Top PDF Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 3

Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 3

Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 3

The Depression started in the United States with a massive stock market crash on October 24, 1929. The ill-conceived cycle of debt described above had worked well enough for most of the 1920s while the American economy was stable and American banks were willing to underwrite new loans. When the stock market crashed, however, American banks demanded repayment of the European loans, from Germany and its former enemies alike. The capital to repay those loans simply did not exist. Businesses shut down, governments defaulted on the American loans, and unemployment soared. In one year, Germany’s industrial output dropped by almost 50% and millions were out of work. In turn, inspired by liberal economic theories, governments embraced policies of austerity, cutting back the already limited social programs that existed, balancing state budgets, and slashing spending. The result was that even less capital was available in the private sector. In the United States and Western Europe, the Depression would drag on for a decade (1929 - 1939), at which point World War II overshadowed economic hardship as the great crisis of the century.
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Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 2

Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 2

It was not Renaissance ideas, however, that had the greatest impact on the globe at the time. Instead, it was European soldiers, colonists, and most consequentially, diseases. The first people from the Eastern Hemisphere since prehistory to travel to the Western Hemisphere (and remain - an earlier Viking colony did not survive) were European explorers who, entirely by accident, “discovered” the Americas at the end of the fifteenth century CE. It bears emphasis that the “discovery” of the Americas is a misnomer: millions of people already lived there, as their ancestors had for thousands of years, but geography had left them ill-prepared for the arrival of the newcomers. With the European colonists came an onslaught of epidemics to which the native peoples of the Americas had no resistance, and within a few generations the immense majority - perhaps as many as 90% - of Native Americans perished as a result. The subsequent conquest of the Americas by Europeans and their descendents was thus made vastly easier. Europeans suddenly had access to an astonishing wealth of land and natural resources, wealth that they extracted in large part by enslaving millions of Native Americans and Africans.
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Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 1

Western Civilization: A Concise History - Volume 1

The first settlements that straddled the line between “towns” and real “cities” existed around 4500 BCE, but a truly urban society in Mesopotamia was in place closer 3000 BCE, wherein a few dozen city-states managed the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates. A note on the chronology: The town of Catal Huyuk discussed in the last chapter existed over four thousand years before the first great cities in Mesopotamia. It is important to bear this in mind, because when in considering ancient history (in this case, in two short chapters of a textbook), it can seem like it all happened quite rapidly, that people discovered agriculture and soon they were building massive cities and developing advanced technology. That simply was not the case: compared to the hundreds of thousands of years preceding the discovery of agriculture, things moved “quickly,” but from the modern perspective, it took a very long time for things to change. In sum, Mesopotamian civilization was growing very, very slowly for thousands of years before the first great cities and empires arose.
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Western civilization in Javanese vernacular

Western civilization in Javanese vernacular

be concerned with education policy in the Bataafse Republiek (1795-1806), the Koninkrijk Holland (1806-1810) and the years of Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp (1762-1834) who drafted the constitution of 1818. These periods of Dutch history are important to Dutch colonial history as many statesmen had been sent to the Netherlands-Indies. Therefore, a close connection can be expected between what happened in the Netherlands and causatively in its colony. Then, the focus will move to the Netherlands-Indies from the last years of the VOC onward: 2) what were the ideals and ambitions of the colonial government? Two main characters formulate the position of the colonial government before 1816. They were Gijsbert Karel's brother, Dirk van Hogendorp (1761-1822) and governor-generals Herman Willem Daendels (r.1807-1810). Both had an idealistic perspective on the implementation of a bureaucracy and governing the colony. A third element in the first part is: 3) the situation on Java in the space of the colonial subjects. What was the Javanese education tradition? It is important to encounter with Javanese knowledge systems in order measure the dialogue and eventual synthesis between western and Javanese education systems in colonial education policy. Another important concept in this respect is agency, who were the Javanese intellectuals and how did they talk back?
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A Concise History of Exchange Rate Regimes in Latin America

