Top PDF Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 2

Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 2

Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 2

Civilization. In inspired amazing art and music. It was at the heart of scholarship and learning for centuries. It also justified the aggressive expansion of European kingdoms. Europeans truly believed that members of other religions were infidels (meaning "those who are unfaithful," those who worshipped the correct God, but in the wrong way, including Jews and Muslims, but also Christians who deviated from official orthodoxy) or pagans (those who worshipped false gods) who should either convert or be exterminated. For instance, despite the fact that Muslims and Jews worshiped the same God and shared much of the same sacred literature, medieval Europeans had absolutely no qualms about invading Muslim lands and committing horrific atrocities in the name of their religion. Likewise, medieval anti-Semitism (prejudice and hatred directed against Jews) eventually drove many Jews from Europe itself to take shelter in the kingdoms and empires of the Middle East and North Africa; historically it was much safer and more comfortable for Jews in places like the predominantly Muslim Ottoman Empire than it was in most of Christian Europe.
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Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 3

Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 3

The Depression started in the United States with a massive stock market crash on October 24, 1929. The ill-conceived cycle of debt described above had worked well enough for most of the 1920s while the American economy was stable and American banks were willing to underwrite new loans. When the stock market crashed, however, American banks demanded repayment of the European loans, from Germany and its former enemies alike. The capital to repay those loans simply did not exist. Businesses shut down, governments defaulted on the American loans, and unemployment soared. In one year, Germany’s industrial output dropped by almost 50% and millions were out of work. In turn, inspired by liberal economic theories, governments embraced policies of austerity, cutting back the already limited social programs that existed, balancing state budgets, and slashing spending. The result was that even less capital was available in the private sector. In the United States and Western Europe, the Depression would drag on for a decade (1929 - 1939), at which point World War II overshadowed economic hardship as the great crisis of the century.
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Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 1

Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 1

The first settlements that straddled the line between “towns” and real “cities” existed around 4500 BCE, but a truly urban society in Mesopotamia was in place closer 3000 BCE, wherein a few dozen city-states managed the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates. A note on the chronology: The town of Catal Huyuk discussed in the last chapter existed over four thousand years before the first great cities in Mesopotamia. It is important to bear this in mind, because when in considering ancient history (in this case, in two short chapters of a textbook), it can seem like it all happened quite rapidly, that people discovered agriculture and soon they were building massive cities and developing advanced technology. That simply was not the case: compared to the hundreds of thousands of years preceding the discovery of agriculture, things moved “quickly,” but from the modern perspective, it took a very long time for things to change. In sum, Mesopotamian civilization was growing very, very slowly for thousands of years before the first great cities and empires arose.
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History of Western Image of Islam and Muslims

History of Western Image of Islam and Muslims

2. You must not respond to injustice or wrong-doing by injustice or wrong-doing. The meaning of this principle is that the Arabs and Muslims should not respond to Islamophobia by engaging in a campaign of anti-Semitism, for example. Originally, the Arabs are Semites. The Jews are Semites and the people of the book, and their most prominent Prophet Moses is a prophet for Muslims as well, and the belief in his Prophethood is a condition for believing in Islam. Political differences should not be a justification for moral errors. Therefore, Muslims and Jews have to look for an opportunity to reach a common ground and a unified plan of action to combat anti-Semitism and Islamophobia at the same time. Both parties must be at the forefront of the campaign against racism. One requirement of this principle is that the Arabs and Muslims should not respond to "Islamophobia" by what may be called "Westophobia", i.e., by the promotion of a culture of hatred against the West, the Europeans and Americans. Europe and America have offered a lot to human civilization. The interest of the Arabs and Muslims is to make the European friends and partners for economic prosperity and peace.
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Heaven in the early history of western religions.

Heaven in the early history of western religions.

This dissertation examines concepts of heaven in the early history of Western religions and the extent to which themes found in other traditions are found in Christianity. Russell, in A History of Heaven, investigates the origins of the concept of heaven, which he dates at about 200 B.C.E. and observes that heaven, a concept that has shaped much of Christian thought and attitudes, has been strangely neglected by modern historians. 1 Christianity has played a central role in Western civilization and instructs its believers to direct their life in this world with a view to achieving eternal life in the next, as observed by Liebeschuetz. 2 It is of the greatest historical importance that a very large number of people could for many centuries be persuaded to see life in an imperfect visible world as merely a stage in their progress to a world that was perfect but invisible; yet, it has been neglected as a subject for study. Russell notes that Heaven: A History 3 by McDannell and Lang mainly offers sociological insights. 4 Russell holds that the most important aspects of the concept of heaven are the beatific vision and the mystical union. 5 Heaven, he says, is the state of being in
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Correspondences   Online Journal For The Academic Study of Western Esotericism, Volume 2 1

