A number of measures have followed which are designed to counter these criticisms and to encourage youngpeople to continue in their education after age sixteen and progress on to HE (Department for Education and Skills (DfES), 2003; DfES, 2005). One current Labour policy initiative, Aimhigher, is directed specifically at lower socio-economic groups (Aimhigher, 2008). Aimhigher is a programme introduced in the UK in 2004 which aims to widen participation in HE by raising the aspirations and developing the abilities of youngpeoplefrom under- represented groups. The programme is accessible to all youngpeople in years nine to thirteen (thirteen to eighteen years old) who have the potential to go to university. Within this group wideningparticipation students are targeted more specifically. These are students who have no family background of HE. Most Aimhigher activities take place at a regional level, which allows them to be tailored to the needs of specific communities. One regional community, Aimhigher Kent and Medway, works with existing initiatives to assist in developing post-fourteen progression routes from schools to further education (FE) and HE. The team works in partnership with schools, FE and HE liaison teams, admissions officers, wideningparticipation units and local communities and businesses (Aimhigher Kent and Medway, 2008).
The evaluative framework of the capability approach highlights the importance of the quality of participation by youngpeople in educational settings. Sen argues that the freedom to choose a way of life that an individual has reason to value (well-being freedom) is more important than the life they actually lead (well-being achievement) (Hart, 2007). Quantitative outcome based indicators of participation rates for higher education in the UK may suggest positive progress has been made in making higher education more accessible and inclusive yet the qualitative data presented here show that the situation is much more confused. The following examples help to illustrate how the nature of participation in terms of decision-making can vary dramatically. For example, there are youngpeoplefrom middle class backgrounds who are being pushed towards higher education without having other valued opportunities to choose from. On the other hand, there are youngpeoplefrom lower socio-economic backgrounds who feel they have been labelled as not being capable of going on to higher education and they therefore feel excluded by the way the UK wideningparticipation policy has been implemented. My earlier work in this area highlighted four different kinds of young people’s participation in relation to decisio n-making regarding application to higher education. Interviews with sixth formers regarding their lives beyond school showed the decision to participate in higher education could be seen broadly as an independent, shared, guided or conflicting decision depending on the specific circumstances of an individual (Hart, 2004) 3 .
This learner may well have been ‘bored’ but this could have been quite acceptable within a different frame of reference. For example the teacher could respond by suggesting that acquiring a difficult skill required focus and any disciplined activity is ‘boring’. Indeed the definition of ‘boring’ is subject to endless ‘interpersonal negotiation’ between teachers and youngpeople. However, in this case, the pupil’s response triggered a judgement, on the part of the teacher, that her practice with ICT was not aligned with a NDS in which learners should be engaged with meaning making. She sought realignment by providing more authentic activity in which pupils were able to progress in their learning by creating personalised products for a defined audience. In other words teaching was to be
guides and thus fail wholly or in part to develop as a result of using innovative textbooks, while other teachers make use of the information, expanding their content and pedagogical knowledge by reading about the latest research findings and ideas for activities they have never previously considered (Remillard and Bryans, 2004; Valencia, Place, Martin, and Grossman, 2006. See also Remillard, 1999). Furthermore, there is evidence that inadequate teachers’ guides which fail to provide teachers with sufficient guidance on how best to implement innovative activities can frustrate users and result in less teacher development than would have otherwise occurred; and guides which fail to provide their design rationale behind innovative materials can lead to some teachers simply ignoring these parts of the textbook (Remillard, 2000). The study of teacher’s guides is a much -neglected area in TESOL. Two exceptions are unpublished doctoral theses by Bonkowski (1995) and Good (2003), but much more work on TESOL guides at the level of content and consumption is badly needed, as signalled by the disturbing findings of Collopy and of other mainstream education researchers. Many years have passed since Coleman (1986) and Sheldon (1988) expressed concerns about the quality of TESOL teacher’s
The Minifigure was first introduced in 1975 and refined in 1978. The patent on this iconic design was granted in 1979 . The Minifigures soon became a grant success with around 4 billion sold so far. The Minifigure has since then been extended and modified . One of the first changes was the replacement of the torso stickers with prints that were made directly onto the plastic. The stickers could come off due to normal wear and the aging of the glue. In 1989 different designs for the facial expression became available . Until then, every Minifigure had the same enigmatic smile. Now, Minifigures could also be angry or scared. Including ethnic elements further extended the variety of faces. The Indians in the Wild West theme made a start with distinct faces. They were the first faces that included a nose. In 2003 more skin colors were introduced within the NBA theme. The popular basketball player Shaquille O’Neal was portrait in a natural dark brown skin color. This trend was expanded in the licensed themes, such as Harry Potter in 2004. Harry was given a more natural skin color to better represent the actor Daniel Radcliffe. Further innovations in the Harry Potter theme were the introduction of the double-sided heads. The Quirell Minifigure was the first to have two face printed on the head . Rotating the head can quickly change the face of a Minifigure. The licensed themes have become a major part of the LEGO world with the Star Wars theme taking the leading role. The Star Wars Minifigures have caught the attention of many collectors and guides have been published .