A Concise History of Exchange Rate Regimes in Latin America

In order to prevent non-fundamental runs against local currency, central banks need to have a certain volume of FX reserves. What is the optimal volume required for that purpose? As mentioned in section 3, several criteria have been suggested; the most popular indicating that FX reserves should be at least equal to the monetary base, M2, short-term foreign debt (i.e. the Greenspan- Guidotti doctrine), or 10% of GDP (i.e. the Jeanne-Ranciere guideline). The motivation of these criteria is ultimately to provide an indicator for an unobserved variable; namely, the volume of FX reserves that the public considers sufficient for the central bank to determine the NER. If this criterion is met -in other words, if the public believes that the central bank has enough reserves to satisfy the private demand for FX at the current NER- then betting on a future depreciation would not be profitable. Given that this optimal level is uncertain, central banks may have incentives to accumulate somewhat above conventional measures. However, even considering this reserve over- accumulation bias, many studies have shown that accumulation, especially among Asian countries, has gone far beyond what any of these indicators suggest. Should this be interpreted as an indication that recent reserve accumulation has been driven by another motivation such as, for instance, the mercantilist strategy? Not necessarily. Conventional precautionary indicators specify the amount of FX reserves that are required to prevent a non-fundamental speculative attack or overshooting. Once that level (plus an extra amount due to uncertainty) is reached, central banks would not need to accumulate additional reserves to prevent a potential sudden stop. However, if in such situation they face a voluminous capital inflow that drives the exchange rate to excessively overvalued levels, they would feel forced to intervene in order to prevent non-fundamental appreciation pressures. This additional accumulation of reserves –that would take conventional indicators beyond optimal levels- would also be generated by precautionary motives. In this case, central banks would accumulate reserves to prevent an exchange rate undershooting.
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The Positioning Of Iran And Iranians In The Origins Of Western Civilization

The Positioning Of Iran And Iranians In The Origins Of Western Civilization

researcher excluded any Iranian tribes from the study for which less than three experts discussed them (such as, Allobroges, Antes, Ashvakas, Balkars, Corduchi, etc.). These experts designated the tribes as Iranian, Indo-Iranian, Iranian-speaker, or of Iranian country. The goal was to isolate the most popular and well-known Iranian tribes among experts given the surveyed textbooks targeted undergraduate education in introductory history courses. The researcher then placed the selected Iranian tribes under Themes 3 and 4 into a table in alphabetical order for straightforward search by tribal name and recordation of findings. For Theme 5, the researcher coded expert opinion on the six unique Western traits based on Iranian origins (pink color), Iranian influence (yellow color), and Iranian preservation (orange color) of said traits. For example, if an expert cited the Cyrus Cylinder as the first human rights decree, then the researcher highlighted that information in pink. If an expert discussed Thomas Jefferson’s recommendations on studying the biography of Cyrus the Great, then the researcher highlighted that information in yellow. If an expert referred to Iranian preservation of ancient Greek intellectual works to safeguard them from a Christian Roman Empire’s destruction, then the researcher highlighted that information in orange. The researcher provided the words used to search expert opinion on each theme under Presentation of Results section.
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Case Western Reserve. Law Review. Volume 63 Spring 2013 Issue 3

Case Western Reserve. Law Review. Volume 63 Spring 2013 Issue 3

determine whether they may search, when they may search, and what information on the phone they may search. This Comment proposes a workable standard that should be uniformly followed by courts in order to provide guidance to officers as to when they may properly search a smart phone incident to arrest. Part I studies the history of the search incident to arrest exception to the warrant requirement. Part II surveys the different pathways lower courts used when analyzing cell phone searches. Part III examines two recent Supreme Court cases’ effect on the search of smart phones. Part IV defines the standard all courts should apply—and officers should follow—in determining if a search of a smart phone is lawful under current Supreme Court precedent. Overall, this Comment concludes that the reasoning set forth in the Supreme Court’s decision of Arizona v. Gant protects a smart phone from being searched incident to every arrest. 6
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History of Western Image of Islam and Muslims

