro-meteorological network as well as its maintenance and management. Since the Government of Afghanistan intends to build more dams and storage structures to create a regional system of water trade and water conservation (Ghani, 2016). But without taking key measures for the accurate estimation and measurement of water resources, Afghanistan can’t manage the most important transboundary basins’ water treasure. Beside this, a heightened attention may be required aiming at the rehabilitation and development of irrigation infrastructure in order to raise farm application and conveyance efficiencies thereby minimizing the water losses along canal networks and achieve the targeted cereal production demand for ensured food security across the basin.
Environmental flows (EF) define the quantity, timing and quality of river flows needed to preserve freshwater ecosystems while assuring the continuity of human use. Insofar as they reduce water availability and condition agricultural and industrial uses, EF represent a constraint, but they also hold out new opportunities for development. This study focuses on the final stretch of the Ebro River (Spain) and on the competing environmental uses of water (the Ebro Delta is a biosphere reserve) and economic uses (irrigation and electricity generating). Environmental flows in the Ebro Delta are currently managed only from the Mequinenza dam and reservoir in eastern Aragon, and the resulting outflows have more than once driven the level of the reservoir down to critical environmental levels in recent years. In general, this management policy has also caused a range of negative environmental and economic impacts in the area. However, other alternatives exist, which could foster both more cooperative and equitable flow allocations, and the development and sustainability of the Ebro Basin. To this end, we develop a watermanagement model to simulate scarcity scenarios and measure the associated environmental flow default rates assuming current productive uses. Our findings confirm that it is not possible to guarantee EFs in the delta without reservoir-based watermanagement so as to ensure the compatibility of EFs with the irrigation and hydroelectric activities. Moreover, the existence of more equitable and cooperative watermanagement options would reduce water pressures on Mequinenza dam and so help fulfill the subsidized irrigation commitments established in Aragonese Lower Ebro Plan.
With the rapid increasing of economy and population, water resources shortage and a series of water-related eco-environmental issues has pain attention in the worldwide. The related issues is more distinct in the Hai RiverBasin. To realize the integrate management for the water and environment, the application system were developed in the Basin-scale. The application system includes the following three parts: the dualistic core model, the theme database system and the business management system. The dualistic model, as the core part in the system, provided the long-term planning management by the scenario analysis of the natural-social water cycle process. The business management system mainly serviced for the daily business management work including data inquire, statistics and analysis from the theme database information. The theme database system collects lots of information that from the dualistic model simulation results, the monitoring and statistics information of the whole “natural-social “water cycle process in practice. The system carried out a good support for the stringency water resources management in Hai RiverBasin
Abstract. Recent history shows that floods have become a frequently occurring disaster in Balochistan, especially during monsoon season. Two rivers, river Porali and river Kud overflows, inundating its banks and causing destruction to cultivated land and property. This study is an attempt to identify flood prone areas of Porali riverbasin for future flood scenario and propose possible reservoir locations for excess flood water storage. Computer-based models Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) and HEC-riveranalysis system (HEC-RAS) are used as tools to simulate existing and future flood and drought scenarios. Models are calibrated and validated using data from 3 weather stations, namely Wadh, Bela, and Uthal and stream flow data from two gauging stations. The highest and the lowest 10 years of precipitation data are extracted, from historic dataset of all stations, to attain future flooding and drought scenarios, respectively. Flood inundation map is generated highlighting agricultural prone land and settlements of the watershed. Using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and volume of water calculated from the flood scenario, possible locations for reservoirs are marked that can store excess water for the use in drought years. Flow and volume of water has also been simulated for drought scenario. Analyses show that 3 × 10 9 m 3 of water available
intra-regional basins, it is also true that the CAs have authority with respects to some aspects of water resource management even in inter-regional basins such as Guadalquivir. Furthermore, CA representatives sit on some CH boards and commissions.
The most prominent example of CA Andalucia’s interest in water resource management in the Guadalquivir basin is its establishment of the Andalusian Water Council in 1994, toward the end of the last severe drought in the basin. The Andalusian Water Council (AWC) continues to meet as a forum for public discussion and planning with respect to water (e.g., three times during 2002). The regional government’s rationale for creation of the body is that the drought revealed serious water problems in the region that needed to be addressed regionally and in a participatory framework. The AWC includes a broad range of water stakeholders representing multiple interests and diverse policy views, and serves as a forum for them to converse and be informed. The AWC does not have formal decision making authority, but can make policy recommendations as it did in the “Andalusian agreement for water” published in 1994. During 2002, the AWC was considering the development of a regional position on the 2001 national water plan, which would likely recommend improved demand management, control of illegal water uses, and promotion of desalination as alternatives to the plan’s proposed inter-basinwater transfer project. 8
While natural resources management may be an ally of geography, it has evolved as a divergent field of enquiry, drawing techniques from many fields. Johnston (1983) explored the links between natural resources management, resource analysis, as well as human and physical geography, but he commented that these links were yet to be proven. Geography has drawn from other fields of enquiry (e.g. hydrology, water resources engineering, and economics) and has provided a spatial perspective on the management of natural resources. Initially, much of the collaborative effort was focused on the assessment of water resources potential for riverbasin development. These efforts included the estimation of physical potential, determination of technical and economic feasibility, and evaluation of social desirability (Chorley and Kates, 1969).