Correspondences Online Journal For The Academic Study of Western Esotericism, Volume 2 1

of “rejected knowledge” was now bringing these currents together, but this status and stigma would not necessarily have been present in earlier periods. This puts a new limit on the application of homological-type comparison in historical research: while we can continue to compare “related currents” after the Enlightenment, homology is insufficient as a rationale for selecting and comparing material under this umbrella in the early-modern period and before. We are, perhaps, left with the possibility of applying a retrospective homological strategy (i.e., studying currents, texts, and persons that have later been reified as belonging to “esotericism”), but this is highly problematic. It is essentially a form of presentism that selects material of the past as relevant for study only insofar as it has later been constructed as “pointing towards” certain contemporary (or in this case, “modern”) phenomena. Ironically, it creates and reifies a canon in the same way as the “Whiggish” history of science created a canon of “scientists.” If we accept this new research pro- gramme, and we wish to avoid presentism (call it a negative heuristic), we are left with a new place for comparison in the programme’s positive heuris- tic. To go backwards in history, one cannot avoid the analogical types. This leaves the door wide open for other applications of analogical comparison as well.
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Western civilization in Javanese vernacular

Western civilization in Javanese vernacular

be concerned with education policy in the Bataafse Republiek (1795-1806), the Koninkrijk Holland (1806-1810) and the years of Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp (1762-1834) who drafted the constitution of 1818. These periods of Dutch history are important to Dutch colonial history as many statesmen had been sent to the Netherlands-Indies. Therefore, a close connection can be expected between what happened in the Netherlands and causatively in its colony. Then, the focus will move to the Netherlands-Indies from the last years of the VOC onward: 2) what were the ideals and ambitions of the colonial government? Two main characters formulate the position of the colonial government before 1816. They were Gijsbert Karel's brother, Dirk van Hogendorp (1761-1822) and governor-generals Herman Willem Daendels (r.1807-1810). Both had an idealistic perspective on the implementation of a bureaucracy and governing the colony. A third element in the first part is: 3) the situation on Java in the space of the colonial subjects. What was the Javanese education tradition? It is important to encounter with Javanese knowledge systems in order measure the dialogue and eventual synthesis between western and Javanese education systems in colonial education policy. Another important concept in this respect is agency, who were the Javanese intellectuals and how did they talk back?
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Correspondences   Online Journal For The Academic Study of Western Esotericism, Volume 6(2)

Correspondences Online Journal For The Academic Study of Western Esotericism, Volume 6(2)

galactic demons that feature prominently in Lovecraft’s short stories, and yet they have become the focus of actual magical and occult ritual practices among some fans since the author’s death (e.g. Kenneth Grant). Here, then, we see a spokesperson for the tech industry publicly endorsing occulture themes as being connected to advanced technological development, using analogy and religious language to draw such themes closer together. In Love- craft’s stories, the Great Old Ones are worshiped on Earth by murderous occultists and they have no regard for humankind whatsoever, seeking to wipe human life out of existence primarily because of how unintelligent and insignificant humans seem in comparison to themselves. Such public proclamations reinforce the belief among New Age/secular and Christian conspiracy researchers that ahistorical supernatural forces are at work in the world, which are endeavoring to alter reality. It therefore seems reasonable that they would continue to find grounds to cooperate and stand together. An example of these converging groups is the “QAnon” conspiracy. QAnon received widespread mass-media coverage across the Web after attendees at a President Trump rally in Florida displayed a Q on shirts and signboards. Justin Caffier writing for Vice called QAnon “the greatest crossover event in conspiracy theory history,” for Q overtly uses “references to all the greatest hits like Freemasons, MK Ultra, and the symbology of the Illuminati,” as well as Christian notions of “The Great Awakening” and the Satanic magic of the elites, as well as references to “red-pilling.” In our current situation, we are likely to see more such collaborations. 75
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Correspondences   Online Journal For The Academic Study of Western Esotericism, Volume 2 2

Correspondences Online Journal For The Academic Study of Western Esotericism, Volume 2 2