History of Western Image of Islam and Muslims

The analysis of the dimensions of the ongoing Western campaign against Islam leads us to trace the causes. It did not arise in a vacuum, but there are strategic, political, economic, and cultural motives and reasons. As Hippler and Loige (1996) stated that the motives of hostility to Islam stem from different reasons which are not unanimously agreed upon by Westerners. Sometimes they take the form of a Western fear from a spiritual religious anti-Western threat to Christian civilization and at other times the fear from the emergence of Islamic radicalism that might stop exporting oil to the West, or from the cultural invasion carried out by immigrants from Turkey or North Africa. It may lie in the Islamic atomic bomb, terrorism leak to some cities in Europe as well as the prevalence of the other culture accusation of unbelief which began to prevail in the Muslim World by some extremist Islamic parties which started establishing a presence in the Muslim street by raising slogans in which naive people find it a battle of Islam against Christianity or against the infidels. There are such perceptions of these concerns in Europe and the United States, sometimes alongside and sometimes separately 3 . That is why the idea of the Islamic threat to the security of
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Heaven in the early history of western religions.

Heaven in the early history of western religions.

This dissertation examines concepts of heaven in the early history of Western religions and the extent to which themes found in other traditions are found in Christianity. Russell, in A History of Heaven, investigates the origins of the concept of heaven, which he dates at about 200 B.C.E. and observes that heaven, a concept that has shaped much of Christian thought and attitudes, has been strangely neglected by modern historians. 1 Christianity has played a central role in Western civilization and instructs its believers to direct their life in this world with a view to achieving eternal life in the next, as observed by Liebeschuetz. 2 It is of the greatest historical importance that a very large number of people could for many centuries be persuaded to see life in an imperfect visible world as merely a stage in their progress to a world that was perfect but invisible; yet, it has been neglected as a subject for study. Russell notes that Heaven: A History 3 by McDannell and Lang mainly offers sociological insights. 4 Russell holds that the most important aspects of the concept of heaven are the beatific vision and the mystical union. 5 Heaven, he says, is the state of being in
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AP European History and Western Civilization. Syllabus Introduction

AP European History and Western Civilization. Syllabus Introduction

It is my expectation that all AP students take the AP exam. You will receive at least one (possibly two) courses of credit for a passing grade of 4 or 5; some colleges will give credit for a 3. Every college is different. (Students who take the AP exam are exempt from the second semester final exam) Note that there is an 87$ exam fee; if money is an issue, please let me know; such concerns will be kept confidential.

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A concise history of analytical accounting: examining the use of mathematical notions in our discipline.

A concise history of analytical accounting: examining the use of mathematical notions in our discipline.

use of mathematical ideas, formal concepts and techniques truly flourished. Apart from an increasing use of compound interest and present value calculations, the latter have been greatly refined by introducing probabilistic variables and stochastic models, statistical error terms, etc. (e.g., as encountered in a refinement and extension of the clean surplus theory). But this period (of the last 50 years or so) began rather with deterministic accounting models (that ultimately proved of practical value in the development of computerized spreadsheets and budgeting systems). There also was much experimentation with linear and non-linear algebra (including matrix algebra) and other operation research techniques, as well as with statistical sampling methods for accounting that proved particularly useful in auditing. Yet the crowning intellectual achievement was the slow but impressive development of the “information perspective” of accounting (including information economics, the refined clean surplus theory and mathematical agency theory). These efforts were recently summarized in the two -volume work by Christensen and Feltham (2003, 2005).
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The Making of Party History: History and Historiography of the Western Route Army

The Making of Party History: History and Historiography of the Western Route Army

I would like to express my deep appreciation to those persons I interviewed in Beijing, Gansu Province, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province without whose attention and friendly assistance this thesis would never have seen the light of day. They are: Zhu Yu, Xu Xiaoyan (the son of Xu Xiangqian), Li Erbing, Chen Zutao (the son of Chen Changhao), Zhu Yongguang (Memorial Hall for the Lanzhou Agency of the Eighth Route Army), Ma Kun (Gansu PHRO), Feng Yaguang (Gansu Social Science Academy), Dong Hanhe (Gansu Social Science Academy), Wang Kai (Gulang Western Route Army Memorial Hall), Sun Yusheng (Qinghai Nationalities University), Hao Chengming (Lanzhou Military Region), An Yongxiang (Gaotai Western Route Army Memorial Hall), Wang Guohua (Zhangye PHRO), Zhang Yan (Liyuankou Battle Memorial Hall of Linze), Chen Tiejian (Chinese Social Science Academy), Xu Zhangquan (PLA Military Science Academy), Zhou Jun, Xia Yuli, Yang Jing (Yongchang PHRO), and Zhu Xinbin (Jinchang PHRO). Due to limited space and scope, some of my interviews were not included in this thesis, but my personal access to these Chinese scholars, writers and officials has greatly influenced my perspective on the CCP, on Party history and on history. Discussions with them have highlighted their concerns to me in a visceral and fundamental way that documents almost never can transmit.
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<p>How Western Diet And Lifestyle Drive The Pandemic Of Obesity And Civilization Diseases</p>

