Top PDF Wildlife tourism in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe: opportunities for wildlife viewing

Wildlife tourism in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe: opportunities for wildlife viewing

Wildlife tourism in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe: opportunities for wildlife viewing

conservation and development in the rural communities of Southern Africa (Chiutsi, Mukoroverwa, Karigambe, & Mudzengi, 2011). CONCLUSION This study showed that the southern GNP apparently has some opportunities for wildlife viewing particularly along the tourist roads. This is in support of recent findings in GNP which suggest that populations of several large herbivore species are increasing (Dunham, van der Westhuizen, van der Westhuizen, & Gandiwa, 2010; Zisadza, et. al., 2010). It is however, possible with high levels of visitation and usage of the roads for wildlife viewing, it may result in some disturbance along the road to levels that would affect the wildlife species, hence the importance of continued monitoring of the park usage. Monitoring human impacts on wildlife however, can be challenging, since wildlife are mobile and engage in learned behaviour (e.g., Anderson, et al., 2010). There is need in the future to develop carrying capacities of the roads to ensure good wildlife viewing opportunities are always maintained for the park’s visitors. Park managers must continue to be attentive to these and other changes in human activity along the park roads. Additionally, park managers in GNP should manage the park to allow for the persistence of wildlife and maintenance of species diversity. Large herbivore represents the feature of PAs most important to tourists, and these species play a key role in attracting the bulk of visitors to parks (Lindsey, et al., 2007). Future studies should focus on wildlife abundance, distribution and behaviour along the park’s major tourist roads in the GNP.
Show more

12 Read more

Structure and composition of Spirostachys africana woodland stands in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

Structure and composition of Spirostachys africana woodland stands in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

Savanna woodlands play an important role in providing ecosystem goods and services. Changes in woody vegetation structure and composition may have important implications for wildlife habitat, biotic diversity and risk of future catastrophic disturbances (Peterson and Reich, 2001). For instance, the intermediate disturbance hypothesis states that local species diversity is maximized when ecological disturbance is neither too rare nor too frequent (Connell, 1978). Therefore, high disturbance in savanna ecosystems is likely to negatively affect woody species composition. Woody vegetation structure plays an important role in savannas by modifying the microclimate, soil moisture, nutrient availability under canopies, and by producing spatial heterogeneity in plant resources (Peterson and Reich, 2001). Although the demography of woody plants in savannas has long been shown to be influenced by many factors, there still is no consensus as to the relative importance of the top-down processes of fire and herbivory, nor on how fire and herbivory affect plant demography (Midgley et al., 2010).
Show more

14 Read more

Wildlife Viewing Preferences of Visitors to Sri Lanka’s National Parks: Implications for Visitor Management and Sustainable Tourism Planning

Wildlife Viewing Preferences of Visitors to Sri Lanka’s National Parks: Implications for Visitor Management and Sustainable Tourism Planning

Visitor experience (determined by number of previous visits to NPs) has been found to be a key visitor characteristic that drives the demand for nature-based tourism or ecotourism (Perera and Vlosky, 2013). Results of this case study further indicate that there is a considerable demand for viewing subordinate features of NPs, especially from highly educated and frequent visitors to NPs. This opens up new opportunities to introduce sustainable forms of tourism such as ecotourism in NPs and other PAs. For instance, specialized programs or tourism opportunities focused on bird identification, bird biology, and bird watching shall be introduced for experienced birders. Similar programs may be introduced for other components of biodiversity as well. On the other hand, less sophisticated programs/tours aimed at providing a fundamental knowledge on nature and ecosystems (introduction to the park and its flora and fauna, birding, and other sites of importance) shall be introduced for novice visitors.
Show more

10 Read more

Parks-people conflicts: the case of Gonarezhou National

Park and the Chitsa community in south-east Zimbabwe

Parks-people conflicts: the case of Gonarezhou National Park and the Chitsa community in south-east Zimbabwe