Visiting the Margins,” and begins with Kennet Granholm’s ground-breaking discussion of terminology. Rightly criticising “Satanism” as a word carrying pejorative connotations, he suggests that scholars studying the phenomenon replace it with the more accurate “Left Hand Path.” Conversely, he argues that the term “Post-Satanism” has utility in describing those followers of “dark spirituality” who have moved away from the figure of Satan but continue with their antinomian religious stance. As for case studies to support his well thought-out arguments, he turns to the Temple of Set and the Dragon Rouge. The following chapter consists of Fredrik Gregorius’ pioneering discussion of Luciferian Witchcraft, an esoteric current that blends elements of Satan- ism with contemporary Paganism, and which will prove a great starting point for those, like myself, engaged in the study of the “Traditional Witchcraft” movement. The volume is rounded off with Jacob C. Senholt on the Order of Nine Angles, a British-based white supremacist group whom he has ex- tensively studied through his doctoral research. Senholt’s excellent work will undoubtedly be of use to law enforcement alongside academia, considering the Order’s embrace of extreme violence and history of uniting with militant Islamism in their quest to overturn the “old order.”
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<p>How Western Diet And Lifestyle Drive The Pandemic Of Obesity And Civilization Diseases</p>

<p>How Western Diet And Lifestyle Drive The Pandemic Of Obesity And Civilization Diseases</p>

Abstract: Westernized populations are plagued by a plethora of chronic non-infectious degen- erative diseases, termed as “ civilization diseases ” , like obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, autoimmune diseases, Alzheimer's disease and many more, diseases which are rare or virtually absent in hunter-gatherers and other non-westernized populations. There is a growing awareness that the cause of this amazing discrepancy lies in the profound changes in diet and lifestyle during recent human history. This paper shows that the transition from Paleolithic nutrition to Western diets, along with lack of corresponding genetic adaptations, cause signi fi cant distortions of the fi ne-tuned metabolism that has evolved over millions of years of human evolution in adaptation to Paleolithic diets. With the increasing spread of Western diet and lifestyle worldwide, overweight and civilization diseases are also rapidly increasing in develop- ing countries. It is suggested that the diet-related key changes in the developmental process include an increased production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, development of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, low-grade in fl ammation and an abnormal activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system, all of which play pivotal roles in the development of diseases of civilization. In addition, diet-related epigenetic changes and fetal programming play an important role. The suggested pathomechanism is also able to explain the well-known but not completely understood close relationship between obesity and the wide range of comorbidities, like type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, etc., as diseases of the same etiopathology. Changing our lifestyle in accordance with our genetic makeup, including diet and physical activity, may help prevent or limit the development of these diseases. Keywords: diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin hypersecretion, oxidative stress, paleolithic diet, pathogenesis
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AP European History and Western Civilization. Syllabus Introduction

AP European History and Western Civilization. Syllabus Introduction

Late work [both in the assessment and homework categories] turned in after the test day can only get HALF credit. Work can be turned in for late credit up to 2 weeks after the test date. After that, work will not be accepted. {This includes assignments due the day of the test}. Unit deadlines will be posted as the year progresses on the calendar, on the board, and on the class website.

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“Western civilization” and the acceleration of time : Richard Löwenthal’s reflections on a crisis of “the West” in the aftermath of the student revolt of “1968”

“Western civilization” and the acceleration of time : Richard Löwenthal’s reflections on a crisis of “the West” in the aftermath of the student revolt of “1968”

The narrative pattern of ascendency and decline, so well displayed in Borkenau’s postwar writings, were certainly characteristic of the discourse on “Western civiliza- tion” as a whole. In fact, Borkenau’s reflections were not only redolent of Oswald Spengler’s decline narrative; they also bore the traces of another major exponent of the “Western civ.” paradigm: the British historian Arnold Toynbee whose gargantuan, multi-volume study of world civilizations has remained unmatched, though certainly not unchallenged. It was Toynbee who most prominently elaborated the view that “Western civilization”, alongside twenty other civilizations in world history, would be an “intelli- gible unit of study”, a statement that was repeatedly quoted by Borkenau – as well as by Löwenthal. Toynbee reached the height of his fame in the aftermath of the Second World War, the very moment Borkenau set out to explore the origins of “the West”. It comes as no surprise that his texts were shot through with Toynbeean notions of “rhythms”, “crises”, and “breakdowns” of civilizations. 21
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On the Jesuit Edition of Newton’s Principia  Science and Advanced Researches in the Western Civilization

On the Jesuit Edition of Newton’s Principia Science and Advanced Researches in the Western Civilization