<p>How Western Diet And Lifestyle Drive The Pandemic Of Obesity And Civilization Diseases</p>

insulin levels and persistently excellent insulin sensitivity are characteristic of HG, but only as long as these people adhere to their traditional “ paleolithic ” diets. 2,4 – 7 Otherwise, transition to a “ Western diet ” (WD, as de fi ned below) invariably leads to a dramatic increase in insulin resistance (IR) (de fi ned here as an impaired ability of the hormone to suppress hepatic glucose output and to pro- mote peripheral glucose disposal) and hyperinsulinemia as well as obesity, T2DM, hypertension, cancer and other more. 4,6,7 On the other hand, a return to a traditional paleolithic diet is associated with marked improvement in IR and fasting insulin levels 5,8,9 and glucose control and lipid pro fi les of T2DM. 8,9 The common counter-argu- ment that Stone Agers usually do not live long enough to develop degenerative diseases is not accurate. A conspec- tus of data on HG societies suggests that modal age of adult death is about seven decades (adaptive life span of 68 – 78 years). In contrast to most Westerners, these people tend to be healthy up to old age. Causes of death are predominantly infectious diseases, while chronic degen- erative disorders are rare. 10
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The development of interactive multimedia on thematic learning in grade V by the theme history of Indonesian Civilization

The development of interactive multimedia on thematic learning in grade V by the theme history of Indonesian Civilization

It can be concluded this product is valid and it can be used in the field, the level of practicality of this product are included in the practical criteria, so it eases the user. Multimedia also has an interesting attractiveness rate, means that the students are very happy to learn to use these product and the problems of weaknesses level of students' interest in learning can be minimized here. Effectiveness aspect also indicates to work, it can be said that these product can minimize students' poor performance during all this time. The development of this product is based on the identification of the existing problems at SDN Pandanwangi 1 Malang, but the materials were developed in accordance with the content of the standards curriculum 2013, it means that the material can be used for large scale, not only in SDN Pandanwangi 1 Malang, so that if it needs dissemination, it does not require big revision. To see the characteristics of multimedia which one of them is to be interactive, so that the students can interact with multimedia then this product can be disseminated as teaching materials that can be used by students at home. To be considered for the similar research further, it can be aware of some the weaknesses found by researchers in these product that interactive multimedia which is developed only as a supplement for learning and it can only achieve KI 3 (knowledge). Moreover, because the product contains a lot of instructions in the form of audio, it is recommended to each computer is equipped by headset to minimize noise blared from each student's computer. This product has successfully integrated thematic learning steps on the theme History of Indonesian Civilization by the sub-theme of Islamic kingdomss in Indonesia into an interactive multimedia, so it needs to develop similar product with the theme and other sub-themes. This product development more emphasizes on the achievement of KI 3 (knowledge), so that it needs to develop the next product to achieve KI 1, KI 2 and KI 4. For the similar research development, it needs to do an experimental stage to test the effectiveness of the product more thoroughly.
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A History of the Rangelands of Western Canada.

A History of the Rangelands of Western Canada.