sights and set the stage for today’s ‘ecotourism’ (Colchester 2002 ). As it had begun, so it has gone on. The export of the Yellowstone Park model to the developing world has resulted in similar experiences of displacement and exclusion of local people while at the same time attracting tourists. Brockington and Igoe ( 2006 ) point out that, globally, the vast majority, that is, 69% of evictions reported for all protected areas occurred in national parks. Most have been concentrated in Africa, South and South-East Asia and North America. We give here some indicative examples of displacements from East, Central and Southern Africa. In East Africa, many game reserves and national parks were created by the eviction of people (Adams and Hutton 2007 ). Neumann ( 1998 ) points out that the wilderness of Selous Game Reserve in Tanzania was imposed through the displacement of 40,000 people during the colonial period. As recently as 1988, more than 8,000 Maasai and Parakuyo pastoralists and their cattle numbering over 100,000 were evicted from Mkomazi Game Reserve by the Tanzanian government because conservationists reported with alarm that pastoralists were endangering wildlife species, habitats and tourism in the area (Brockington 2002 ). In Uganda, when Lake Mburo National Park was created in 1982, 4,500 families were evicted from the area without compensation (Emerton 1999 ) and park authorities are presently embroiled in conflict with Bahima pastoralists (Infield 2003 ) over the grazing of cattle in the park. The creation of a game corridor linking Queen Elizabeth National Park to Kibale Forest Reserve in Uganda resulted in the eviction, without warning, of 30,000 people (Colchester 2002 ). Whilst evictees lamented the loss of their land, homes, livestock and household property, the European Commission’s chief technical advisor to the game corridor project said ‘this successful operation has opened up the possibility of the frus- trated elephant population of Kibale once more being free to migrate between the Queen Elizabeth Park and the forest’ (Feeney 1993 cited in Colchester 2002 ).
Show more

23 Read more

Structure and composition of Androstachys johnsonii woodland across various strata in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

Structure and composition of Androstachys johnsonii woodland across various strata in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe

Methods Study areas Established in the early 1930s as a Game Reserve, GNP was transformed into a national park under the Parks and Wildlife Act of 1975. GNP has been part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park since 2000. Covering an area of 5053 km 2 , GNP is located in the southeast lowveld of Zimbabwe, between 21° 00’–22° 15’ S and 30° 15’–32° 30’ E (Fig. 1). GNP experiences two seasons, a wet season and a dry season, which are contrasting. Annual average rainfall is about 466 mm, with October to March being the wettest months. The dry season normally lasts from April to September. Average monthly maximum temperatures are 25.9 °C in July and 36 °C in January. Average monthly minimum temperatures range between 9 °C in June and 24 °C in January [3].
Show more

12 Read more

Population Density and Structure of Marula (Sclerocarya Birrea) in Gonarezhou National Park and Adjacent Areas, Southeast Zimbabwe

Population Density and Structure of Marula (Sclerocarya Birrea) in Gonarezhou National Park and Adjacent Areas, Southeast Zimbabwe

The study belt transects within the GNP were located towards the periphery of the park, a zone of high human-wildlife interaction, characterised by low residency of wild animals resulting in the low impact on marula plants. Moreover, the high density of the marula shrubs within the GNP suggests high elephant and fire impact on marula species since studies indicate that elephants prefer browsing young plants (O’Connor et al., 2007; Seloana et al., 2017). Elsewhere, Shackleton (1998) and Nndwammbi et al. (2018) reported that human utilization of woody plant resources had an effect on structural attributes of woody vegetation in South Africa. Field observations during the data collection, showed a considerable number of the marula plants that were cut in the communal and resettlement areas probably due to harvesting of the tree products which in turn impacts negatively on the structure of the marula species.
Show more

9 Read more

CAMPFIRE and Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Local Communities

Bordering Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

CAMPFIRE and Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Local Communities Bordering Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

conservation programs derive from the communal areas, given that payments of household cash dividends from CAMPFIRE revenue activities take place six months to a year after the activities have occurred (Mapedza and Bond 2006, Rihoy and Mugaranyanga 2007, Fischer et al. 2011). For instance, in 1999, each household in the Mahenye community received an average earning of US$59 (Vorlaufer 2002). However, in 2008, discussants from Mahenye revealed that they received an average earning of US$10. With the exception of Chizvirizvi, our results similarly show that revenue received under CAMPFIRE markedly declined in Chibwedziva, Mahenye, and Mtandahwe between 2003 and 2008, likely due to the high inflationary environment in Zimbabwe following the political unrest and economic decline since the land reforms in 2000. A key constraint to the success of community- based natural resource management in many countries is the high tax on wildlife, as reflected in the retention by central and local governments of a high proportion of the revenues generated by wildlife-based tourism. In Namibian communal lands, the establishment of community conservancies where the full benefits of wildlife-based tourism are retained at local levels has led to a dramatic increase in both wildlife populations and revenues to communities in the past 20 years (Weaver et al. 2011). However, in the case of Chizvirizvi, where the money does not pass through the local government, there were indications that the money was not being directly channeled to the community.
Show more

15 Read more

Local community perceptions on landscape change, ecosystem services, climate change, and livelihoods in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

Local community perceptions on landscape change, ecosystem services, climate change, and livelihoods in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

