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Wheel-Rail Profile Condition Monitoring

Wheel-Rail Profile Condition Monitoring

One such component is the railway vehicle bogie and its associated wheelsets, consisting of two wheels solidly fixed to an axle. This system is responsible for one of the largest areas of maintenance costs of the entire system and is therefore one of the key targets for condition monitoring. This paper covers; context of wheel-rail profile estima- tion; development of simulation models that include gauge width variation with the use of disturbance signals more representative of the frequency content of real track geom- etry; and development of a recursive identification process using a linear piecewise approach to identify rolling radii and contact angles of the wheel-rail interaction instead of the effective conicity. This last point was previously briefly described in Ward et al. (2010) and is expanded here. Further discussion is made of: a potential looped track disturbance estimation with geometry estimation concept; signal frequency content analysis of different wear states of wheelsets along a section of track; and the potential use of creep force estimation to determine the condition of the wheel-rail interface, Charles et al. (2008c).
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Wheel-rail profile condition monitoring

Wheel-rail profile condition monitoring

One such component is the railway vehicle bogie and its associated wheelsets, consisting of two wheels solidly fixed to an axle. This system is responsible for one of the largest areas of maintenance costs of the entire system and is therefore one of the key targets for condition monitoring. This paper covers; context of wheel-rail profile estima- tion; development of simulation models that include gauge width variation with the use of disturbance signals more representative of the frequency content of real track geom- etry; and development of a recursive identification process using a linear piecewise approach to identify rolling radii and contact angles of the wheel-rail interaction instead of the effective conicity. This last point was previously briefly described in Ward et al. (2010) and is expanded here. Further discussion is made of: a potential looped track disturbance estimation with geometry estimation concept; signal frequency content analysis of different wear states of wheelsets along a section of track; and the potential use of creep force estimation to determine the condition of the wheel-rail interface, Charles et al. (2008c).
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Prediction of metal pm emission in rail tracks for condition monitoring application

Prediction of metal pm emission in rail tracks for condition monitoring application

In this study the metal PM emission models has been developed using the Archard’s wear model. The simulations have been done for a range of train speeds such as 20m/s(73km/h), 40m/s(146km/h) and 60m/s(219km/h). Figure 4(a) shows that metal PM emission at train speed of 20m/s for both right wheel and left wheel at same time. It can be seen that when the lateral displacement is shifted to the right the metal PM emission from the right wheel is higher than that of left wheel as it is expected. The effects of train speed on the PM emission have been shown in Figure 4(b). It can be seen that when the train speed increases, the metal PM emission decreases. Considering the average train speed (60m/s) as reference, the metal PM emission increases by 28% and 10% for 20m/s and 40m/s respectively. This can be explained when the vehicle speed reduced, the contact retention time between the wheel and track increases, as result the wear between the two surface increase, consequently the metal PM emission increase.
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A Novel Approach To Modelling And Simulation Of The Dynamic Behaviour Of The Wheel Rail Interface

A Novel Approach To Modelling And Simulation Of The Dynamic Behaviour Of The Wheel Rail Interface

modelling and simulation of the dynamic behaviour of rail-wheel interface. The proposed dynamic wheel-rail contact model comprises wheel-rail geometry and efficient solutions for normal and tangential contact problems. This two-degree of freedom model takes into account the lateral displacement of the wheelset and the yaw angle. Single wheel tread rail contact was considered for all simulations and Kalker‟s linear theory and heuristic non-linear creep models were employed. The second order differential equations are reduced to first order and the forward velocity of the wheelset is increased until the wheelset becomes unstable. A comprehensive study of the wheelset lateral stability is performed and is relatively easy to use since no mathematical approach is required to estimate the critical velocity of the dynamic wheel-rail contact model. This novel approach to modelling and simulation of the dynamic behaviour of rail-wheel interface will be useful in the development of intelligent infrastructure diagnostic and condition monitoring systems. The automated detection of the state of the track will allow informed decision making on asset management actions – especially in maintenance and renewals activities.
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Optical Fibre Sensors applied to condition and structural monitoring for the marine and rail transport sectors

Optical Fibre Sensors applied to condition and structural monitoring for the marine and rail transport sectors

The main element of this technique, used to spatially modulate the UV laser beam is called the phase mask. The phase mask as a diffractive optical element, is a surface – relief grating etched onto a UV transparent silica substrate using photolithography techniques [130]. The profile of the phase mask is chosen such that when UV beam is incident on it, the zero order diffracted beam as shown in Fig. 3.5, is suppressed to less than a few percent – typically less than 3% of the overall transmitted power. Regarding the plus and minus first orders, they are maximised so that they typically contain more than 35% of the transmitted power [130] to ensure the creation of a strong interference pattern created for writing FBGs. The fringe period that corresponds to the period Λ from Eq. 3.1 is half a period of the phase mask. The selection of the phase mask to produce an FBG at a specific wavelength is independent on the wavelength of the UV laser, but the etch depth required to suppress the zero order is a function of wavelength and optical dispersion of the silica substrate used for the phase mask. The schematic of this technique is given in Fig. 3.5.
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Modelling the Dynamic Behaviour of the Wheel Rail Interface by Using a Novel 3D Wheel Rail Contact Model