The Matador Land and Cattle Company should be mentioned al- though they didn’t acquire their range on the South Saskatchewan River until around the turn of the [r]

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#History Volume 2

#History Volume 2

The sheer volume of cases the Supreme Court takes can also hinder its opinions. Joseph A. Ignagni found that the case load of the Court has increased dramatically over the decades. In 1930, 1,039 cases were docketed for the Court to hear, growing from 5,144 in 1980, all the way to between 7,000 and 8,000 in 2016. 33 Out of the thousands of cases, the Court only hears oral argument for about 80 per term. Their massive workload illustrates the unrealistic expectations placed on the Justices. Due to the extensive case load that they preside over, their ability to remain impartial in decision making diminishes. It causes stress and can make Justices form conclusions that may not have been reached in a reasoned matter. Due to this immense burden, Ignagni believes that the “Justices must often rely upon a simple decision-making structure.” 34 When coupled with Simon’s theory on the limits of human rationality, Supreme Court decisions absent of a core set of determined principles can inhibit the accuracy of their decisions. Ignagni emphasizes that Justices, “do not have the time, resources, or intellectual capacity to make all of their decisions in a more comprehensive manner.” 35 A refined tests such as the Lemon test can help relieve the stress and
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University Students' Views on the Education and Teaching of Civilization History: Bayburt University Education Faculty Sample

University Students' Views on the Education and Teaching of Civilization History: Bayburt University Education Faculty Sample

learning the civilization history lesson, they have not supported each other. Likewise, 5 of the students who participated in the research stated that they were partially compelled to learn the civilization history lesson during the interview. However, in the questionnaire applied, the responses of the students to the reasons related to the partial struggle to learn was mostly "Undecided". It is understood that the reasons that the students indicated in the qualitative data are not supported by the quantitative data. Therefore, in the survey, the reasons why students are interested in the difficulty and partly difficulty in learning the civilization history lesson in qualitative data, can not be generalized to quantitative data. The students who participated in the research stated the study techniques they applied in the civilization history lesson as source books, course instructors, taking notes and writing them.These qualitative data are supported by quantitative data. In the quantitative aspect of the research, Students answered "Undecided" to work by doing research (f = 3) and "Undecided" to work by doing again (f = 3). If these data are considered to have low frequency values found in the qualitative data, it can be considered that the correspondence in the quantitative data is also meaningful. On the other hand, Akbaba et al. (2014, p.220) found that university students read a limited number of books in the history lesson, paralleling the finding of working with multiple books on history lesson.
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Volume 3 - Article 3

Volume 3 - Article 3

The estimates presented above grossly overstate the causal impact on fertility of individual investments in education. When it was taken into account that educated women tend to have a Christian background, and that their education, as well as that of other women in the district, must be determined partly by the urban/rural character of the enumeration area they currently live in, effects of education were markedly reduced. Individual effects were left almost unchanged for first births and slightly reduced for higher-order births, whereas aggregate effects no longer were significant (Model 4). Also the point estimates of the latter were very small. An increase of, say, 2.5 years in average education would increase first-birth rates by 0.08 and decrease higher-order birth rates by 0.02, which is completely negligible compared to individual effects. In fact, aggregate education might just as well have been left out of the models. When only urban/rural and religion were included, and not aggregate education, one was left with the same impression of effects of investments in education (Model 2). (As further illustration of the importance of these control variables, the impact of the above-mentioned change in the educational distribution would be about 1/3 weaker according to Model 4 than according to the simpler Model 1, which corresponds to univariate TFR tabulations).
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The History of the Scottish Parliament  Volume 3: Parliament in Context, 1235 1707

The History of the Scottish Parliament Volume 3: Parliament in Context, 1235 1707

This is the third volume in the History of the Scottish Parliament series. The first two tackled significant episodes in national parliamentary history in a roughly chronological manner. The editors charged the contributors to this volume, by contrast, to adopt ‘a loftier approach that seeks to address the broad themes’. So the early chapters cover how Parliament was comprised: the relationship between Parliament and Crown (although that informs almost every chapter), and the nature of each Estate (with the addition of Shire Commissioners after 1587, there were technically four estates for a few decades – shire, burghs, nobility and clergy – before, with the increasing political emasculation of the clergy in Parliament, back to three). The middle chapters focus upon procedures, the relationship between parliament and the judiciary, and
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Williams, Henry Smith   A History of Science   Volume 3 of 5 pdf

Williams, Henry Smith A History of Science Volume 3 of 5 pdf

which each particle must experience in a given time, and of the length of the average free path traversed by the molecule between collisions, These measurements were confirmed by study o[r]

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