ERS-IP WPF and RY-IP WPF were 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. Sim- ilar linear relationships with corn (Zea mays L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been observed (Robins and Domingo, 1953; Benoit et al., 1965; Hanks et al., 1976; Barrett and Skogerboe, 1978; Gilley et al., 1980; Hill et al., 1982); Schneekloth et al., 1991; Stone, 2003; Klocke et al., 2004; Payero et al., 2006; Payero et al., 2008). The ERS-IP WPF and RY-IP WPF resulted in a quadratic regression model ﬁt with a down- ward curvature due to increasing inefﬁciencies of water application for plant transpiration as water input approaches the maximum yield point (Trout and DeLonge, 2015). On a ﬁeld scale, water input inefﬁciencies are due to increasing water losses from canopy and soil evaporation, wind drift, deep percolation due to non-uniform water application, and decreasing utilization of precipitation and soil moisture (Evans and Sadler, 2008). In this study, the inefﬁcien- cies are largely due to wind drift and surface evaporation with the sprinkler systems, and decreased utilization of precipitation and
Previous studies have shown that adequate water supply before and during tubers initiation increases the number of tubers per plant  ; whereas, after tubers initiation, it increases their individual sizes  . Water deficit produces smaller tuber size and lower yields  . According to , reduction of water supply more than 33% of the crop irrigation requirement could not be suggested under the Turkish conditions, whereas  advised on avoiding regimes that led to deficit in the ripening stage as well as at growth or tuber bulking in the semi arid environments of Albacete, Spain. Thus, irrigation is an important component of potato production areas in arid regions and it is crucial to maximize water use due to the energy requirement of the drip irrigation method and limited water supplies. The only way to accomplish this is to use water efficiently . The effect of both water and N on potato crop has been reported in the literature frequently with different conclusions; likely because optimal rates vary according to different crop varieties, plant density, soil types and climate con- ditions.
The precipitations are generally characterized by their weakness, their irregularity and a bad distribution spatial-temporal from 180 mm/year in the plain to 600 mm/year in the north in the High-Atlas peak. On the plain, the precipitation decrease from north to the south and from the west to the east recording averages of about 280 mm on the plane of Souss, 265mm on the plane of Massa and 180 mm on the plane of Tiznit in the south (MEMEE 2015). The Humid season starts from November to March, when the region gets 70 to 75% of annual rain. The dried season, between April to October, the region receives 30% of annual rain. The average of the raining days was about 30 days per year in the plain and 60 days per year in the High Atlas Mountain. The quantity of the rain varies from one year to another, so the precipitation of the most humid year reach up to three times the annual average and until 15 times of the driest year. The economy of Souss-Massa is based on marine fishing, the tourism and especially the agriculture. The region presents a potential irrigable lands, about 250000 ha. This sector is dominated by a modern agriculture with irrigated areas of about 143000 ha, principally situated on the plains of Souss (114310 ha) and Massa (27105 ha). The forage crops are essentially constituted of forage corn and alfalfa which occupies an irrigated area about 21844 ha. So, the livestock farming represents 28 % of the agricultural production of the region (MEMEE, 2015). Conditions of breeding: The Holstein of the agriculture (AG) cooperative (COP) «COPAG» contains about 80000 heads in which 40000 milk cows are distributed in the four provinces of Souss-Massa region. This herd is the result of the heifer born locally and some heifer introduced in the region either from other region of Morocco or imported from France, Germany, Canada and Netherlands. The most used mode of reproduction at the level of member farms is the artificial insemination carried out by a team of inseminators of «COPAG». The seeds were imported from France, Canada, Germany and USA. In case of the failure of the third artificial insemination, the conceptions were assured by natural service by brood bulls, selected on the basis of their conformation and the milk production of their mothers.
beets. In contrast, sucrose content has shown a steady decline over the period of 1997 through 2014 with differences as great as 2% sucrose con- tent between consecutive years (Figure 2) and well below the target value of 18% for the region. The relatively large change in sucrose con- tent between consecutive years may be related to differences in seasonal climatic conditions rather than cultural practices as the latter is rather static in consecutive years with exception of the introduction in Roundup Ready sugarbeets in 2006. If sucrose yield is substantially affected by seasonal climatic conditions, increased climatic variability and summer temperatures due to climate change may adversely affect sustainability of irrigatedsugarbeetproduction in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon. The objective of this study is to investigate linkages between seasonal climatic conditions and sucrose content of sugarbeets from producer fields from 1997 through 2014 in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon.
