Top PDF Watermarking of relational databases: Survey

Watermarking of relational databases: Survey

Watermarking of relational databases: Survey

Difference expansion refer to series of arithmetic operator on two integer value and a bit that result into a pair of modified integer from the original pairing integer the bit would be regenerated [20][21]. Difference expansion has previously been applied in image watermarking, but application in database watermarking introduction with an additional constraint of limiting distortion. Initially DEW was applied to secure image and after when it is needed to provide security to relational database it was applied to it. Proposing a high capacity algorithm based on the different expansion of triplets which is developed for embedding reversion watermark with reasonable level of image distortion. The algorithm uses a spatial and spectral tripling of pixel to hide a pair of bit which allows the algorithm to hide a large amount of data.
Show more

7 Read more

Room Reservation and Encryption Based Reversible Watermarking in Relational Databases

Room Reservation and Encryption Based Reversible Watermarking in Relational Databases

The first reversible watermarking scheme was proposed in [7]. This schema guarantees a clear and exact tampered- or-not authentication without causing any permanent distortion to the database. A lossless and exact authentication of relational databases is achieved by reversible watermarking. It keeps track of overhead information to authenticate data quality. But this technique is not robust against heavy attacks. These attacks may target large number of tuples. Difference expansion watermarking techniques[9], exploit methods of arithmetic operations on numeric features and perform transformations. A watermarking scheme is proposed that is reversible as well as blind. Here, watermark is embedded in LSB of features to minimize distortions. This scheme provides reversibility to high quality original data set. It also provides rightful owner identification. There is no need to store original database at a secure secondary storage. Genetic algorithm and difference expansion based reversible watermarking (GADEW)[8] technique is a robust and reversible solution for relational databases. It is by minimizing distortions in the data and increases the watermark capacity. GADEW used the distortion measures AWD and TWD to control the distortions in the resultant data. In this context, the robustness of GADEW can be compromised when the values given for AWD and TWD are high. In [10], the author describes a robust, blind, resilient and reversible image based watermarking scheme for large scale databases. Here, we use the bit string of an image as the watermark. This technique demonstrates a remarkable decrease in watermark detection rate during various types of heavy attacks which results in the distortion of database tuples. It is suitable for databases of any size with reasonable performance on embedding and extraction. GA is a technique that controls data distortions and keep the data quality intact.
Show more

6 Read more

Survey on Reversible Watermarking Techniques on Relational Database

Survey on Reversible Watermarking Techniques on Relational Database

ABSTRACT: A reversible watermarking scheme for relational databases is proposed in this paper to achieve lossless and exact authentication of relational databases via expansion on data error histogram. This reversible watermarking scheme possesses the ability of perfect restoration of the original attribute data from the untampered watermarked relational databases, thus guaranteeing a “clear and exact” tampered-or-not authentication without worry about causing any permanent distortion to the database. In this scenario, only the secret key owner possesses the capability to exactly restore the database’s original state. Simulations demonstrate the scheme’s security and feasibility for low-correlated data in typical databases
Show more

5 Read more

Survey on relational database watermarking techniques

Survey on relational database watermarking techniques

Digital watermarking has been in multimedia data use over the past years. Recently it has become applicable in relational database system not only to secure copyright ownership but also to ensure data contents integrity. Further, it is used in locating tampered and modified places. However, the watermarking relational database has its own requirements, challenges, attacks and limitations. This paper, surveys recent database watermarking techniques focusing on the importance of watermarking relational database, the difference between watermarking relational database and multimedia objects, the issues in watermarking relational database, type of attacks on watermarked database, classifications, distortion introduced and the embedded information. The comparative study shows that watermarking relational database can be an effective tool for copyright protection, tampered detection, and hacker tracing while maintaining the integrity of data contents. In addition, this study explores the current issues in watermarking relational database as well as the significant differences between watermarking multimedia data and relational database contents. Finally, it provides a classification of database watermarking techniques according to the way of selecting the candidate key attributes and tuples, distortion introduced and decoding methods used.
Show more

