• No results found

Observations regarding pyramid numbers

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2020

Share "Observations regarding pyramid numbers"

Copied!
16
0
0

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Full text

(1)

125

OBSEEVATIONS

EEGAEDINa PYRAMID

NUMBERS.

By

R.

M.

Johnston,

F.L.S.

(Diagrams.)

The

ancient structuresof Egypt,especially tlae pyramids,

have ever been regarded with the

most

profound interest.

Travellers

and

historians find in

them

an everlasting

theme

for description. G-eometricians also find in their designs,

magnitude

and

dimensions,

much

matter for scientific

speculations;

and

the mystic inspired bytheir age, grandeur,

and

mystery,isdisposed to gather

from

theirevery feature

some more

orless fancifullyconceived revelationormiracle.

Nor

can

we wonder

at this.

Egypt

is theland ofwonders.

Great pyramidscovering acres of land; colossi sitting silent

in granite thrones; obelisksofprodigious heightwonderfully

carved

from

a singlestone;

and

temples, sphinxes,

and

canals,

of stupendousproportions.

When

we

consider that allthese

monuments

were hoary with age at the time of Herodotus,

and

that a close study of their works

and

hieroglyphics reveals that their builders

had

attained great knowledge in

astronomy, geometry, architecture, engineering,

and

various

arts,

we

may

readily admit that our highest

modern

civilisationwascradledintheland ofthePharaoh's.

Itis not

my

intention,however, to enter into the enquirv

ofEgyptiancivilisationatpresent.

The

observations which

I haveto

make

are confinedtothepyramid structures

them-selves. Itis

now

wellestablishedthat pyramidal structures werepeculiarly characteristic ofthe

most

ancientcivilisations of India, Babylon, Nineveh, Egypt, China,

North

America,

Mexico, and even in islands of the Pacific;

and

that the

whole or greater part of

them

are associated with

sepul-tures for the dead.

But

while it is most probable that originally such

monuments

were built solely for

com-memoration

and

for the preservation of the remains

of noble persons, there are also good reasons for

supposingthat

some

of

them

such as the Great

Pyramid

of Gizeh orCheops

fulfilled a double purpose.

The

Great

Pyramid

ofCheops covers a space of about 13'05 acres. If

we make

allowance for slight distui^bance, duetopressure of

the

enormous

superincumbent weight,

we must

assumethat

itsdesignerintended itsbase to form a perfect square,

and

itsshapea true pyramid.

The

various measurementsof the

most

competent engineers only

show

a variation of 11, 13,

(2)

126 OBSERVATIONS EEGAEDING PYRAMID NUMBERS.

measurements

givea length of 9,137inches,or 36,648 inchesfor the circuit ofthe foursides. Ferguson's,Dufell's, andColonel

Howard

Vyse'smeasurementsofheight are the

most

reliable,

and

they only varybetween 460| feet

and

456 feet, or 5,472

Englishinches. Broadly speaking therefore its circuit

re-presents about 100inches for each day in the year,

and

its

heightalmostexactly fibs,of itsside base.

The

orientation

oreastward aspect is almost true, being for South-East,

4- -1 forNorth-East,

+

-1 for South-West,

and

+

•0-636for

North- West. Subsequentsettlement or earth tremors

might

easilyaccountfor these minute divergences

from

absolutely trueorientation.

While

rejecting the

many

fanciful interpretations of

mysticalwriters

drawn from

known

facts with respect to shape, dimensions,measurements,

and

orientation,Ihavelong been convinced by the reasoning of sober

minded

investi-gators that the principal characteristics were probably

determined as a base or fixed standard for measures,

of space

and

capacity;

and

if so, the shape

and

dimensions themselves

might

have been suggested to the

skilled geometricians of the time

by

reference to

some

astronomicalfact ofimportance

known

tothem,inconjunction with significant properties of

number

and

proportion dis-covered

by

them

to belong to the structure of cubes in

pyramidalform.

That

men who

taught the

modern

world

mensuration

and

astronomy, should strive to attain a sure

method

for securing uniformityin standards as applied to weights

and

measurements, is a

most

reasonable supposition.