The questionnaire consisted of twenty-three questions structured along four sections, namely: demographics and livelihoods, ecosystem services, landscape change, and climate change respectively (see supplementary material). The respondents were asked to rate the availability of provisional and cultural ecosystem services, such as crops and traditional knowledge; identify how the landscape has transformed; and identify the drivers of change, as well. We utilized the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment [12] definitions on ecosystem services to guide questions on ecosystem services and definitions by references [57–60] to guide landscape change questions. Likewise, respondents were also asked to rate the magnitude of climate change impacts such as loss of life and livestock. The climate change questions were guided by studies on climate impact and perception studies by authors of [61–64]. The questionnaire would only be administered if respondents confirmed they understood and were comfortable with the research themes. The questionnaire was in English and it took about 30 min to administer the questionnaire. Six research assistants were trained to translate it into the local vernacular language of Tsonga, Ndebele, or Shona to enable better comprehension and responses. To ensure quality control, we adopted protocols by the authors of [65,66] and the research assistants were trained for two days by the lead researcher. During the training, we created standard definitions and translations that were used in data collection. Before the questionnaire was administered, the chief and the project leader would explain the aims and objectives of this research project, as well as give an explanation on what landscape change, ecosystem services, and climate change are. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority and the University of Johannesburg and the respondents also signed an informed consent form. All information collected in this project was confidential and anonymous.
Show more

19 Read more

National Parks and Wildlife Service

National Parks and Wildlife Service

The maintenance of habitats and species within Natura 2000 sites at favourable conservation condition will contribute to the overall maintenance of favourable conservation status of those habitats and species at a national level. 1. The targets given in these conservation objectives are based on best available information at the time of writing. As more information becomes available, targets for attributes may change. These will be updated periodically, as necessary.

14 Read more

Wildlife Viewing While on Trips Of One or More Nights

Wildlife Viewing While on Trips Of One or More Nights

Wildlife Viewers prefer vacation experiences that allow them to enjoy nature and provide intellectual stimulation and educational opportunities. They were more likely than the average U.S. Pleasure Traveler to go hiking, climbing and paddling, horseback riding, and cross-country skiing and snowshoeing. They were also much more likely to have visited garden theme attractions, archaeological digs and aboriginal cultural experiences and to have taken part in participatory historical activities. During the past two years, Wildlife Viewers tended to stay at public campgrounds and seaside resorts, and they were much more likely than the average U.S. Pleasure Traveler to have stayed at a wilderness lodge or outpost and to have taken a wilderness tour.
Show more

24 Read more

National Parks and Wildlife Service

National Parks and Wildlife Service

European and national legislation places a collective obligation on Ireland and its citizens to maintain habitats and species in the Natura 2000 network at favourable conservation condition. The Government and its agencies are responsible for the implementation and enforcement of regulations that will ensure the ecological integrity of these sites.

14 Read more

Wildlife Watching and Tourism: Effect of Two-Way Radio Communication on Wildlife in Kenya

Wildlife Watching and Tourism: Effect of Two-Way Radio Communication on Wildlife in Kenya

3.0 Research Methodology and Design The study adopted an exploratory design with a combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods.The study areas were Lake Nakuru National Park, Amboseli National Park and Masai Mara National Reserve that was found suitable because protected areas are among the seven parks that account for over 80% of international visitors whose main interest is wildlife. The target populations were guides who use the two-way radio communication.. Judgmental sampling was used in the selection of the study area and guides to be interviewed. Intercept method was used in the selection of the guides who were willing to complete the questionnaire. Primary data was collected using self-administered questionnaire, focused group discussions, observation and interview. Secondary data was sourced from existing literature, journals and magazines and the internet. Test- retest method, pilot test and content analysis were used to test the reliability and validity of the data collection tools. Reliability statistics gave Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.898 which was considered suitable.
Show more

6 Read more

National Parks and Wildlife Service

National Parks and Wildlife Service

The maintenance of habitats and species within Natura 2000 sites at favourable conservation condition will contribute to the overall maintenance of favourable conservation status of those habitats and species at a national level. 1. The targets given in these conservation objectives are based on best available information at the time of writing. As more information becomes available, targets for attributes may change. These will be updated periodically, as necessary.

11 Read more

National Parks and Wildlife Service

National Parks and Wildlife Service

Introduction European and national legislation places a collective obligation on Ireland and its citizens to maintain habitats and species in the Natura 2000 network at favourable conservation condition. The Government and its agencies are responsible for the implementation and enforcement of regulations that will ensure the ecological integrity of these sites.