Let us finally analyse one of the most genial propositions and reasoning exposed in the Principia, but maybe in the whole history of science and mathematics: the Lemma XXVIII in the 6 th section of the Principia. Newton proves that: “there is no oval figure whose area, cut off by right lines at pleasure, can be universally found by means of equations of any number of fi- nite terms and dimensions” (translation drawn from Newton, 1729: I, p. 145; Newton, 1822: I, pp. 203-207). Newton does not define the concept of oval, but it is clear that he is referring to never self-intersecting curves that are continuous, whose arc is never a segment of a straight line and with a finite curvature. The conclusions drawn by Newton from this lemma are that, given the time, it is possible to find the place of a body moving along an elliptic trajectory: 1) either by means of transcendental curves as the trochoid (Newton, 1822: I, Section VI, prop. XXXI, pp. 209-212); 2) or by methods of approximations (Newton, 1822: I, Section VI, Scholium, pp. 213-225). There- fore he was mainly interested in conclusions concerning as- tronomy, and this is only natural taking into account the scopes of the Principia. However, as Pesic remarks 33 , this lemma is fundamental for theoretical mathematics, too, because one of its most evident consequence is that the area of the circle—that is an oval—cannot be expressed as the solution of an algebraic equation of finite degree whose coefficients are rational in re- spect to the radius of the circle. It is well known that the prob- lem of the transcendence of π is very complicated and was solved only at the end of the 19 th century through an analytical method (Lindemann, 1882). Nevertheless, the reasoning by Newton shows intuitively that π is transcendent in respect to the radius. This lemma represents hence a great occasion to discuss what intuitive means in mathematics and in what sense Newton’s genial proof can be considered rigorous and inside which limits it can be considered valid. All these are important epistemological and methodological questions with which we cannot deal with in this context, but that, certainly, have to be posed. Let us now see the bases of Newton’s reasoning and some interventions of the commentators. Newton resorts neither to figures nor to symbols. The steps are the following:
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The Making of Party History: History and Historiography of the Western Route Army

The Making of Party History: History and Historiography of the Western Route Army

Leninist organization that has strict principles of confidentiality, in order to learn about intra-Party affairs in the Mao era, the outside world had to rely greatly on information that the Party revealed, and Party History was written exclusively by, or under the supervision of, Party leaders. Therefore, before the 1980s, so-called Party History was, in fact, that which was authorized officially by the Party leadership. It has only been since the 1980s that people other than Party theorists or historians have begun to write other versions of Party History, or, as we should call them, unofficial versions of Party History. In summary, investigations of official Party History should cover the period from the late 1930s to the present, while surveys of unofficial Party History should include the period after the early 1980s. Since the late 1930s, writing Party history has been one of the few issues over which the Party leadership has not dared to lose control. Party history is not only an indispensable tool for the leadership during intra-Party power struggles, but also for its function as a legitimizing device. As an inseparable part of the history of the CCP, Party historiography deserves systematic research, and the following questions should take center-stage: Who wrote the official version of Party History during the Mao era? During this period, how were the political needs of the Party Center reflected in official Party History? What changes took place in official historical narratives after 1976? To what extent was official Party History challenged by alternative versions that have emerged since the early 1980s? Currently, the CCP is believed to be losing control over its propaganda machine. If this is the case, then what is the real status of Party history propaganda in today’s China? Recording, writing, and propagandizing Party history is an uninterrupted thread that runs through all of the CCP’s history, and investigation of this thread will deepen our understanding of a political party that rules 1.3 billion Chinese people.
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The development of interactive multimedia on thematic learning in grade V by the theme history of Indonesian Civilization

The development of interactive multimedia on thematic learning in grade V by the theme history of Indonesian Civilization

The development goal this research is to produce an interactive multimedia on the theme of learning the history of Indonesian civilization which is valid, practical, effective, and attractive. This research is a research development by using a development model of Borg and Gall which has been modified. Development model consists of 8 steps: (1) Research and data collection, (2) Planning, (3) Development of draft product, (4) The early field tests, (5) Revise the test results, (6) field tests, (7) Completion of the product field test results, (8) Final Product. The instruments used in this research are a validation questionnaire, test questionnaire, interview, and evaluation test. Preliminary field testing results, the product gets a score of 4.6 which is included in the practicality of practical criteria and got a score of 4.6, including the attractiveness of the interesting criteria. Based on the main field testing, theproduct get a score of practicality 4.5 which is included in the criteria of attractiveness of the practical and get a score of 4.2 which is included in the criteria of interest, as well as get a score of 84.7 Effectiveness included in the criteria effectively. Overall analysis of data from the validation sheet materials experts, media experts, and users of this product is getting an average score of 4.1 which is included in the valid criteria with minor revisions.
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A concise history of analytical accounting: examining the use of mathematical notions in our discipline.