That

these standards should be symbolised

by

some

striking or well-known astronomical fact, is in the highest degree probable,

and

corresponds exactly with the idea of the French astronomers,

who

determined the length of their metre in relation to the ascertained length of a.

meridianline

drawn from

the Pole to the Equator. (The

metrerepresentingthe tenthmillionth, or 39 '37079 English

inches; thecentimetre being one hundredthofa metre.

The

gramme

or standardofweight isderived

from

thecentimetre,.

i.e.,a cubic centimetre of distilledwater at the temperature of

maximum

density, nearly equal to"0022054 ofan English avoirdupoispound,or 15,438 Englishgrains.)

Impressed withthis idea,

and

with the conviction that the

Egyptianbuilderswere adeptsin the constructionofmodels,

I soughtto obtain

some

light

upon

thesemattersby studying

thenumerical combinationsof simple cubes built

upon

the

pyramid

type. I

was

guided toa considerable extentinthese investigationsbythewideprevalence of multiples of 7,12,

and

10, intheexistingsubdivisionsoftime, space,weight

and

value.

(3)

BY

K. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S.

'

127 of the year(aweek) determined to be seven days,for it

was

in

common

use long beforetliebirthof

Moses

?

Wliy was

the seventh day originally set apart asthe Sabbath?

Why

have

we

theday dividedintotwoparts of 12hourseach,

and

why

do multiples of 12 so

commonly

appear in weights

and

measures,especially inastronomicaldivisions?

In

many

combinationsconducted withthehoj)e ofthrowing

lighton suchmatters, Ifailed to get any remarkable indica-tions, with threeimportantexceptions. Thesethree exceptions possessso

many

remarkableproportions

and numbers

relating to existing sub-divisionsofweights,measures,

and

values,

and

especially with the proportions

and

dimensions of the G-reat

Pyramid, that Ihave been induced to riskthe appellationof

"pyramid

mystic,"

and

to lay the remarkable results before the

members

of this Society.

The

models which appear before you have each

some

particularclaimto notice,

and

whether any of

them

may

offer sufficiently remarkable characteristics or notasbearing

upon

theGrreatPyramid,they areallwellworthyofcloseattentionas offering anaturalsolution tothe genesisof particular

numbers

asusedinsub-divisions ormeasuresof time, space,weight, or value.

Pyramid

of

Odb

Numbees,

Having

7 as

a

Base.

As

shown

indiagram,the

most

remarkablecharacteristicis

thefactthatthe cube rootof its basal layer,49or 7^, enters into and agrees with all the imjiortant dimensions of the G-reat Pyramid, including lengthof complete circuit; length

ofside; height; lengthofEgytian cubit;

Enghsh

inch;

and

through the latter it harmonises in the

most

obvious

and

simple multiples withthesedimensions

and

the days in the year,days in the lunarmonth. Othernatural proportions of the three angled sides of jjyramid connote the

months

in the quarter

and

year; while itsaggregate

number

of cubes,

84 or 7 times 12, suggest the alliance of 7

and

12 in

measurement

oftime.

VE- "Tt- ^ -3^

Demonstration indicatingthat the G-reat

Pyramid

dimen-sionswere probably determined

by

the radix of sacred

num-ber (7), whichin itself has probably been selected because

thecube rootofits squai'e contains nearly the exact figures representing the

known

daysintheyear:

3

Badix(V7-'')

=

'Ei

=

3-6593.

1. Circuit of pyramid in inches 36593

=

lOOOOR

2.

Length

ofeachside (4)„ „ 9148

=

lOOOOR

S. Heightof

pyramid

„ „ 5488-^ =: ^(lOOOOB)

=

457•» feet

(4)

128 OBSERVATJONS KEGAEDING

PYRAMID

NUMBERS.

NOTE." ^ Heightproportion

may

have been

2 selected because 3 expresses the

number

ofdimensionsin a cube:

and

1

~

2 exactly expresses the relative elevation surface of a triangle

and

square resting

upon

a

common

base

and

ofequal

ver-tical height at its

maximum,

in a vertical line

drawn

at right angles to base line.