Modelling the Dynamic Behaviour of the Wheel Rail Interface by Using a Novel 3D Wheel Rail Contact Model

Methods for multibody modelling and simulation should accurately replicate the dynamic behaviour of rail-wheel interface including precise values for wheel-rail contact positions. This paper studies the development of a novel 3-D wheel-rail contact model which is used for dynamic simulation of a suspended wheelset with parameters listed for a typical Mark IV coach. The contact point locations on the wheel and rail are determined by the minimum difference method considering the lateral displacement, yaw angle and the roll angle. The proposed new 3D wheel-rail contact model can be applied in railway condition monitoring techniques to estimate the wheel geometry parameters and thus to achieve practical optimised wheel-rail interfaces.
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Condition monitoring of rail vehicle bogies

Condition monitoring of rail vehicle bogies

The estimation method first involves ordering the data in relation to the wheel-rail displacement, then performing ‘grey box’ system identifications in a recursive manner so that the estimates can be updated as new data is collected in real time. Initial estimates were performed with no gauge width variation present, and as expected this gives a near perfect estimation. The second estimation was performed with gauge width variation present, this adds a large degree of uncertainty to the estimation and as such the estimation occupies a ‘space’ rather than being a single value function, Figure 9. Though not shown, the
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Influence of Locomotive Tractive Effort on the Forces Between Wheel and Rail

Influence of Locomotive Tractive Effort on the Forces Between Wheel and Rail

To investigate a mechatronic system of railway traction vehicles, e. g. influence of traction control and vehicle dynamics on the forces between wheel and rail, an adaptation of wheel-rail forces model is necessary. A fast method for the computation of wheel-rail forces developed by the author was extended to simulate various wheel-rail adhesion conditions. The proposed method is suitable for the investigations of problems regarding the traction control and axle drive dynamics and their interaction with vehicle dynamic behaviour. The results calculated using the proposed method show good agreement with measurements and confirm this as a possible way for the simulation of complex mechatronic systems of railway vehicles.
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Contact Force Estimation in the Railway Vehicle Wheel Rail Interface

Contact Force Estimation in the Railway Vehicle Wheel Rail Interface

This paper highlights development of an estimation tech- nique to determine, in real time, the creep forces of the wheel rail interface. Estimation of these forces has poten- tially many benefits as currently this can only be measured with specially instrumented trains, the technology from which would be prohibitively expensive to install on all service vehicles. Creep forces fundamentally provide the guidance mechanism of the wheelset system by dissipating energy in the contact area, Wickens (2003). As such creep forces and moments are a key part of the mechanism for wheel and rail head wear, the generation of rolling contact fatigue of the rail head and the amount of adhesion that
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Contact force estimation in the railway vehicle wheel-rail interface

Contact force estimation in the railway vehicle wheel-rail interface

This paper highlights development of an estimation tech- nique to determine, in real time, the creep forces of the wheel rail interface. Estimation of these forces has poten- tially many benefits as currently this can only be measured with specially instrumented trains, the technology from which would be prohibitively expensive to install on all service vehicles. Creep forces fundamentally provide the guidance mechanism of the wheelset system by dissipating energy in the contact area, Wickens (2003). As such creep forces and moments are a key part of the mechanism for wheel and rail head wear, the generation of rolling contact fatigue of the rail head and the amount of adhesion that
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Condition Monitoring & Condition Based Maintenance

Condition Monitoring & Condition Based Maintenance

The career of Professor Jennions spans some 40 years, working mostly for a variety of gas turbine companies. He has a Mechanical Engineering degree and a Ph.D. in CFD, both from Imperial College, London. He has worked for Rolls-Royce (twice), General Electric and Alstom in a number of technical roles, gaining experience in aerodynamics, heat transfer, fluid systems, mechanical design, combustion, services and IVHM. He moved to Cranfield in July 2008 as Professor and Director of the newly formed IVHM Centre. The centre is funded by a number of industrial companies, including Boeing, BAE Systems, Rolls-Royce, Thales, Meggitt, MOD and Alstom Transport. He has led the development and growth of the centre, in research and education, since its inception. He is also on the editorial Board for the International Journal of Condition Monitoring, a Director of the PHM Society, vice-chair of the SAE IVHM Steering Group and contributing member of the HM-1 IVHM committee, a Chartered Engineer and a Fellow of IMechE, RAeS and ASME.
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Contact Force Estimation in the Railway Vehicle Wheel-Rail Interface

Contact Force Estimation in the Railway Vehicle Wheel-Rail Interface

This paper highlights development of an estimation tech- nique to determine, in real time, the creep forces of the wheel rail interface. Estimation of these forces has poten- tially many benefits as currently this can only be measured with specially instrumented trains, the technology from which would be prohibitively expensive to install on all service vehicles. Creep forces fundamentally provide the guidance mechanism of the wheelset system by dissipating energy in the contact area, Wickens (2003). As such creep forces and moments are a key part of the mechanism for wheel and rail head wear, the generation of rolling contact fatigue of the rail head and the amount of adhesion that
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Analytical Approach to Vibration Analysis Of the Wheel-rail contact

Analytical Approach to Vibration Analysis Of the Wheel-rail contact

The objective of this study is to develop an analytical model for the vibration analysis of a wheel on an irregular rail track under a compressive force. The Hertzian contact theory is used for obtaining the force/ displacement relation. Also, the Method of Multiple Scale is implemented to evaluate analytically the time response of the system.