This trial was realized in Yenisehir Vocational School between 2007 and 2008 on the purpose of study out the influence of lack of water in four growth periods of cabbage. In this trial, fourteen irrigation treatments was formed considering the growth periods (establishment, vegetative, yield formation and ripening) of cabbage (Brassicaceae Oleracea var. capitata L. Grandslam F1) and the results obtained from these treatments were evaluated. According to the content of the treatments, the water amount to the plants varied between 0 and 524 mm in the 2007 year, and between 0 and 536 mm in the 2008 year. Water consumption of cabbage in the 2007 year ranged between 200 and 795 mm and in the 2008 year ranged between 190 and 802 mm. Yield, head weight, diameter, height and dry matter ratio were determined statistically important. In 2007 and 2008 years, the maximal yield were found as 74.2 t ha -1 and 72.4 t ha -1 in the E 100 V 100 Y 100 R 100 treatments, while the minimal yield were found as 2.0 t ha -1 and 4.0 ha - 1 in the E
Strip tillage and other conservation tillage practices are com- mon in many areas of the Corn Belt region in the central Great Plains and Midwest in corn and soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production. Research comparing sugarbeet grown under ST and CT under optimum irrigation or natural rain-fed systems has been published (Tarkalson et al., 2012; Evans et al., 2009; Overstreet et al., 2007, 2008; Regitnig, 2007; Halvorson and Hartman, 1984). In general, ST produces comparable yields to CT, with ST increasing yield in a situation where the surface residue remaining in ST tillage protected young plants from damaging wind-blown soil (Evans et al., 2009). The use of ST became a viable option for sugarbeet growers in 2008 when genetically modified Genuity RoundUp Ready (Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO) sugarbeet seed became available, resulting in more manageable weed control in a reduced tillage system. A major reason interest in ST developed
An increase in the intercept of the linear model for instance indicates that yields have gone up over the years even if no N is applied. Such an improvement in lint yield can be credited to improvement in pest man- agement (IPM), cultural practices, and environmental factors (good weather conditions). For example, Oklahoma, like many other states, was severely hit by the boll weevil, until 1998, when the boll weevil eradication program was initiated (Grefenstette and El-Lissy, 2010). Similarly, a difference in the slope coefficients among varieties indicates a difference in nitrogen utilization. Excessive application of nitrogen may be more beneficial to seed yield than lint yield (Egelkraut et al., 2004). One way to use nitrogen ef- ficiently is to lower the seed weight per bale and this has accomplished by plant geneticists. Average seed size has declined over the last three decades (Main et al., 2014), which may explain lower optimal nitrogen recommendations. The plateau reflects the average lint yield potential for each variety. An increase in the yield potential likely indicates an improvement in plant genetics or breeding, but could also be influenced by an improvement in pest management as well as other factors. The results of this study can help de- termine the relative importance of possible sources of increased yield and the possible factors that have led to increased nitrogen efficiency in cotton production.
Starch yield per hectare in the individual trial years is shown in Table 3. The trends shown by the individual cultivars at the trial localities are similar to the tuber yields trends. At the Žabčice locality in trial year 2016, the starch yield was statistically signifi- cantly higher in the case of the irrigated treatments in comparison to the non-irrigated control, except for the lowest irrigation intensity in cv. Monika. At this locality, the highest starch yield was observed in cv. Monika in both trial years at treatment 3, even though in 2016 it did not statistically significantly differ from the other irrigation treatments. In the case of cv. Jolana, the starch yield at the Žabčice locality was similar in all irrigated treatments and in both trial years; the differences between treatments 2, 3 and 4 were statistically insignificant. At the Valečov local- ity, starch yield increased with increasing irrigation frequency. This trend was observed in both studied cultivars and in both trial years (2016 and 2017). Due to the more favourable climatic conditions at this
Within each year and tillage type, tillage time had no effect on re- ported production and quality factors (Table 2 and 3). There were four cases of significant tillage time by N rate interactions. In 2008, tillage by N rate interaction for ERS was significant for both CP and ST. These significant interactions were due to differences in how the fac- tors for each tillage time responded to N supply, although at each N supply there were no differences between the fall and spring tillage (Table 2, Figures 1 and 2). Fall and spring tillage resulted in similar sugarbeet yields. The similarity in yields between tillage times was also observed by Smith et al. (2002) for CT. Timing of residue incor- poration for the treatments did not result in differences in production factors under the N supply levels in this study. During wet springs, Table 3. Estimated recoverable sucrose (ERS) yield, root yield, root sucrose concentration and brei nitrate concentration at for tillage time and tillage type treatments in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Data are averaged over N supply.
