Top PDF Winners and losers from the teachers’ pay grant

Winners and losers from the teachers’ pay grant

Winners and losers from the teachers’ pay grant

Estimating the effect of funding by number of pupils Estimating which schools will be affected is not straightforward as school finances and workforce data for the 2018-19 year will not be available until the end of the year. Instead, we have constructed a mock allocation using 2016-17 financial returns, pupil numbers and workforce data. The numbers will not match up to 2018-19 precisely but, unless spending or workforce patterns have changed dramatically in the interim, the distribution of the funding across schools should end up looking similar. Results for individual schools are unlikely to be meaningful as we are estimating both the allocation and the increase in staff costs, so our analysis focusses on the distribution of allocations and pay increases, rather than on any specific school, MAT or local authority.
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Winners and Losers in a Leaderless World

Winners and Losers in a Leaderless World

Bernice Lee: Thank you very much, Ian, for rewriting the lively for us here. I have so many questions and I’m going to abuse my privilege before I let you ask questions. You mentioned at the beginning, you know, the whole kind of setup, that, if nobody, then what? If nobody, then who? But somebody like me would ask, if nobody, then how? So you laid out how the politics of how the winners and losers may emerge, but then how do we get things done in this world? Shall we just give up on any global agendas? Or is it still possible with the re- regionalisation, with new winners and losers to find our way through the quagmire of inaction at the moment?
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A balance of winners and losers in the Anthropocene

A balance of winners and losers in the Anthropocene

86 Differing conclusions about biodiversity trends at population and assemblage levels may 87 be driven by contrasts in the nature of the data they draw on, by the metrics themselves, or by 88 both. It is not possible to calculate assemblage level metrics from population monitoring data, 89 but the reverse is feasible and can help resolve this question. We therefore use assemblage-level 90 monitoring programs to evaluate the balance of winners and losers among their constituent 91 populations. If these assemblage-level studies uncover an excess of losers, we can conclude that 92 assemblage-level metrics, such as species richness, are insensitive to the widespread declines in 93 populations that have been reported in analyses based on population-level data. However, low 94 prevalence of within-assemblage losers would indicate that declines do not dominate assemblage 95 dynamics. Moreover, any balance in the frequency of winners and losers would be consistent 96 with community-level regulation (Gotelli et al. 2017). Given the dynamic nature of the species 97 composition of assemblages (McArdle et al. 1990) we consider colonisations and extinctions, 98 alongside population trends, in our examination of winners and losers.
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Identifying Winners and Losers in Transportation

Identifying Winners and Losers in Transportation

EQUITY IMPACT STATEMENT Environmental justice is a good beginning, but it only considers “fair treatment for people of all races, cultures, and incomes” regarding the development of environmental laws and policies (17 ). It thus only examines environmental outcomes and only addresses a few strata. There are ways of grouping the population to determine the fair- ness of the distribution of gains and losses to specific subpopulations. Different groupings of the population will result in different assess- ments of a project’s fairness. Because there is no right way of grouping, multiple groupings should be considered. To that end, transportation B/C analyses should include an “equity impact state- ment.” [The Applied Research Center (18) has also developed what they call an equity impact statement; however, that document is a qualitative approach to assessing equity and can be seen as comple- mentary to what is being suggested here. The city of Toronto, Canada (19), has issued an equity impact statement but again of a more qualitative and less systematic type than that suggested here.] This document would specifically consider the winners and losers for a project. In particular, a set of specified subgroups would be identified. Then the outcomes of the project (e.g., travel time and delay, accessibility, consumer’s surplus, air pollution, noise pollu- tion, accidents) would be assessed for each of the population groups. Although inequity across some dimensions is almost inevitable, it is crucial both for fairness and for political expediency, given the grow-
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Winners and Losers in House Markets

Winners and Losers in House Markets

We also …nd that the permanent increase in the growth rate of labor productivity and the decrease in the world real interest rate substantially redistribute wealth from the net buyers of houses (relatively poor tenants) to the net sellers (relatively rich unconstrained homeowners) with the house price hike. On average, households gain from the increase in the growth rate of labor productivity and do not gain from the decrease in the world interest rate. Because the gap in welfare e¤ects between winners and losers in the housing market is substantial, especially where land is more important for production of tangible assets compared to capital, we think that a credible welfare evaluation should take into account household heterogeneity and contract enforcement limitations in housing and credit markets that generate realistic life-cycles of consumption and homeownership.
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Beyond winners and losers in assessment and feedback