12 Read more

Watermarking of Relational Databases Using Optimization Technique

Watermarking of Relational Databases Using Optimization Technique

The watermarking of the relational databases is a rare and currently developing sector. But as the need of the database applications is increasing, it’s exerting more pressure on the data providers to create services that allow the users to access and search their data remotely. Now this is a threat for the data providers which in turn leads to the increasing demand of the database watermarking to detect the pirated copy and protect it from being tampered with . One thing which shouldn’t be assumed is that database watermarking techniques are similar to the watermarking techniques of multimedia objects. Watermarking of the database requires techniques which differ from those of the conventional ones used for multimedia watermarking purposes.
Show more

5 Read more

A Survey on Applying Metric Preserving Transformation of Robust Watermarking for Relational Database

A Survey on Applying Metric Preserving Transformation of Robust Watermarking for Relational Database

A database DB is usually characterized as a limited arrangement of relations { }i=1,...,NR . In this work, for purpose of effortlessness, we consider a DB with one single connection constituted of N unordered tuples { }u=1,...,N , each of M qualities {A1, A2, . . . , AM}. A quality A takes its qualities inside a trait area and .An alludes to the estimation of the nth trait of the uth tuple. Each tuple is particularly recognized by either one property or an arrangement of properties, we call its essential key .PK. Two major stages are considered in the greater part of database watermarking plans: message implanting and message identification/extraction. As portrayed in Fig. 1, the installing stage incorporates a pre processing process, the target of which is to make the watermark insertion/perusing free of the way database is put away. It normally comprises in the development of gatherings of tuples, making an arrangement of Ng non-converging gatherings of tuples { } i=1,..., . Ordinarily, the gathering number for one tuple is gotten from the consequence of a cryptographic hash capacity connected to its essential key .PK, connected with a mystery watermarking key, for example, [9]:
Show more

5 Read more

A Survey of Migration from Traditional Relational Databases towards To New Big Data Technology

A Survey of Migration from Traditional Relational Databases towards To New Big Data Technology

130 to be written in the application layer. NoSQL databases system can also be called schema-free databases. The most important is the key advantage of schema-free design is that it enables applications to quickly improve the structure of data without table rewrites. The data validity and integrity aspect is compulsory at the data management layer. [1] NoSQL also has considered the function of atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability (ACID) aspects. [1] The generally does not maintain complete consistency across distributed servers because the load places on databases, mostly in distributed systems. Traditional relational databases implement strict transactional semantics to protect consistency but many NoSQL (Not Only SQL) databases have more scalable architectures that slow down the consistency requirement. [1]
Show more

5 Read more

Experimental Study of Improved Watermarking Scheme on Relational Databases

Experimental Study of Improved Watermarking Scheme on Relational Databases

primary assets of companies such as Celera are the databases of biological information. The Internet is exerting huge pressure on these data providers to create services that allow users to search and access databases remotely. While this trend is a fortunate thing to end users, it is exposing the data providers to the threat of data theft. They are therefore demanding capabilities for identifying pirated copies of their data. Watermarking on text data [8] and software [9] differs from database watermarking.

7 Read more

A Survey on Fuzzy Based Fast Query for Data Retrieval

A Survey on Fuzzy Based Fast Query for Data Retrieval

ABSTRACT: Structured query language (SQL) is a classical way to access relational databases. Although SQL is powerful to query relational databases, it is rather hard for inexperienced users. A search-as-you-type system computes answers on-the-fly as a user types in a keyword query character by character. To support prefix matching, we use auxiliary tables as index structures and SQL queries to support search-as-you-type. We present solutions for both single-keyword queries and multi keyword queries. We extended the techniques in the case of fuzzy queries and proposed various techniques to improve query performance. However, to support fuzzy search, there may be multiple prefixes similar to the keyword. We call the nodes of these similar prefixes the active nodes for a keyword. Now we are going to use the fuzzy search to retrieve images. Data Indexer builds Keyword to Attribute Mapping for mapping keywords to attributes. Given a keyword query, Template Matcher suggests relevant templates based on the index structures.
Show more