Princijjalunit of

measurement

in inches 25-^ =:

Nearlyequalto existingcubit

inEgypt.

lOOOR

12-2or144

NOTE-

12'^

most

probablywas adoptedasa

divisor, because curiously

enough

the actual

number

ofsquare cubes contained in a

pyramid

of even

numbers, which

most

nearly

approaches the

number

of days

in a year,is 364, andthebase of such pyramidor 1st layercontains 12

X

12 cubes or144: thesecond

layer in importance succeeds it with10

X

10 cubes or 100 (see plan).

lOOOR

6. Cubitsin circuit of pyramid, No. 1440 z=

^02

lOOOOE

lOOOOR

or

lOOOOE-f-12? 25

lOOOOR

6. Dittoineach side(mean) 360.

|

^-p^^,^

J

~r 4

» TT •. -.

lOOOOR

7. Unitoryearor 1 =1

^

or 3

lOOOOR

V7-^

V7-'

7-2 49

Days

in

Week

or 7 =: -=- or

(5)

I

BY

K, M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 129

9.

Months

in

Year

or 12

=

Angles on

4

faces

4X3:

also equal to base ofa-^

simple

pyramid

of even

numbers whose

aggre-gate represents 364:alsoj the seventhofthe aggre-gateofasimple

pyramid

of odd having 7 forits

base.

10.

Lunar

Months

inyearorl3'^nearly(lo""'')

=

^

7X4

Square

Pyuamid

of

Mixed

Odd

and

Even

Numbbes,

Having

fok

a

Base

(7 x 2)^

or

14^

=

196.

Perhapsthisforms the

most

interesting of all the

com-binations. Its natural proportions

and

naturally related

numbers

are

most

suggestive.

The

followingcombinations are

most

striking:

1. If

we

takeeither the exposed cubes onthe

margin

of each

layer, or the total faces of distinct cubes in the four

sides,theaggregate comes exactly to 365, or the exact

number

of daysintheyear;

and

therefore the

propor-tional

number

of cubes on eachtriangularface is 91j,

correspondingto days inthe quarterofayear.

2. If

we

now

take the basal layeralone,

we

find the exposed

number

ofcubes inthe square to be 52, corresponding to weeksintheyear.

3. Ifagain

we

take the aggregateofallcubesinthepyramid,

we

find they

amount

to 1,015,

and

if this

number

be

multiplied

by

36, or4times 9 (the latter

number

repre-senting the

number

of verticle angles on faces of the

fourwedgesorprisms ofwhich thepyramid is built, as

indicated

by

itsdiagonals),

we

obtain 36,540, or within 8 inches ofthe best actual

measurements

of its present

state, which has no doubt undergone

some

slight

settle-ment

duetosuperincumbentpressure.

4.

A

quarterof this gives 9,135inches, or within 2 inches of the

mean

ofthe best actual measurements obtained

by

competentinvestigators.

6. If

we now

takethe squareof its basal layer,14 x 14,

we

get 196,

and

it is remarkable that if this

number

be

multiplied successively

by

half the side,

and

by the

number

ofsides,i.e., 196x 7 x4,

we

get5,488, or within 16inchesofthe best estimates of the present height of

the Great Pyramid, any two of which differfar

more

(6)

130 OBSERVATIONS EEGAEDING

PYRAMID

NUMBERS,

6.

The

basal layerhas 13 distinct cubes ineacbside,

corres-ponding to

number

ofweeksineach quarter, whicli tbe

side typifies naturally; while the three angles of each triangular face

makes

12, corresponding with the

months

intheyear orhoursinthe day.

These combinations are all natural to the particular

structure,

and

are not selected in arbitrary or forced

way

as in

many

suggestions found in works referring to the pyramids.

Square

Pyramid

of

Even Numbers Having

12

for

its

Base,

The

remarkablecharacteristicofthis pyramidis that

1.

The

aggregate ofall the cubes,if cappedwith anodd one

asa finishing point,

numbers

365, corresponding to the

number

ofdaysintheyear. It has 12 cubes along the basal layer of each side, corresponding to months.