Beyond winners and losers in assessment and feedback

The ‘Transforming the Experience of Students through Assessment’ (TESTA) project has shown that most degree programmes in the UK have high volumes of graded summative assessment, designed mainly to measure achievement, and low volumes of formative tasks designed to foster reflection and learning (Jessop et al., 2014; Jessop and Tomas 2016). High summative assessment loads reinforce grade-oriented and strategic behaviour among students, diverting attention away from formative tasks which have the freedom to be more playful, creative and open-ended. These patterns of assessment have evolved largely in response to modularisation. Modular assessment favours a compartmentalised diet of assessment and feedback, with the feedback tending to remain within the confines of each module (Hughes et al., 2015). These effects are compounded by the competitive framework within which summative assessment operates. In this environment, with few winners and many losers, not only do students behave strategically to gain marks at the expense of deep learning, but, worryingly, many students become demotivated and suffer from low self- esteem. TESTA has long advocated a rebalancing of summative and formative assessment as a means of engendering deep learning among students.
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Distinguishing Losers and Winners Beyond COVID-19

Distinguishing Losers and Winners Beyond COVID-19

This document is the property of Leadership Development Initiative. It must not be reproduced or transmitted to others without written authorization from the Organization. https://www.ldi.training Conclusion Consistent with the Leadership Development Initiative (LDI) commitment to strengthen the strategic leadership asset of organization in Africa this leadership and governance ‘rally call’, prioritizes capacity implication as delivery assets that separate losers from winners. It presents innovative knowledge solutions to address leadership barriers that are largely attributed to leadership and governance constraints by instigating innovative solutions. Investing in knowledge assets that empower leadership to address key barriers threatening organizations aptitude remains one of the most desired key to organizational success. As a specialized leadership and governance institution, LDI therefore has prioritized the need to walk with organizations and by it enable organizational leadership and management assets in general to transform challenges into impacting opportunities and enable organizations in Africa to assume status of choice.
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License Auctions with Royalty Contracts for (Winners and) Losers

License Auctions with Royalty Contracts for (Winners and) Losers

externality on all other firms. Similarly, adding the royalty option to losers unambiguously increases the innovator’s profit, since granting that option does not affect the payoffs of winners, and thus does not affect the equilib- rium bids for the license. This suggests that the same logic that drives the superiority of the proposed mechanism in the above model applies equally well to Bertrand competition with sufficiently heterogeneous substitutes. However, if goods are complements, the picture should change more drasti- cally. In that case, firms mutually benefit from each others’ cost reduction, since one firm’s price reduction raises the other firms’ demand. Therefore, giving one firm a license does not inflict a negative externality upon others which in turn implies that one cannot induce higher bids by restricting the number of licenses. This reasoning applies regardless of whether there is either Cournot or Bertrand competition. Therefore, one should expect that the attraction of auctioning a limited number of licenses vanishes, and it should be optimal to give all firms a license (k = n).
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Winners and Losers Over Two Centuries of Globalization

Winners and Losers Over Two Centuries of Globalization

JEL No. F0, N0, O5, D3 ABSTRACT The world has seen two globalization booms over the past two centuries, and one bust. The first global century ended with World War I and the second started at the end of World War II, while the years in between were ones of anti-global backlash. This lecture reports what we know about the winners and losers during the two global centuries, including aspects almost always ignored in modern debate – how prices of consumption goods on the expenditure side are affected, and how the economic position of the poor is influenced. It also reports two responses of the winners to the losers’ complaints. Some concessions to the losers took the form of anti-global policy manifested by immigration restriction in the high-wage countries and trade restriction pretty much everywhere. Some concessions to the losers were also manifested by a “race towards the top” whereby legislation strengthened losers’ safety nets and increased their sense of political participation. The lecture concludes with four lessons of history and an agenda for international economists, including more attention to the impact of globalization on commodity price structure, the causes of protection, the impact of world migration on poverty eradication, and the role of political participation in the whole process.
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Globalization's Winners and Losers   Evidence from Life Satisfaction Data, 1975   2000

Globalization's Winners and Losers Evidence from Life Satisfaction Data, 1975 2000