10 Read more

NATIONAL PARKS AND WILDLIFE SERVICE

NATIONAL PARKS AND WILDLIFE SERVICE

Private fauna parks 20. A licence under Section 120 of the NPW Act, to rehabilitate protected fauna, will be available to private fauna parks which can satisfy the Director-General that purpose-built off-exhibit facilities are available and maintained for the rehabilitation of protected fauna. These facilities must meet the standards established by the NPWS or specialist, licensed rehabilitation organisations or individuals for the species concerned and comply with the standard NPWS licensing criteria (see 13 above). This housing requirement will not apply to the rehabilitation of marine mammals or marine reptiles which may be housed and rehabilitated within facilities which are normally used for exhibit purposes. Licences will be processed through the Wildlife Licensing Section in
Show more

9 Read more

Abundance and structure of African baobab (Adansonia digitata) across different soil types in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

Abundance and structure of African baobab (Adansonia digitata) across different soil types in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

influence local distribution and patterns of plant species [ 30 ]. A key to this focus was our observation that baobab com- munity in Gonarezhou tends to occur more densely along environmental gradient of soil group as influenced by the underlying geological soil substrates of granophyres. Malver- nia derived soil group type is likely less ideal for baobab abundance and recruitment. Our study results suggested that underlying geology which dictates soil group type is a key determinant for the pattern of baobab abundance, structure, and recruitment. This confirmed as was noted that, within southeastern Zimbabwe low altitude plains, variations in rainfall, altitude, and temperature are negligible, and conse- quently vegetation communities can be considered according to soil group types which generally change with variations in geological types [ 31 ].
Show more

8 Read more

Abundance and Distribution of African Fish Eagles

along Major Rivers in Gonarezhou National Park,

Zimbabwe

Abundance and Distribution of African Fish Eagles along Major Rivers in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

Earlier studies have provided some valuable information on factors influencing the abundance and distribution of African fish eagles in the savannas. For example, Douthwaite (1992) studying the effects of water pollutants in the African fish eagle’s population of Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, suggested that the population was limited more by the availability of suitable nesting trees than mercury or organic chlorine pollutants. Elsewhere, Harper et al. (2002), in a 13-year study of the African fish eagle population in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, showed that the population was limited by lack of available prey associated with eutrophication, perching tree availability and other factors linked to anthropogenic habitat alteration. In contrast, Mundy and Couto (2000) suggested that eutrophication may have played a role in high productivity by African fish eagles on the polluted Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe. Interestingly, the recorded density of African fish eagles in Gonarezhou is within the previously reported density range for river ecosystems (e.g., Krueger, 1997; Harper et al., 2002).
Show more

7 Read more

Local knowledge and perceptions of animal population abundances by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

Local knowledge and perceptions of animal population abundances by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

The study findings show that local people can recognize and distinguish different animal species, as well as notice and explain qualitative population trends. Goats and poultry were largely perceived to have increased in abundance, whereas cattle, sheep, donkeys and pigs were largely perceived to have declined in abundance between 2000 and 2010. Goats and poultry were reported to be less negatively affected by diseases and also were regarded as being easier to keep and protect from predators, hence the perceived increase in these species' populations. In contrast, the majority of the respondents reported that cattle, sheep, donkeys and pigs were more negatively affected by diseases such as anthrax and foot-and-mouth, hence the perceived decline in their populations over the study period. Cattle have been reported to play a central role in livelihoods of people living in marginal areas in semi-arid regions [39]. Accordingly, in the southeast lowveld of Zimbabwe cattle-based households generally cope with hazards such as crop failures and economic decline by selling cattle [40]. For instance, in the present study respondents reported that during the socio-economic challenges in Zimbabwe between 2000 and 2008, they raised money through selling cattle despite the unreliable livestock marketing system. Additionally, livestock were reportedly sold during crop failure periods to buffer the households against hunger, probably contributing to the perceived decline in cattle populations.
Show more

15 Read more

Wildlife Conflict : Restoration of Asiatic Black Bears in Jirisan National Park

Wildlife Conflict : Restoration of Asiatic Black Bears in Jirisan National Park

Medium and long term Action Plan on Endangered Species Restoration Endangered wildlife proliferation and restoration plan (June, 2006) : 54 species selected Mammals 7 species Asiatic black bear, Fox, Goral, Musk deer, Eurasian Lynx, Sea lion, Manchurian sika deer

30 Read more

WARRA NATIONAL PARK DRAFT PLAN OF MANAGEMENT. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service

WARRA NATIONAL PARK DRAFT PLAN OF MANAGEMENT. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service

In recent years in the NPWS Glen Innes Area has held a series of meetings with neighbours, Rural Land Protection Boards, Wild Dog Control Associations and State Forests of NSW to improve the effectiveness of control programs. Since dedication of Warra National Park, the NPWS has conducted biannual wild dog programs using mound-baiting techniques. These programs are conducted in conjunction with baiting programs conducted by the Rural Lands Protection Board and landholders on adjoining private property. Mound baiting programs ensure that killing of non-target animals is minimised.
Show more

17 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...

Related subjects