However, both the traditional government-centric and New Public Management approaches are provider-centric models that neglect the potential role of citizens in services. The argument here is that neither provider-centric model has changed the relationship between citizens and government. Citizens are generally regarded as consumers or users that can be “plugged into” the process of planning and producing services. The new line of New Governance theory argues that there is another face of new governance – one that involves both citizens and the pro- cesses by which they participate in the work of government (Bingham, Nabatchi, and O’Leary, 2005). The concept of co-production generated great interest among public administration scholars in the USA in the 1970s and 1980s (Park et al, 1999). The role of citizens should extend beyond engagement and participation (Bovaird, 2007). Rather than separating the consumption from the production of public services, co-production approaches argued that citizens are involved in both activities (Whitaker, 1980; Parks et al., 1981; Brudney and England, 1983; Brudney, 1984; Moore, 1995; Ostrom, 1996; Brandsen and Pestoff, 2006). Co- production is seen as a way of providing better quality services at lower public costs, and hence of enhancing the quality and legitimacy of public service in gen- eral (Meijer, 2011; Pestoff, 2006).
Whilst providing valuable insights, research which focuses on those who have already left may offer a limited account of the process of departure, and what may reverse this process. Although it is accepted that for some students the decision to leave is beneficial, for others it may be a cause of future regret. It is acknowledged that in order to understand how to retain these students we need to examine persistence (Johnstone, 2001). This is an area which has been largely neglected in current research. There may be an implicit assumption that those who stay experience an unproblematic journey through the 1 st year. However, when persisters have been compared with leavers, it is found that both groups often experience similar doubts, personal problems and struggles but those who persist somehow manage to cope with them better (e.g. Mackie, 1998; Gull, 2001). Mackie (1998) suggested that four interacting forces - social, organisational, external and individual - play a role in ‘facilitating or inhibiting’ integration in the first year. Many of her sample experienced problems with social and, in particular, organisational integration, but individual student characteristics most strongly influenced stay/quit decisions. Although not focusing specifically on the 1 st year experience, Ozga & Sukhandan (1998) came to similar conclusions in their study of completers and non-completers.
firm size found “weak evidence of the demise of midsized firms at the expense of large firms and small boutiques, though significant evidence that the largest firms have grown substantially. We also document a significant increase in the number and geographic diversity of multi-office law firms. These trends are consistent with a move by firms to compete with in-house legal departments by offering a broader range of services, with greater depth, across multiple jurisdictions.”); Andrew J. Drucker, Note, Explanations, Suggestions, and Solutions to Conflict
It is a shared goal of crowd simulation experts to look into the future for at least a few minutes to predict dangers like extremely high densities that might evolve. State-of-the-art microscopic models are, in principle, capable of producing correct crowd flows in many relevant situations, provided they get correct input parameters. The basic idea of predictive crowd analysis is to gather these input parameters online from sensors. Many relevant parameters, like positions, speeds and densities can be obtained from cameras, even if the speed and accuracy with which the data is acquired may be insufficient for prediction at the moment. However, some essential input parameters cannot be observed directly: chief among them are destinations where people go.