2.Theoretical considerations and hypotheses The Heckscher-Ohlin theorem provides a clear prediction with regard to globalization’s winners and losers. It contends that in a world where production factors are mobile across sectors more liberalized trade induces changes in relative factor prices according to the Stolper-Samuelson theorem. More specifically, in developed regions such as the EU-15 countries the prices of relatively abundant production factors (high-skilled labor) increase, while those of relatively scare production factors (low-skilled labor) decrease. Hence, due to this change in relative wages the well-being of high-skilled workers increases more than that of low-skilled workers (hypothesis 1). 2 O’Rourke (2006) provides preliminary evidence for this first hypothesis by showing that skill-level has a significant influence on voters’ support for globalization.
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Early winners and losers in dialysis center pay for performance

Early winners and losers in dialysis center pay for performance

Our analyses have limitations. First, our study was ob- servational. While our work shows that facility and neighborhood variation exists in quality of care, the eti- ology of this variation is still unclear. Further work is needed to examine how staff attitudes and practices, pa- tient characteristics, and facility-level processes vary by high- and low-performers as well as by facility type, neighborhood, and region. In addition, our measures of dialysis facility neighborhood context were limited to census tracts. Dialysis facilities may be affected by pa- tients and employees from a larger catchment area, and our outcomes may be more dependent on larger com- munity infrastructure and resources [29]. In addition,
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Reputation Winners and Losers

Reputation Winners and Losers

Toyota toppled from its 2009 leadership spot of 18 to a near-bottom ranking of 139 and saw its spot at the head of the automotive industry overtaken by Honda, which moved up to No. 30. The bigger revelations, however, were comebacks scored by the U.S. firms whose futures were shaky in 2009. General Motors and Ford saw solid gains in their reputations. GM improved its ranking to 85 from 123 (as noted), and Ford, to 60 from 72. While GM remains in the “poor” end of the reputation rankings, moves to improve products and finances, including paying back government loans, seemed to begin a renewal of consumer confidence.
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Winners and losers of corporate tournaments

Winners and losers of corporate tournaments

Table 4 shows that, prior to the tournament, the mean salary of Non-CEO leavers, is £30,000 higher than those who stay with the firm. This confirms our suspicion that leavers are materially different to stayers. This is reinforced by examining the smaller sample of those who left the firm and were reemployed at the board-level in another FTSE350 firm, where the difference is almost £80,000. A naive comparison of the earn- ings of losing directors before and after the tournament event would therefore ignore the fact that the directors who remain are different to those who leave. This is also illustrated in the table, where losing directors who stay in the firm receive on average salary increases of almost £25,000 in the year after the tournament, compared with the year before the tournament. Interestingly, the exiting losers who find employment at an- other FTSE350 company are unable to secure similar pay rises, with their remuneration falling marginally.
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Winners and Losers in Housing Markets

Winners and Losers in Housing Markets

We have also done the experiment of lowering the downpayment requirement from 30% to 10% permanently. This provides extra liquidity for households, especially for constrained home owners, and encourages consumption initially. At the same time, with a less strin- gent collateral constraint, some low wage workers and tenants from the previous period buy houses. Overall, however, relaxing the …nancing constraint has a very limited e¤ect on hous- ing price and aggregate production in the transition, a result similar to the comparisons of the steady states, because the necessary adjustment is mostly achieved by the modest conversion of rented to owned units rather than by the housing price. This contrasts Ortalo-Magne and Rady (2006), who show that relaxing the collateral constraint increases the housing price substantially by increasing the housing demand of credit constrained households. In their model, the individual household faces discrete a choice of whether to live with parents, own a ‡at or a house of …xed size. Thus, relaxing the collateral constraint will generate a large in‡ow of new owners of ‡ats and houses, which is not o¤set by conversion from rented to owned units. 25 The welfare e¤ects in our economy are also relatively modest even for the
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A balance of winners and losers in the Anthropocene

A balance of winners and losers in the Anthropocene

"Pinon-Juniper (Core Site) Quadrat Data for the Net Primary Production Study at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (2003-Present)." Sevilleta Long Term Ecological[r]

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Winners and losers of corporate tournaments

Winners and losers of corporate tournaments

We include variables relating to internal and external compensation in the regression. These provide controls for the outside options of the executives, as well as controlling for inequality aversion. It can be seen that the absolute level of executive pay has no estimated impact on turnover for board members, although there is a small retention effect for the CEO. By contrast, an executive’s compensation relative to the median executive in the firm increases the propensity to exit. This may reflect the quality of the executive relative to their peers and hence a greater number of outside opportunities. However, this is not the case for CEOs; higher-paid CEOs are less likely to exit, presumably as they have reached the zenith of the tournament, and they are less likely to gain from moving to another firm. Kale et al.
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Winners and Losers from World Agricultural Trade Liberalisation