A concise history of analytical accounting: examining the use of mathematical notions in our discipline.

However, the original clean surplus relation (as shown above) still has an important limitation. Its income or dividends referred to future expectations and not to the “past” figures of accounting statements. To overcome this impediment, the first extension introduced by Ohlson (1995) was to relate past figures to future expectations. He created a “linear information dynamics” by adding to the right hand side of the residual income relation RIR (equation 2) a set of stochastic variables and error terms that imposed a series of restrictions (e.g., risk neutrality of investors) and linearity assumptions about the probabilistic time-series behaviour of abnormal earnings and of information about other than abnormal earnings (e.g., innovations). This "other information" could reflect, for example, the reports of security analysts as well as some unpredictable random disturbances. Such a modification attempts to project accounting figures of the past into the future. To what extent these or similar regressions will prove satisfactory has, of course, to be tested empirically.
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Native Americans and the Western: A History of Oppression

Native Americans and the Western: A History of Oppression

The Western––it’s as American as apple pie. It’s a genre of nostalgia, adventure and the romanticized past. Always situated on the wide expanses and dusty horizons west of the Mississippi river, Westerns center around the do-it-yourself kind of justice carried out by bounty hunters, cowboys and even the lonely outlaw. The genre tells stories of the bravery and grit required to survive in the wild and uncivilized world just out of reach of the lawmakers back east. Most importantly, the Western is a genre of fear: fear of death, fear of the land and fear of fellow man. These overarching themes of paranoia coupled with expansive backdrops and historical settings make the Western the perfect canvas to explore race relations in America, both in the past and present. Specifically, there is much to learn from the legends of the open range about the way settlers treated Native Americans. From the silent era through today, the way Westerns portray Native Americans reveals a shift in attitudes toward our Native neighbors. The Covered Wagon, The Outlaw Josey Wales and Wind River perfectly exemplify the United States’ changing biases toward Native Americans.
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Sumerian Civilization

Sumerian Civilization

The armies of Sumer were largely infantry armies armed with bronze weapons and leather armour with lames of bronze inner woven into the leather. The average Sumerian solider was armed with a spear, dagger, or sickle sword. Stone maces were used early in the history of Sumer but eventually fell out of use due to innovations in the helmet by Sumerian artisans. The anomaly of the armies of Sumer was the chariot. It was essentially a four wheeled wagon pulled by onagers (also known as the Asian Wild ass). The chariot was used more as a form of transport than an implement of war.

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Radical Religion in Cromwell’s England: A Concise History from the English Civil War to the End of the Commonwealth

Radical Religion in Cromwell’s England: A Concise History from the English Civil War to the End of the Commonwealth

Bradstock. Although Hill’s The English Bible and the 17th Century Revolution (2) explores the prominence of Biblical imagery in the thoughts of English people in an age of revolution, he stops short of identifying that imagery as causal to the revolution. Although it might be argued that Bradstock misses an important opportunity to either reappraise and concretely redefine ‘radical’ as something other than an ambiguous umbrella term for marginalized voices calling for change, Bradstock’s book serves to restore the primary role of religion to the political landscape of mid 17th-century England in a way that may stretch beyond the narrowly defined radicals. While he maintains much of the paradigm presented by Hill and other Marxist historians he profoundly repositions the source of change for the subjects addressed in the book.
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University Students' Views on the Education and Teaching of Civilization History: Bayburt University Education Faculty Sample

University Students' Views on the Education and Teaching of Civilization History: Bayburt University Education Faculty Sample

learning the civilization history lesson, they have not supported each other. Likewise, 5 of the students who participated in the research stated that they were partially compelled to learn the civilization history lesson during the interview. However, in the questionnaire applied, the responses of the students to the reasons related to the partial struggle to learn was mostly "Undecided". It is understood that the reasons that the students indicated in the qualitative data are not supported by the quantitative data. Therefore, in the survey, the reasons why students are interested in the difficulty and partly difficulty in learning the civilization history lesson in qualitative data, can not be generalized to quantitative data. The students who participated in the research stated the study techniques they applied in the civilization history lesson as source books, course instructors, taking notes and writing them.These qualitative data are supported by quantitative data. In the quantitative aspect of the research, Students answered "Undecided" to work by doing research (f = 3) and "Undecided" to work by doing again (f = 3). If these data are considered to have low frequency values found in the qualitative data, it can be considered that the correspondence in the quantitative data is also meaningful. On the other hand, Akbaba et al. (2014, p.220) found that university students read a limited number of books in the history lesson, paralleling the finding of working with multiple books on history lesson.
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