D: They send you there. And... I call my brother, he take his passport and my passport as well to show I am Iraqi and I’m not a terrorist like this and they leave me. This happen like three or four time but we didn’t say this to anyone. This happen like three or four time but we didn’t say this to anyone. My dad he know only about one time because he scared he say we will take you and we (…) again, my uncle what happens in Iraq. From 2006 to 2017 we don’t know anything about him. Yeah and in 2015… we was in like the house, breakfast. Someone, he called my dad. He say are you son Ibrahim Mahan? He say I’m son Ibrahim Mahan. And they called him congratulation you can go now to the England. My dad he not believe that. He say “who are you?” He say “we are the UN”. Like Refugee action yeah. He was happy... he was crying. He say “are you sure? You sure this is my name because I am waiting ten years like this. She say yes I’m sure. You can come tomorrow like… at eight o’clock or nine o’clock and my dad, he say I will come at si(h)x o’clock, seven o’clock, no worries. And they... when he closed the phone he was stand and he pray to the God. The sujood to the God to thank Him. And he was crying. And he say… (inaudible).. you sure? Two time they say you go to the America. If we go to the America, it was no good because only six month then they leave you like the homeless people. That’s why we no go to America. After one year, this year… one day he call him, we go next day , they tell him you will go to England. You and your family, will see good life and safe in England. Good life.. there is no racist, no terrorist, no war. He say yeah.. yes, I want to go because I want to save my family and I want future for my kids and good future for my kids. They say yes. He sign it and when we go to the home, he say leave the school for everyone but no my little brother. He was like ten or eleven year. We say why? He say because there is.. some people in Syria, when someone he go out of the country like Araba, America, any country outside, they say he is rich and they take him and like they take his kids, they call his dad, we need money to leave your son or we will kill him.
I was still reeling from the shock of just having being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease. I picked up the phone and tentatively managed to ring the number for the Alzheimer’s Association…the response was that there was very little available that would be suitable as most was
This is a problematic outcome because it upholds the privilege of those who in practice exercise control over the moral status quo. This view does assume that the moral status quo has some basis in sociological effects; whatwe come to demand as a moral community has some basis in whatwe are encouraged to think about, what views are given a platform, and so on. Privilege in this context refers to a condition in which a particular group is afforded greater moral consideration and inflated authority to make demands of other moral agents. Wecan identify agents who occupy this privileged position because there are normalized practices that disproportionately protect the rights of this group beyond rights of others. In America, wealthy, straight, white, males have, and continue to be given disproportionate consideration as moral agents. Movements like “Black Lives Matter” and “#MeToo” seek to highlight the ways in which this inequality of consideration within the moral community constitutes significant wrongdoing. The difference in treatment of black people under the law, and the gaslighting that women frequently face when they try to report sexual violence are only two examples of conditions that are caused by a lack of equal moral consideration. Control over the moral status quo, that reinforces the normalization of moral privilege is enabled by a variety of processes: monopolization of the power to establish and control institutions of learning, economic and political domination, outright violence, and so on. The efforts of activists aimed at making privileged agents recognize that they are falling short of obligations when they fail to respect the moral status of others. This is the case even if they are justified in believing the norms of their moral community over which they exercise illegitimate control.