Thereareexactly 36 cubes in each triangular face,

and

144inbasal layer. If each of these be multiplied

by

the

number

ofcubes in side of 2nd layer,

and

taken as divisor of the circuit and side of

pyramid

they give results which almostexactly correspond with theexisting cubit ofEgypt,

The same

result isvery closely attainedbp multiplying the aggregate

number

of cubes (365) by 7,

and

dividing the

resultbythe square ofthe secondlayer (100),

2.

But

perhapsthe

more

interesting

numbers

inthis

pyramid

ofeven

numbers

are those of the cubes of the exposed

sides of squares, and the aggregates of the cubes in eachlayer.

It is singularthat in the first series the sequence 1, 4, 12, 20, shouldexactlycorrespond with the sequence of English standards of

money

value,viz.: Farthing, farthingsin penny, penniesin a shilling,

and

shillings inapound.

The

figures of the base,12

and

144, are associated with

sub-divisions of square measured multiples or sub-divisions of 28, as 7, 14,28, 56, 112, 2,240 as insub-divisions ofweight; andin thesecond seriesof aggregates

we

havein

the second layer the

numbers

10, 220,

and

in the basal exposedmarginofcii'cuit44,allsuggestiveof

some

connection with reasons whichoriginally entered intothedetermination ofsubdivision of 44, 220,440, 1,760, intheEnglishmile.

Conclusion,

Taken by

themselves the remarkable coincidences with

known

factsrelating to

measurement

oftimeand space

might

only be construed as simple examples of the facility with

(7)
(8)
(9)

PyffAM/DOFEV£^J/^UMBERS

//AV/f/0 riASA BASE

14-11(36) £XPi.ANATIONOE/f^DICES

B

CuSesvn-no: /UJ^ lOO (^J/.iG 16/a= ^ij

C CcdiescwcoTtd aicrvevu: 36/^ iw/wS6 zo fy-- 36U

ECm2>6^ vcsiiLtoiotlervaXtoroofecu7i.^ac.e/

n

/o 8 6 /^ 'i=

U'i-36

DUtoForfoii-T-faces i/U 3C 7

S3

'/£ 10

a

U^. ///»

PyPAMIPOfODOmMBEHS

HAV/I^OTASABASE

fxPlA

M

T/Q/^OEWD/CES

LASERSOFq/BES

A

A

c&taZCuMsaTvoutenruxravrhcil /'" I'^S'^'-u""^^ ,

Iccyey-viswle.fromabove,^ lU- /£ S I ' l^or(j^7)

BCiibcS-vn 4^ IS 3 I- 8Ucn-(-7:f/l)

C CTjJiesina.7uiaioy&, 8i> 3S/O/^ aU-orn>.aj

D

J^TXri/cn'ti.onofdxitinUcait^fbriia.'uq y J 3 t= 16

eacn^ta/x, . _ / / " , .^ ,-,1-,,

(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)

SquarePvRAMiDOFODDAND even numbers of cubes

(14)
(15)

BY

R. M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 131

measuremeutsor proportionals relatingto theearth'sdiameter,

circumference, distance

from

the sun, annual period of revolution, etc.; forit iseasy

by

slightvariations ofanyroot, arbitrarilymade, and ai'bitrarily selected multiples, to

make

any

number

approximate to

some

important terrestrial

measurement, provided that the computer is himself

pre-viouslyaware of the proportional,size,ormeasurement, with

which a

show

of correspondenceis de^fired.

Much

ofthe

so-calledremarkablecoincidences of mystical writersare of this class; forit not unfrequently happens that the

same

root

measurement, by slightalteration,is

worked

uptobringabout

coincidences with very different things.

Thus

Mr. Piazzi

Smith,

by

taking the height of the niche of the Queen's

Chamber

ofthe G-reat

Pyramid

as 182'62,

and

multiplyingit

by

2, he obtains 365242, equivalentto the daysin the year;

and

again byarbitrarily taking the

same

dimensionsas 185,

and

multiplyingit successively

by

3*1416

and

10, he obtains 5,812, which he arbitrarily concluded to be the height

of the Great

Pyramid

in inches.

