Top PDF One-Way Compatibility, Two-Way Compatibility and Entry in Network Industries

One-Way Compatibility, Two-Way Compatibility and Entry in Network Industries

One-Way Compatibility, Two-Way Compatibility and Entry in Network Industries

the analysis of two-way compatibility, usually introduced either via the con- struction of an adapter or via the disclosure of technical specification by the operating firms. Farrell and Saloner (1992) discuss the incentive for a domi- nant firm to refuse the disclosure of its technical information to construct an adapter by a rival firm. In a different context, we find a similar result when the incumbent and the entrant firms play a ”disclosure game” such that each firm has to decide, sequentially, on whether to provide its technical specification to the rival. Furthermore we find that at the equilibrium, the dominant firm might be able to deter entry by denying the construction of a one-way adapter to the entrant. The provision of a two-way adapter is also studied in Baake and Boom (2001); in a symmetric setting, they find that in equilibrium the adapter is always provided. Our results show that this finding is sensitive to the symmetric vs asymmetric position of the competing firms.
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One-Way Compatibility, Two-Way Compatibility and Entry in Network Industries

One-Way Compatibility, Two-Way Compatibility and Entry in Network Industries

While these analyses perfectly apply to networks such as telecommunica- tions where compatibility between firms can only be two-way and where once interconnection between networks is established then customers can freely com- municate with each other irrespective of the carrier they belong to, they can- not represent the rich set of situations that frequently occur in many network industries; the scope of the paper is to shed new light on the strategic com- patibility choices of an incumbent firm which owns a proprietary technology and which faces potential entry by a rival when the bridge between the two competing technologies is not restricted to full compatibility but, as suggested by the wide set of examples provided above, can also take the different form of one-way compatibility.
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El papel de las tarifas de interconexión en las industrias en red

El papel de las tarifas de interconexión en las industrias en red

2002, “One-Way Compatibility, Two-Way Compatibility and Entry in Network Industries.” En: econwpa.wustl.edu/eps/io/papers/0205/0205001.pdf 5 Este costo incluye entre otros, los costos de[r]

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A note on compatibility and entry in a circular model of product differentiation

A note on compatibility and entry in a circular model of product differentiation

The literature on compatibility falls within two broad categories. The “mix-and- match” approach views products as systems made up with several distinct parts, and focuses on changes in product variety and demand triggered by compatibility decisions. 2 The second strand of literature, to which this paper belongs, assumes demand-side economies of scale in the form of increasing returns to adoption: the value a consumer derives from purchasing a good increases with its diffusion. Achieving compatibility then permits users to reap the (larger) benefits associated with the group of compati- ble goods. Increasing returns to adoption stem from many sources, among which the major ones probably are direct network externalities; the existence of complementary goods or services (often referred to in the literature as indirect network externalities); and learning-by-using/doing (Rosenberg 1982). Direct network externalities exist when adopters’ benefits directly increase with the sales or market share of compatible prod- ucts: phones, fax machines, more generally communication technologies are of little value in themselves, but they provide network access – the value of the network de- termines that of the good. 3 Indirect network externalities, by contrast, obtain via the provision of complementary goods or services: cars have no value in the absence of parts, gasoline and roads; so are compact disc players without compact discs, and computers without software packages. 4 Under both direct and indirect network externalities a sim- ilar dilemma arises: on the one hand a firm that chooses to make its product compatible increases the value of the product to the consumer, but on the other hand preserving incompatibility increases market power.
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R&D incentives, compatibility and network externalities