8 Read more

Recoverable Watermarking for Distributed Databases

Recoverable Watermarking for Distributed Databases

ABSTRACT: Distributed database security has become an important issue. This paper provides method for providing security to shared databases in distributed environment. Such approach is applied for protecting numerical data in relational databases. Advancement in information technology is playing an increasing role in the use of information systems comprising relational databases. These databases are used effectively in collaborative environments for information extraction; consequently, they are vulnerable to security threats concerning ownership rights and data tampering. Watermarking is advocated to enforce ownership rights over shared relational data and for providing a means for tackling data tampering. The system provides security to the shared databases in distributed environment by recoverable watermarking where different users share their data in various proportions. It also preserves and maintains data quality.
Show more

9 Read more

Implementation of Reversible Watermarking Techniques on Relational Database

Implementation of Reversible Watermarking Techniques on Relational Database

The basic database watermarking technique of relational databases is shown in Figure 1. Watermark embedding phase includes a private key K (known only to the owner) which is used to embed the watermark bits into the original database to form watermarked database. The watermarked database is then made publicly available. To verify the right ownership of a doubtful database, the verification process is performed. In this process the mistrustful database is taken as input and by using the private key K which is used during the embedding phase, the embedded watermark (if present) is extracted from watermarked database and it is compared with the original watermark information.
Show more

6 Read more

Title: A Review Paper for Mapping of XML Data to Relational Table

Title: A Review Paper for Mapping of XML Data to Relational Table

ABSTRACT: This paper presents survey of techniques for Mapping XML data to relational table using supervised and unsupervised learning. XML is being increasingly used in diverse domains ranging from data and application integration to content management. The techniques are categorized based upon different approaches like Statistics, Self Organizing Mappings Based approaches. It provides the reader with the major advancement in the data mapping research, using these mapping techniques the features and categories in the surveyed work based upon the above stated categories. This served as the major contribution of this paper. Mappings in XML to tables can only deliver satisfactory query performance. We survey different mapping techniques for XML data into relational table or databases.
Show more

6 Read more

Fuzzy Object Oriented Database versus FRDB for Uncertainty Management

Fuzzy Object Oriented Database versus FRDB for Uncertainty Management

It is impossible to capture all of the semantics of real world information and to model it in a perfect way. Uncertain information being lacking information, individual interpretation of knowledge is taken into account. Most widely used relational model faced much difficulty to handle complex data requirements. The size of databases and their changing composition such as graphics, video and sound, as well as numbers and text invited a reorganization of existing information systems. Object oriented database draw their strength from graphical user interfaces, advanced data management capabilities and powerful modeling techniques. So in order to deal with inexactness fuzzy techniques have been extensively integrated with more advanced object oriented database system which is capable to represent and manipulate the complex objects as well as complicated and uncertain relationship exiting among them. In this paper uncertainty using Fuzzy Object Oriented Database and Fuzzy Relational Data Base is illustrated.
Show more

6 Read more

TEXT BOOK Database System Concepts 6e Korth

TEXT BOOK Database System Concepts 6e Korth

Over the course of the last four decades of the twentieth century, use of databases grew in all enterprises. In the early days, very few people interacted di- rectly with database systems, although without realizing it, they interacted with databases indirectly—through printed reports such as credit card statements, or through agents such as bank tellers and airline reservation agents. Then auto- mated teller machines came along and let users interact directly with databases. Phone interfaces to computers (interactive voice-response systems) also allowed users to deal directly with databases—a caller could dial a number, and press phone keys to enter information or to select alternative options, to find flight arrival/departure times, for example, or to register for courses in a university.
Show more