Winners and Losers from World Agricultural Trade Liberalisation

With regard to domestic support, policies are distinguished according to their potential to distort trade. The WTO classification of policies follows a traffic-light analogy: red measures must be stopped (but no agricultural policies are included in this category), amber box policies should slow down (by means of reduction), while green measures can go ahead. The amber box covers policies permitted within the limits agreed in international negotiations (such as export subsidies). Green box measures are said to be ‘decoupled’ from production, as they have a minimal effect on production and trade, and include training, research, environmental measures, payment for natural calamities and so on. Blue box measures refer just to agriculture, and are those temporarily allowed as a result of a EU- US deal during the Uruguay Round. They include support under ‘production-limiting schemes’ on the basis of acreage or animal numbers, and were initially designed to cover the EU direct payments to farmers following the 1992 CAP reform and the US deficiency payments.
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Winners and losers from a commodities-for-manufactures trade boom

Winners and losers from a commodities-for-manufactures trade boom

This strategy is feasible because the distribution of Brazil-China trade growth is skewed across sectors on both the import and export sides. Approximately 40% of the total growth in Brazil’s imports from China between 2000 and 2010 (i.e. P k ∆I k ) is accounted for by electronics (19%), machinery (13%) and electrical equipment (8%). Meanwhile, just three sectors, all of which are agricultural or extractive sectors, were responsible for 82% of the growth in Brazil’s exports to China between these two years: mining of non- precious metals (45%), soybeans (23%) and oil and gas (14%). 10 This breakdown actually understates the level of concentration of Brazil’s exports to China, since its exports in the ‘mining of nonprecious metals’ sector are almost exclusively made up of exports of iron ore. This high degree of concentration in a few commodities is a typical pattern of exports to China among developing countries for whom trade with China is important. 11 The controls in our baseline regressions also include the workforce size, the share of the workforce employed in nontraded sectors, the share employed in informal jobs, and the proportion of rural residents, all measured at the microregion level for the year 2000, along with a cubic polynomial of 2000 microregion-level income per capita. In all regressions, in order to allow for spatial correlation of errors across microregions, we cluster standard errors at the level of the mesoregion. Like the microregion, this geographical unit has been defined by IBGE according to measures of local market integration; there are 138 mesoregions in Brazil. Also, in order to prevent our regression results from being driven by outliers or very small microregions, we assign values of IS m and XD m below the 1st
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Milk Marketing Order Winners and Losers

Milk Marketing Order Winners and Losers

Data and Variables We use weekly Information Resources Incorporated’s (IRI) Infoscan™ scanner data from January 1, 1997 through December 30, 1999 for 23 U.S. cities. 5 The city populations range from 50,000 to 10 million. Each region of the country is represented with several cities. IRI records purchase price and quantity information at the Universal Product Code (UPC) level for a panel of customers for a number of grocery stores in each city. We aggregate these household data to city-level average household quantities purchased per week. There are 16,384 possible regimes for each household in each week, if we aggregate products up to 14 dairy products. If we do not aggregate the goods, then there are thousands of UPC codes, and hence millions of regimes to consider. There is no existing econometric method that can estimate such an unaggregated problem consistently within a utility theoretic framework. Thus, we aggregate across households to avoid having to estimate a system with a very large number of zero observations.
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Milk Marketing Order Winners and Losers

Milk Marketing Order Winners and Losers

model is flexible with respect to estimated price and income effects, and satisfies the conditions that are necessary and sufficient for the existence of a rational, representative consumer in each city. There are four important gains that can be expected from the approach taken in this paper. First, a higher level of disaggregation of products included in the empirical model increases the degree of substitution across goods. For example, whole milk, 2%, 1%, and nonfat beverage milk should be close substitutes. Indeed, if the price of 2% milk is higher than the average of the prices of whole and nonfat milk, then mixing two half gallons of each of the latter types would give approximately 1.9% milk at a lower cost than a gallon of 2% milk. A similar argument applies to the price of 1% milk relative to the average price of 2% and nonfat milk. Thus, we expect ex ante that the estimated own–price elas- ticities of demand will increase in the empirical model, and this is precisely what we find relative to the extant literature.
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