The Luni river system is one of the major river systems in Rajasthan and forms the only integrated drainage basin (34866 km²) in northwest arid India (Thar dessert region; Pechlivanidis 2015). This Researcher Exchange aimed to contribute to the development of a balanced and sustainable riverbasin ecosystem support system to fulfil the basic water needs of stakeholders of the Luni riverbasin. This involved development of rainfall-runoff statistical models for translation of floods of different recurrence intervals in the Luni River to determine water availability during and after the monsoon season. The collaborators in particular, aimed to determine the quantity of loss of surface water through evaporation and transmission to the groundwater.
The assessment of current level of cost-recovery for water services is a requirement by Article 9 of the Water Framework Directive. Key elements to be investigated in the eco- nomic analysis include the status of water services, the institutional set-up for cost- recovery, the extent of the recovery of costs (financial, environmental and resource costs) of water services and the contribution of key water uses to the costs of these ser- vices, as well as the incidence of subsidies. The financial costs are investigated in two aspects: the recovery of operational and maintenance costs and recovery of long term assets (depreciation), which is connected partially with ownership of the assets.
2.3. Meteorological Data
The climate ranges from dry to semi-humid. The average temperature is 16,8 o C in Lamia. The
rainfall distribution at all stations is normal (figure 2), there is a linear regression between rainfall and the altitude in the area. The analysis of meteorological data showed decrease of rainfall (about 4 mm/yr) and runoff (3 mm/yr). The annual rainfall in the area is about 893 mm/yr. In Lamia meteorological station, in the east coastal part of the area, the average precipitation is about 561 mm. The total amount of evaporation is high, approximately 72%, the infiltration and the surface runoff is 28%. There is strong correlation between water table and discharge, as it is shown in figure 3 (Stathopoulos et. al, 2012).
This study is aimed to look at the level of water quality deterioration in Terengganu RiverBasin. Environmental management studies on the deterioration of water quality in Terengganu RiverBasin have been using data collection and analysis methods. The Gravimetric method was used to analysis the TSS measured in mg/L. 250 ml water samples was needed for each study area (each station). All prepa- ration and preservation of the samples are in accordance with standard procedures provided by the American Public Health Society (APHA) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The results show that Terengganu RiverBasin is classified in level III that is contaminated. The Terengganu RiverBasin is contaminated at the downstream to the middle of the river due to anthropo- genic activity. Moreover, the results indicate that the amount of AN and TSS is higher and is a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in the Terengganu RiverBasin. Management of water resources should be improved and noted. This study has proposed several steps in managing water resources such as settlement of land use solutions, regulatory methods, river quality monitoring pro- grams, minimizing waste, wall construction, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and legislative measures.
Abstract. Decomposition analysis of water footprint (WF) changes, or assessing the changes in WF and identifying the contributions of factors leading to the changes, is im- portant to water resource management. Instead of focusing on WF from the perspective of administrative regions, we built a framework in which the input-output (IO) model, the structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model and the gen- erating regional IO tables (GRIT) method are combined to implement decomposition analysis for WF in a riverbasin. This framework is illustrated in the WF in Haihe Riverbasin (HRB) from 2002 to 2007, which is a typical water-limited riverbasin. It shows that the total WF in the HRB increased from 4.3 × 10 10 m 3 in 2002 to 5.6 × 10 10 m 3 in 2007, and the agriculture sector makes the dominant contribution to the in- crease. Both the WF of domestic products (internal) and the WF of imported products (external) increased, and the pro- portion of external WF rose from 29.1 to 34.4 %. The techno- logical effect was the dominant contributor to offsetting the increase of WF. However, the growth of WF caused by the economic structural effect and the scale effect was greater, so the total WF increased. This study provides insights about water challenges in the HRB and proposes possible strategies for the future, and serves as a reference for WF management and policy-making in other water-limited river basins.
DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.58017 217 Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection pattern and its spatial distribution and changes is a prerequisite for planning, utilisation and formulation of policies and programmes for making micro and macro-level developmental plan . Remote sensing technology along with GIS is cost-effective and best utilised solutions for integration of various data sets for both macro and micro level analysis which helps in identifying the problem areas and suggest conservation measures  . The mapping and monitoring of the land use/land cover requires land use classification system. One of the most widely used classification scheme was developed by National Remote Sensing Agengy (NRSA 1995) . Land use/land cover change detection map- ping of the study area has been done by using software ERDAS Imagine 8.4 from Landsat TM and IRS LISS III data. The ten major levels of land use/land cover categories were interpreted in the image of the study area and is shown in Figure 5 namely built up land having poor sanitary conditions and anthropogenic ac- tivities, groundwater quality is deteriorating significantly in the city area as compared to water fields so it has poor groundwater quality zone, fallow land and agriculture land, land with scrub, land without scrub, water bodies fields fa- cilitate the recharge of groundwater during monsoon periods and also provide the water supply to city through production wells  . So it has very good groundwater quality zone, dense forest, scrub forest, forest blank and open forest having moderate groundwater zone.