More interesting are the results shown in Table 5. Here, taken across all paragraph-pairs, E denotes that the information expressed by a sentence in one paragraph is explicitly expressed in the other para- graph, and J denotes the judgement as to whether each sentence was judged to express information not also expressed in the other paragraph. These dis- tributions of observations need to be compared, for explicit and implicit in turn, to the expected distri- butions of judgements as to whether the information is missing or not. For explicit information, the ex- pected distribution is zero judgements of “missing” – where sentences were explicit in both paragraphs, they were in fact identical in both paragraphs and so should never have been judged missing – and 696 judgements of “not missing”. It scarcely needs a sta- tistical test to show that the actual observations of 3, and 693, respectively, do not differ significantly from these expectations. Nonetheless, Fisher’s exact test (since one of the expected values is 0, ruling out χ 2 ) gives P=0.2495. For implicit information, the null hypothesis is that implicit information is indis- tinguishable from absent information, and so the ex- pected distribution is 290 judgements of “missing” and zero judgements of “not missing”, compared to observations of 33, and 257, respectively. Apply- ing Fisher’s exact test gives P less than 0.0001, indi-
We are interested in looking at the linguistic constraints on syntactic dependency trees to understand what makes certain structures plausible while others are not so plausible. To effectively do this kind of work, we need to observe natural trees (syntactic trees that are the results of linguistic analysis) to see what this population looks like. Similar work has been done for example by Jiang and Liu (2015) on the relation between sentence length, dependency distance and dependency direction. But observing natural trees only has its limits : we cannot see what is special about them and their properties, and we cannot distinguish the effects of the various constraints that affect them. Wecan only observe the structures that are the result of all these constraints and their interactions. On the other hand, if we start from a blank canvas, randomly generated trees, and incrementally add constraints on these trees, we might be able to study one by one the effects of each constraint, and to progressively add them to get closer to natural trees. Using artificially gen- erated trees can also be insightful to determine which constraints are formally motivated (they are a result of the mathematical structure of the tree) and which constraints are linguistically or cognitively motivated. Research in the line of Gildea and Temperley (2009) who have used random and optimal linearisations to study dependency length and its varying degrees of minimization can help us to discover constraints that would be helpful to explain why we only find a small subset of all potential trees in syntactic analyses on real data.
The structural materials which we find in Nature are almost invariably fibre composites. Nature is unable to make metallic materials. Though metal ions are often included in biological materials to add hardness and strength, these are invariably incorporated in the form of ceramic materials. Curiously, it is possible for biological organisms to reduce iron and other metals from their oxides (this happens all the time in our haemoglobin), but evolution never developed a means of making metals in bulk, possibly because the useful ones (iron, titanium, aluminium etc) are too scarce in most parts of the world. The bodies of humans and other vertebrates are made from fibres of collagen, surrounded by a soft polymeric matrix. In the case of bone, crystals of the ceramic material hydroxyapatite are added to increase stiffness and strength. Arthropods such as insects and crustacea use a similar concept, but based on a different fibrous material – chitin – and a different ceramic – calcium carbonate. Trees and other plants are made from fibrous polysaccharides.
The Internet has already made a big difference to global business operations. Air travel, for example, accounted for $5 billion of the total $7 billion spent on travel on the Internet in 1999, according to a marketing-strategy company called PhoCusWright (The Economist, 2001). It estimates that by the end of 2001, online ticket sales will be at nearly three times that level. The potential for further increase is huge with online flight reservations at only 4% of the total U.S. market and 1% of the total European market. Cutting out the cumbersome process of issuing cardboard tickets and simplifying booking and check-in can also be attractive to customers. Some airlines, such as Northwest and Swissair already offer on-line facilities for seat selection and check-in, as well as for booking and paying for flights. At the other end of the scale Charles Tyrwhitt, a small U.K. shirt manufacturer to the exclusive ABC1 segment, is adopting a ‘clicks and mortar’ strategy with the aim of transforming a niche player into a global one and reach annual sales of £100 million in six years. The company’s potential lies in its ability to carry more than 3,000 lines of stock at any one time, with each shirt being offered in up to 48 combinations of size, cuff and sleeve. It is able to maximise online sales by targeting groups of people more effectively than could ever be done through mail order (Renton, 2000). The Internet has proved to be the perfect messenger for niche interests, serving individual tastes and diverse geographical demands. The key to the success of niche net businesses is first and foremost brand awareness, but the promotional spend necessary to achieve brand recognition amongst the online clutter is now challenging the resources of the smaller enterprise, at least through traditional promotional mechanisms. BBC News online is another example where the battle between general and niche is being fought. The way it uses its huge breath of content, both broad-brush and localised, demonstrates the diversity of users and their demands. In just one day 98,450 different stories were read, amounting to a staggering 20% of all the stories the site has ever produced (Barkham, 2000) .