R&D incentives, compatibility and network externalities

This result states that even though the incumbent has increased incentives to innovate given the presence of network externalities, those greater incentives are insufficient from a welfare perspective. The reason for this results comes from the fact that in the market outcome, the private incentives of the incumbent do not consider the potential loss that the first consumer can incur given that is locked-in. This result is presented in Figure 4. For the case of the entrant, this result implies that, given that he can capture the market (i.e. make profits) only if he is the unique innovator, he would over-invest in R&D. In this way, the entrant firm maximizes the probability of successful innovation in a socially inefficient way (i.e. rent dissipation). As stated in the introduction, Kristiansen (1996) presents the opposite result. That is, a potential entrant under-invests in R&D because he opts for a too certain R&D project, maximizing the probability of successful innovation. Therefore, even though the intuition in both cases is similar, the implications for R&D expenditures are the exact opposite and arise from the modeling strategy. We believe that in Kristiansen (1996), the assumed mean-preserving spread criterion, although it allows an analysis of R&D risk, it leads to a unrealistic prediction. In network industries entrants usually tend to heavily (over) invest in R&D in order to introduce new network incompatible technologies (e.g. interactive TV, Compact Disk (CD), Digital Versatile Disk (DVD), and digital imaging). 7
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EVALUATING URBAN DOWNTOWN ONE-WAY TO TWO-WAY STREET CONVERSION USING MICROSCOPIC TRAFFIC SIMULATION

EVALUATING URBAN DOWNTOWN ONE-WAY TO TWO-WAY STREET CONVERSION USING MICROSCOPIC TRAFFIC SIMULATION

Microscopic models provide a detailed representation of the traffic process, considering the characteristics of individual vehicles and simulating vehicle interactions in the traffic stream based on car-following and lane-changing theories. Microsimulation offers benefits in clarity, accuracy, and flexibility. It can provide a comprehensive real-time visual display to illustrate traffic operations in a readily understandable manner. Individual vehicles make their own decision on speed, lane changing, and route choice. The dynamic evolution of traffic congestion and effectiveness of traffic management strategies can be evaluated with microsimulation. These models are typically used for short term and congestion-related issues. Compared to macroscopic models, microscopic must be kept at a reasonable network size and modeling period due to the high number of data inputs, calibration and validation efforts, and computing power for modeling and analysis x .
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Some Common Fixed Point Theorems in Fuzzy 2-Banach Space

Some Common Fixed Point Theorems in Fuzzy 2-Banach Space

Abstract. In this paper we proved a common fixed point theorem for two, four and six mappings in fuzzy 2-banach space by using compatibility of type A, compatibility of type P and implicit relations. Our result is an extension of existing results in fuzzy 2-banach space.

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Datapro C25 010 198004 pdf

Datapro C25 010 198004 pdf

TERMINAL DESCRIPTION Stand-alone or cluster Maximum displays/controller Transportability IBM compatibility Teletype compatibility Other compatibility User programmable Self diagnostics D[r]

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Datapro C25 010 198104 pdf

Datapro C25 010 198104 pdf

TERMINAL DESCRIPTION Stand-alone or cluster Maximum displays/controller Transportability IBM compatibility Teletype compatibility Other compatibility User programmable Self diagnostics D[r]

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Phone Compatibility. ipod Compatibility. How to Use This Guide

Phone Compatibility. ipod Compatibility. How to Use This Guide

If there is more than one paired phone available, the navigation radio will try to connect to the phone with the highest priority setting.... Non-Navigation Radios*.[r]

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Joint Channel Network Coding for the Gaussian Two Way Two Relay Network

Joint Channel Network Coding for the Gaussian Two Way Two Relay Network

relative merits of the schemes. Instead, it provides a rough guideline for easy selection of a suitable scheme. In the table, “G” refers to “the channel condition is good” and “B” refers to “the channel condition is bad.” We say that a channel is good if its link gain is two to three times, or more, than the link gain of a bad channel. When all the link gains are large, we should use AF. In the case when one pair of the opposite links of the network is good, whereas the other pair is weak, DF provides larger throughput. If one of the relays is good but the other relay is bad, HMC or HLC should be used.
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Certificate of Compatibility

Certificate of Compatibility

If Public IP addresses are assigned to the SV8100 IPLA and VoIP Gateways, then there should be no network configuration required. Known Limitations/Comments[r]

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‘Only one way in and one way out’: Staging Utopian Spaces

‘Only one way in and one way out’: Staging Utopian Spaces

This is the utopian act which I will endeavour to sustain in my architectural practice and teaching. For a brief moment, in this room, we were able to test out possible worlds by constructing and inhabiting them. As tangible objects, they were able to be shared and discussed. Their material presence granted them some semblance of affective or emotional impact, and subsequently opened up space for discussion which valued these notions as a critical part of design. They were collectively constructed and given meaning through subjective interpretations, in a way which reflects the conception of space as a social practice. This workshop seemed to offer a moment of slippage—between the fictional space of utopian science-fiction and the banal spaces of the everyday, and between the act of imagination and the act of inhabitation. For those of us seeking to enact utopian possibilities
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Datapro C25 010 197804 pdf