But

curiously

enough

the

same

dimensions, 182-62, multiplied

by

10

and

divided by 2 (whynotatonce multiply

by

5'^) is

made

to

show an

approximateto lengthofone of the sides in inches. These

are

common

examples ofthefacility with which

many

fancy the discovery ofpurposeful design in

numbers

or dimensions,

when

dealt withinafanciful

and

arbitraryway.

It seemstohave beenforgotten

by

such persons that

any

root figure,

by

thearbitrary selectionofa multiplieror divisor,

may

be

made

to coincide exactly with any other

number

provided the manipulator knows hefcrehand the numher or proportional with

which

correspondence is sought to be

established.

But making

allallowance for the vagaries of the mystics, there are

many

legitimate subjects of enquiry,

upon

which

some

light

might

bethrown bythecarefulinvestigation of ancient structures

At

the present day it is remarkable

how

largelythe

numbers

7, 12,

and

10, or simple multiples of these enterinto standards of space, time,weight,

and

value.

Itis easy toimagine

how

10

was

seized

upon

sofrequently as

a standard of

measurement;

for counting by

means

of the digitsof thetwo hands so universal

and

sonaturalat once suggests a probable reason; but thereasonsforthe original

selection of 7

and

12 fora similar purpose are not so easily conceived.

What,

forexample, were the determining causes for the selection ofthe

many

sub-divisions of weights,values, time, linealandsquaremeasure?

Why

have

we

a sequenceof 4, 12, 20, in English

money

insub-divisions ofthepenny, shilling

and pound

; of 14,28,

(16)

132 OBSERVATIONS REGARDING

PYRAMID

NUMBERS.

1,760, in sub-divisions of theEnglish mile; of multiples of

12 in square measure; of either 8 or 7as a root of wine

measure?

8x1

8x84

7x96

ffalL:

8x42

7x48

1 8X126

puncheon

:

7^^44

tierce

pipe:

8x62

7x72

8 X252

7x288

hogshead

tun

Then

going tothe survivals of ancient systems of linear

measurement,

how

can

we

account for the origin of lineal

measures, suchas

The

Englishfoot ... Equivalentto 12

The

ancient "Pied de

Eoi"

ofPrance

The

German

elle

The

Italian pie ...

The

common

guerze of

Persia ... ... ,,

The

pic of

Turkey

... ,,

The

braccio of

Ancona

,,

The

shortpichaofGreece ,,

The

long

_ „

The

existing derah or

cubitof

Egypt

... .,

Jewishcubits ... l „

May

itnot bepossiblethereforethatthe ancientdraftsmen or modellers of pyramids

had

seized

upon

many

of these characteristics

shown

in the forms

and

figures referred to,

bothfor sub-divisions of measures

and

weights,

and

also to typifyin theirimportantfixed standards

some

of the

more

remarkablefacts of astronomy then

known

to

them

?

{I

References

Related documents

During the critical Encoding/Maintenance period, activity on trials with the highest level of accuracy (3 or 4 correct) is higher than trials with lower levels of accuracy.

Psychic Readings: From An Art To A Money-Mending Mill 10 Phone Reading: The Latest Specie Of Psychic Readings 11 Psychic Readings: Do We Really Require Them.. 12

To estimate the cost of changing the FCTC and the Caregiver Credit, the Conference Board calculated the difference between the current amount paid out by the government for each

Results suggest that the probability of under-educated employment is higher among low skilled recent migrants and that the over-education risk is higher among high skilled

Acknowledging the lack of empirical research on design rights, our paper wishes to investigate the risk of piracy and the perceptions of the registered and unregistered design

To examine the association between patterns of co-regulation and emotional availability in the mother-infant relationship each dimension of the EA scales (i.e., maternal sensitivity,

Inverse modeling of soil water content to estimate the hydraulic properties of a shallow soil and the associated weathered bedrock.. Ayral

Proprietary Schools are referred to as those classified nonpublic, which sell or offer for sale mostly post- secondary instruction which leads to an occupation..