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Multi-Source Detection and Location in Wheel-Rail Noise

Multi-Source Detection and Location in Wheel-Rail Noise

Abstract -- In response to the Wheel-rail noise for the audio processing made use of the microphone array setup delay coordinates and coordinates equations solved by Newton iteration method. Under this method for analyzing the accuracy of the optimal lower bound of time delay estimation, and the actual wheel and rail noise model needs to compare the experimental results show that the method proposed to meet the wheel-rail noise, the practical application of the system requirements.

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Experimental Study Of Steering Wheel Vibration In Dynamic Condition

Experimental Study Of Steering Wheel Vibration In Dynamic Condition

Free-free boundary condition is where the steering wheel will be hang and impact with impact hammer to find the natural frequency of the steering wheel. For constraint condition, the impact test for the steering wheel will be doing in the car with full assembly of the steering system.

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A nonlinear vehicle structure interaction methodology with wheel rail detachment and reattachment

A nonlinear vehicle structure interaction methodology with wheel rail detachment and reattachment

Most finite element programs are able to handle contact problems using either the penalty method or the Lagrange Multiplier method [5]. However, these methods are mostly used in multibody dynamic simulations that do not take into account the track flexibility [6-7]. Antolin et al. [8] proposed an hybrid finite element/multibody formulation that used the pen- alty method to introduce geometrical constraints in the equilibrium equations. These con- straints are formulated based on lookup tables that establish the geometrical compatibility between the wheels and rails. Unlike other multibody formulations, this approach takes into consideration the flexibility of the track and structure, but cannot deal with situations where the wheel and rail lose contact.
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The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

2.4. Region D: Running Band (Centre of the Wheel Tread). This portion of both leading and trailing wheels is used when running on straight track, which is the most common running condition. The trailing wheelset often contacts in this region on curves as well. There are many cycles with moderate normal stresses. The relatively small tangential forces associated with traction or braking mean that the peak stress tends to occur below the surface, as shown in Figure 6(b). Unlike the other regions of the wheel, the running band experiences a similar number of stress cycles in each rolling direction. On the observed (disc-braked) fleet, surface damage in this region is limited to mild wear; sub- surface transverse cracks have been observed on individual wheels; these may be influenced by material quality. Examples of this type of crack are shown in Figure 7.
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Evaluation of quality indicators contacting the surface of the tribological system «Wheel – Rail»

Evaluation of quality indicators contacting the surface of the tribological system «Wheel – Rail»

( в даному випадку це поверхні ободу колеса і рейки ), зусилля навантаження розподіляється на доволі обмежену кількість плям фактичного контакту.. Приймаючи деформації мікровисту -.[r]

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MATEMATICAL MODEL OF DYNAMIC INTERACTION BETWEEN WHEEL-SET AND RAIL TRACK

MATEMATICAL MODEL OF DYNAMIC INTERACTION BETWEEN WHEEL-SET AND RAIL TRACK

The aim of this paper is to show how the effects on maximum pressure tensions at different locations in the track caused by simultaneous changes of the parameters can be estimated in a rational manner [1, 2]. An accurate mathematical modelling and numerical solution of dynamic interaction problems for vehicles on their tracks were investigated [3–5]. Higher vehicle speeds and axle loads generally lead to the increased magnitudes of dynamic responses (such as deformations, accelerations and tensions) of the track as well as of the vehicle. The interactive forces developed between vehicle and track depend on the dynamic properties of the two and also on the vehicle speed and the initial irregularities along the track and the wheel perimeter. Therefore, a rather comprehensive mathematical model of the compound system including both vehicle and track should be used.
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An Experimental Study Of Steering Wheel Vibration In Static Condition

An Experimental Study Of Steering Wheel Vibration In Static Condition

Today, an innovation is taking place in steering system technology in automotive industry. Steering technology in automotive grow rapidly. There have two basic type of steering system which is recirculating ball and rack and pinion. In the 1950 ’ s, General Motor introduces the hydraulic assisted power steering system. This system used recirculation ball system. The rack and pinion steering system, eventually develop and used in many lighter and sportier vehicle.The steering system is used to control the direction of the vehicle. The steering system is design to control the direction of the front wheel over all type of road condition, with through turn and at different speed of the vehicle.
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