Datapro C25 010 197804 pdf

TERMINAL DESCRIPTION Stand-alone or cluster Maximum displays/controller Portable case IBM compatibility Teletype compatibility Other compatibility User programmable Self diagnostics DISP[r]

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Entry Selection

Entry Selection

In this paper we show that in some cases the incumbent may …nd it pro…table to do the opposite, namely to signal high-cost to encourage entry. Thus, instead of signalling strength, the incumbent signals weakness. The rationale is that the entry of one …rm may deter the entry of another …rm because of the increased level of competition. By encouraging an ine¢ cient …rm to enter, the incumbent …rm faces higher costs in the short run (consisting of the costs of the inducement and that of earlier competition), but in the long run his pro…ts are higher due to less e¢ cient rivals and thus less …erce competition. In this sense, the incumbent …rm does not actually try to promote entry, but rather he attempts to select entry.
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Compatibility / Incompatibility

Compatibility / Incompatibility

✔ 5.3.4 COMPATIBILITY WITH THE CeCILL LICENSE: “When a Modified Software contains an Integrated Contribution subject to the CeCILL license agreement, or when a Derivative Software contains a Related Module subject to the CeCILL license agreement, the provisions set forth in the third item of Article 6.4 [copyleft clause] are optional.”

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Cisco WebEx Meetings Server System Requirements

Cisco WebEx Meetings Server System Requirements

• Cisco WebEx Meetings Server Compatibility Matrix, page 15. • Audio Endpoint Compatibility, page 15[r]

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Nose and lungs: one way, one disease

Nose and lungs: one way, one disease

The link between asthma, allergic rhinitis and rhinosinu- sitis is well known and internationally accepted, while the precise concept of an united airways disease has been postulated only recently [1]. The atopic diseases of the nose and the lungs are, in fact, related to each other, and coexist in many patients, with a much higher frequency than expected, when simply considering the prevalence of each disease in the general population [2]. The immediate sign that the airways diseases coexist is given by the fact that upper respiratory tract infections are capable of exacerbating asthma, while rhinosinusitis has been identified as an independent risk factor for asthma development [3,4]. Even though this connection seems clear from a theoretical point of view, in daily practice, children presenting with nasal and respiratory symptoms are generally treated by two different specialists.
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A Sketch Algorithm for Estimating Two Way and Multi Way Associations

A Sketch Algorithm for Estimating Two Way and Multi Way Associations

smoothed counterparts. The y-axis reports percentage improvement of the MSE due to smoothing. Smoothing helps the proposed methods (solid lines) for all six word pairs, and hurts the baseline methods (dashed lines), for most of the six word pairs. We believe margin constraints keep the smoother from wandering too far astray; without margin constraints, smoothing can easily do more harm than good, especially when the smoother isn’t very good. In this experiment, we used the simple “add-one” smoother that replaces a s , b s , c s , and d s with a s + 1, b s + 1, c s + 1, and d s + 1, respectively. We could
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Optimization of a two way MIMO amplify and forward relay network

Optimization of a two way MIMO amplify and forward relay network

jth transceiver. Transceiver 1 and transceiver 2 are both equipped with M antennas. It is supposed that L relays equipped with N antennas are used. Flat fading chan- nels are considered. We assume that no direct link exists between the two transceivers. The channel matrix from transceiver 1 to the ith relay is denoted as H i ( i = 1, 2, . . . , L ) , and the one from the ith relay to transceiver 2 is denoted as G i , where H i ∈ C N×M and G i ∈ C M×N consist of independent complex Gaussian variables. It is assumed that these channels are reciprocal, i.e., the channel matrix from the ith relay to transceiver 1 is H T i , and the one from transceiver 2 to the ith relay is G T i . In the first time slot, each transceiver sends mes- sages to the L relays. With the knowledge of H i and G i
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