Authority may be seen as institutionalised power. For example, a police officer has authority to `stop' a motorist. The motorist is legally obliged to comply. Similarly, managers are said to possess a `right to manage'. Employees are obliged to obey the employer's instructions provided these are lawful and within the scope of the contract of employment. However, authority can also be earned by virtue of a person’s leadership capabilities, knowledge or experience; an expert is often referred to as an ‘authority’ on a subject and other defer to his or her opinion. What is important, in both situations, is for the authority to be effective the subordinates to the leader or manager have to be willing to accept that person’s authority.
With a centralized login authority, there is one set of policies for a security officer to focus on, one set of password criteria for users to learn and conform to, and one location for upgrades and fixes related to passwords. LDAP Directory Servers are an established way to accomplish this centralization, especially in a heterogeneous environment that may include Windows and multi- ple Unix variants.
• Forcing / Directing: Exert your authority and positional power (or get a person with the necessary power) to insist the issue is addressed and a solution imposed. Typically, this is the way conflicts are resolved during an emergency where decisions are required ‘immediately’ 5 . However, this may only be a short term solution, as use of authority can leave one or both sides feeling
Servant Leaders are not afraid to share their authority with others to achieve a common goal. Authority must company assigned responsibility to empower the individual to achieve what was expected from them. Project managers are in the perfect position to act as servant leaders. As a servant leader, the PM is someone who recognises that they are a servant first and focuses on the development of their team members and building a sense of community among the team. The emphasis is on the leader as someone who is there primarily to help the team overcome obstacles (and there are always obstacles that the team will require assistance in overcoming).
Morals are values which we attribute to a system of beliefs, typically a religious system and are based on ideas of right and wrong. These values get their authority from something outside the individual - a higher being or higher authority (e.g. society). Morals have a greater social element compared to values and tend to have a very broad acceptance. Many of our values are strongly influenced by our sense of morality - what is right as defined by a higher authority.
o Leading 7 involves influencing others toward the attainment of organisational objectives. Effective leading requires the manager to motivate subordinates, communicate effectively, and use his/her power and authority 8 judiciously. If managers are effective leaders, their subordinates will be enthusiastic about exerting effort toward the attainment of the objectives.
11. Gain agreement on resolution. The various alternatives and impact on schedule and budget are documented on the Issues Form or Issues Register. The project manager then takes the issue, alternatives and project impact to the appropriate stakeholders (eg, a project control board or sponsor) for discussion and resolution 8 . The project manager should make a recommendation and may have the authority to select from the alternatives. Each resolution should involve a set of agreed actions, and if the agreed solution involves changes to the project, the agreed solution is formalised through the change control process 9 .
It is a well-known fact that since the Middle-Ages there has been a struggle for dominance, that is for power, between the church and the state. It is also true that nations have used their power to dominate other nations to such an extent that language has changed over time – Roman Empire, British Empire, Russian Empire. In the recent past, the war against Iraq (initiated by the US and its allies) and the current attack on Syria are examples of power by the US. The dominance between nations is exemplified by tension between Britain and Ireland, while tension between religions is exemplified by the Irish Catholics and Protestants, Catholics and Muslims in Nigeria and elsewhere, and Palestine and Israel. In all of these conflicts, the struggle for domination or power has been at the centre. One needs to concede the horrible truth as it appears in the definition of justice by Thrasymachus: more often than not, might or power is right and justice serves the interest of the strong or powerful (Hourani 1962:110–111). Thrasymachus’ statement on justice is problematic because at different times he gave two contradictory statements. Besides the noted opinion on his understanding of justice, he also contended that ‘just action is obedience to the laws of one’s state’. In an attempt to simplify Thrasymachus’ statement, Hourani (1962) outlines and summarises the dialogue between Thrasymachus and Socrates as follows:
Romania began to deregulate it’s power sector in 1998 from a state owned system, regulations in the early years were followed by substantial changes in 2006 and 2007. The current liberalized market is under primary regulation by the National Authority of Energy Regulation (“ANRE”) and the National Authority for Regulation of Public Community Services (“ANRSC”) i . In 2000 the electricity
When Paul wrote Romans 13, the supreme authority in Rome was the godless emperor, Nero. He was an immoral, cruel mad- man, but even so, Paul commanded believers to submit out of re- spect for the God-ordained position of authority. In a similar man- ner, Peter told slaves to obey unjust masters and wives to submit to unbelieving husbands (1 Pet. 2:18-3:6). Why? Because we must re- spect the position of authority, which God ordained. This does not mean that someone who is abusing his position should not be con- fronted and, perhaps, removed through proper channels. But even such confrontation must be done with respect towards the God- ordained position of authority.
security, usually a sum of money, is paid in exchange for the release of a suspect from jail, on the understanding that the suspect will return for trial or forfeit the bail if he/she doesn’t comply with the bail conditions. In most cases bail money will be returned at the end of the trial, no matter whether the person is found guilty or not guilty of the crime committed.
• General problem solving: Understanding complex situations, initial problem clarification. • Performance evaluation: Performance indicators, quality assurance, monitoring an organization. • Education: Defining training needs, course design, causes of truancy, analysis of language teaching. • Miscellaneous: Project management, business strategy, risk management methodology, case for
• Understand the nature of the problem: There are several aspects to this, one is understanding the ‘big picture’ there is a difference between building levees on top of the banks of a rising river and building houses on high ground (but you may not have options – New Orleans exists below the Mississippi river levels ). Also look to see you are dealing with a one-off problem or a systemic fault; if similar events have occurred three or more times it is a pattern – fix the system.
The core concept of auftragstaktik is ‘bounded initiative’. Provided people within the organisation hierarchy have proper training and the organisational culture is strong, the leader’s role is to clearly outline his/her intentions and rationale. Once this is understood, subordinate personnel can formulate their own plan of action for the tasks they are allocated and design appropriate responses to achieve the objectives based on their understanding of the actual situation, exploit opportunities and mitigate problems.
Inclement weather is normal, it rains, gets too hot, too cold or too windy to work depending on your location. Assessing appropriate provisions for this type of risk requires understanding the project’s exposure to the risk and having access to historical data. A provision based on the normal/expected occurrence over the time of exposure.
mistake luck for skills (the fooled by randomness effect), overestimate knowledge about rare events (Black Swans – see below), as well as human understanding, something that has been getting worse with the increase in complexity. Taleb is interested in a systematic program of how to live in that opaque world, be less fragile to a certain class of errors (robustification program). In other words, while most human thought (particularly since the enlightenment) has focused us on how to turn knowledge into decisions, I focus on how to turn lack of information, lack of understanding, and lack of “knowledge” into decisions. The Black Swan (2nd ed.) drew a map of what we don’t understand (an attempt to set a clear and systematic limit to what is both unknown and consequential); ongoing work Antifragility focuses on how to domesticate and exploit the unknown -with simple heuristics and rules of thumb, something ancient
impact of unexpected events two elements are needed. First the team needs to have a level of resilience that allows the impact to be absorbed, managed and dealt with. Building resilience into any team or system is not simple and requires an organic capability to respond creatively and effectively. The team and system need some spare capacity (even if this is achieved by extraordinary effort), good internal communications, trust in each other and a clear understanding of how things work.