1376 Read more

In Memory Data processing using Redis Database

In Memory Data processing using Redis Database

Numerously recent applications that rely on storing and processing large amount of information, wants high availability and scalability which added more difficulties to relational database. Therefore an increasing number of companies have followed different categories of NoSQL data stores or non-relational databases, generally termed as NoSQL databases. NoSQL[2] is non-relational data storage system which does not require a fixed table schema, to replicate and distribute (partition) data over many servers. Today, NoSQL is used by large number of companies named as Adobe, Digg, Facebook, Foursquare, Google, Mozilla, etc.
Show more

6 Read more

An Efficient and Scalable RDF Indexing Strategy based on B Hashed Bitmap Algorithm using CUDA

An Efficient and Scalable RDF Indexing Strategy based on B Hashed Bitmap Algorithm using CUDA

STORING AND INDEXING UNDER RELATIONAL PERSPECTIVE The RDF data in relational databases are stored as triples of a RDF graph on a single table over a relational schema Subject, Predicate,[r]

8 Read more

Outcome Analysis of Relational and Graph Databases

Outcome Analysis of Relational and Graph Databases

. As we have found in the above area, storage of data is very important in all the fields, Relational databases have been the power-stallion of programming applications since many years and proceed with so this day. Relational databases, references to different rows and tables are indicated by referring to their primary key attributes by means of foreign key columns. This is enforceable with imperatives, yet just when the reference is never discretionary. Joins are figured at inquiry time by coordinating primary and foreign keys of the many columns of the to-be-joined tables. These operations are compute and memory-intensive and have an exponential cost. In this section we will see the issue happened when both the techniques will did. In graph database The complete examination of the relative suitability of various graph databases for storing genealogical structures. That work does not address the subjective assessment of capacity expenses and query execution. This Project work is an endeavor to defeat the issues, for example, qualitative evolution of storage cost and query execution performance.
Show more

6 Read more

Implementation of Efficient Keyword Search in Relational Databases

Implementation of Efficient Keyword Search in Relational Databases

queries (a set of keywords) to access unstructured data that users are most likely interested in, using ranking techniques. It is widely realized that the integration of information retrieval (IR) and database (DB) techniques will provide users with a wide range of high quality services. The recent studies on supporting IR style queries in RDBMS include DBXPlore [1], IR-Style [17], DISCOVER [18], ObjectRank [4], BANKS-I [6], and BANKS-II [25]. All consider a RDBMS as a graph where nodes represent tuples/relations and edges represent foreign key references among tuples cross relations. And with a keyword query, users can find the connections among the tuples stored in relations without the needs of knowing the relational schema imposed by RDBMS. We show a motivation
Show more

6 Read more

Relational Lattices: From Databases to Universal Algebra

Relational Lattices: From Databases to Universal Algebra

On the database side, expressions of our formalisms are closely related to (unions) of conjunctive queries [1, Ch. 4], [3] and even more so to monotonic relational expressions of Sagiv and Yannakakis [28]; the relationship with these classes will be discussed in more detail in Section 6 below. Such classes of queries enjoy decision procedures for problems of containment and equivalence based on so-called Homomorphism Theorem [3, 28], [1, Ch. 6]. In fact, Johnson and Klug [17] show that even in presence of inclusion dependencies, the containment problem for conjunctive queries remains in NP when infinite database instances are allowed— and presence of inclusion dependencies gives the containment problem distinctly quasi-equational character. Another reason for our initial optimism came from algebraic logic itself: a somewhat (unjustly!) forgotten book of Craig [5] showed that the finitization problem of algebraic logic allows a positive solution when relations are allowed to contain tuples of varying arity. Note that Craig’s setting was even more liberal than our present one: while we do happily allow relations with differing headers, we assume that all tuples within one relation are defined on a fixed set of attributes.
Show more

41 Read more

Implementing Semantic Query Optimization in Relational Databases

Implementing Semantic Query Optimization in Relational Databases

Semantic query optimization is applied to relational databases using the inductive learning approach. This approach generates an alternate query using the learning framework and the algorithm. The alternate query should be semantically equivalent to original query. The semantically equivalent query generated should be less expensive than the original query. These can be implemented in SQL using the SQL hints. These hints allow user to implement the desired plan for the query.

6 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...