To assess the impact of climate change different studies were conducted in several regions of Morocco. It’s important to stress that Morocco is involved in climate change negotiations under the umbrella of the United Nation and has to present communication on the situation that occurs in Morocco, so the government is conducting several studies using macroeconomic analyses tools and others. Several studies have been conducted to explain and analyze the impact of climate change on agriculture based on the rainfall factor. Indeed, Barakat and Handoufe (1998) linked the decline in agricultural production to the accumulated rainfall deficit at the mid cropping season. Stour and Agoumi used a spatial and temporal analysis of temperature and precipitation variations to explain global warming. Ouraich and Tyner (2014) have developed a regionalized Morocco computable general equilibrium model to analyse the linkages of climate-induced productivity losses (gains) at the level of administrative and economic regions in Morocco. The World Bank in collaboration with national and international scientists have conducted a deep research on climate change impacts on crop yields in Morocco (2008). Most of these studies confirm that climate projections on Morocco show gradually
In this study, ISO LCA method (ISO, 2006) was applied for production of irrigated and rainfed wheat in an Iranian farmer cooperative, located in the center of Iran, based on the first phases of life cycle (i.e. from tillage to harvest), with the aim to evaluate their energy flow, environmental performance and the hotspots in the production chains. This area is very important for wheat production in Isfahan province. Considering the mechanization development plans and the necessity of integrating the farms in Iran and also growing concerns about environmental and economic issues, the present study aimed to investigate the relation between farm size and environmental impacts, identify hotspots in the production chains and evaluate energy flow. Actually, it is worthy to be known that, how farm size affects the environmental impacts. So, in the present study, farm size was investigated from environmental point of view in three categories. Also considering the lack of freshwater resources and efforts to find the deeper wells, present study makes an accurate assessment of energy amount for wheat production in this plain and provide solutions to this problem. Some recent researches evaluated the energy consumption in Isfahan province (Khoshnevisan et al, 2013a,b,c) but in this study only Mahyar plain, located in Shahreza city will be evaluated. So the purpose of this study is to accurately assess the amount of energy and its pollution effects for wheat production in this plain and finally provide some solutions for this problem.
Examples of biotechnology application for drylands The application of molecular biology and biotechnology offers great promise in overcoming crop-production con- straints in drylands. For example, grasspea (Lathyrus sati- vus) is the most drought-tolerant legume used as feed and food in countries such as Ethiopia, Bangladesh and India. Consumption of grasspea seeds in large quantities by humans and animals can lead to lathyrism or paralysis of the legs because of the presence of a neurotoxin in the seeds. Recently, tissue culture regeneration protocols have been used to obtain plants with a low concentration of that neurotoxin through somaclonal variation. Soma- clonal lines were identified that expressed consistently lower levels of the neurotoxin. These are being multiplied in Ethiopia after testing .
identify the effects of urban sprawl of cities on TCI oscillation in Tehran. They found that the urban sprawl of cities had a negative effect on the TCI. Amelung and Moreno (2009) used the TCI to examine current and future climatic suitability in the whole Europe. The results showed that summer of northern Europe will experience more favorable conditions than southern Europe for tourism. Kovacs et al. (2017) applied the TCI for the quantification of the climatic potential in Hungary in its original and modified forms. This modified version was suitable to reflect the seasonally different thermal perception patterns of Hungarian residents. The results indicated that, according to both versions of TCI, tourism climate conditions will likely to improve in the shoulder seasons and deteriorate in summer, remaining still at least acceptable for outdoor tourism purposes.
The commercialization of a spindle-type harvester to pick cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) planted in 38-cm rows and the development of a second-generation of glyphosate-resistant cotton cultivars that allows glyphosate applications be- yond the 4-leaf stage have sparked interest in 38-cm row cotton production. However, information on 38-cm row cotton production in the lower Missis- sippi River Valley alluvial flood plain is limited. Field studies were conducted during 2006 and 2007 to assess cotton canopy closure and lint yield in 38-cm rows and 25-cm paired rows each with five plant populations compared to conventional 102- cm rows at one plant population with and without irrigation. In non-irrigated cotton, canopy closed 1 to 4 wk earlier in 38-cm rows and 25-cm paired rows compared to 102-cm rows. Plant population at harvest ranged from 106,000 to 215,000 plants ha -1
In lower eastern Kenya, there is generally high vari- ability of rainfall amidst rising temperatures that tend to increase evapotranspiration. The rainfall has been characterized by pronounced variability from year to year and place to place. Onset, cessation, and length of growing season seem to be unpredictable in recent de- cades. Duration of the main and second growing sea- sons has been affected with serious repercussions of the residents as it seriously undermines efforts of house- holds, organizations, and county governments in this ASAL region. The food security status of the residents has gradually worsened in recent past. Previous studies have focused on rainfall variability and determining rainfall onset and cessation but have not related the ef- fect of climate variables on maize yields and thus food security in the four counties. It is against this background this study focuses on examining selected climate variables and their impacts on maize yields. Specifically, the study sought to determine the effect of weather and climate variability on maize yields in lower eastern Kenya’s dry lands for the period 1979–2009.