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Reports

on ACP countries

(4)

This volume is also available

in the following language:

FR |SBN 92-825-8271-X

Cataloguing

data can be found at the end of this publication

GERMAN ORIGINAL

Published by:

Statistisches

Bundesamt

Gustav-Stresemann-Ring

1 1

D-6200 Wiesbaden

Distribution:

Verlag W. Kohlhammer

Gmbh

Abt. Veröffentlichung

des

Statistischen Bu ndesamtes

Philipp-Reis-Straße

3

.

D-6500 Mainz 42

ENGLISH VERSION

Published by:

Otfice for Otficial Publications

of the European

Communities

for:

Statistical Otfice of the

European

Communities

Bät. Jean Monnet

B . P . 1 9 0 7

T.2920 LUXEMBOURG

Distribution:

Office for Official Publications

of the European

Communities

2, rue Mercier

L-2985 Luxembourg

Luxembourg:

Otfice for Otficial Publications

of the European

Communities,

1 988

fsBN 92-825-8270-1

Catalogue

number: CA.NQ-88-001

-EN-C

@ ECSC-EEC-EAEC,

Brussels-Luxembourg,

1 988

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E x t e r n a l t r a d e . . . . | . . . r . . . | ' ' ' ' ' t ' ' ' ' ' o l , l a j o r i n p o r t p r o d u c t s / p r o d u c t g r o u p s . . . r . . . . o . . " " " " ' ' . . ' " o ' l l a j o r e x p o r t p r o d u c t s / p r o d u c t g r o u p s . . . ' " " . . ' o .. ' " ' ' ' ' ' I n p o r t s f r o n n a i o r c o u n t r i e s o f o r i g i n t . . . o " " " ' o " " " o ' o " " E x p o r t s t o n a i o r c o u n t r i e s o f d e s t i n a t i o n . o . " " " o " " ' o

D e v g l o p n g n t o f E } - Z a i r i a n g x t g r n a l t r a d € . . . . " " . . ' o . . " " . . " " M a j o r i n p o " t p r o d u c t s / p r o d u c t g r o u p s b y s I T c c l a s s l f l c a t i o n . . . . ' u a j o r e x b o r t b r o d u c t s / b r o d u c t ö r o u p s b y s I T c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a n d c o r l u n i c a t i o n s . . . o . . . . " " " " "

L g n g t h O f f a i l f O a d S . . . . . . o . . . o ' o . . o " '

R o l l i n g s t O c k . . . o . . . o . . . o . . . ' ' ' ' ' o ' ' ' ' ' '

G O o d s i n d p a g s e n g e r s C a r r i e d b y ' O N A T R A ' a n d t h e " S N C Z ' . " " " " N U n b e r O f n O t O r v e h i C l e s a n d d e n S i t y O f p a 5 s e n g e r C a f s . . " " " . . N g W f g g i s t f a t i O n $ . . . . o . . . o . . . t ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' l l e f C h a n t V e S S g l S . . . . . . o . . . o ' ' ' ' ' F r g i g h t t r a f f i c i n s g l e c t g d p o r t s . . . o " " " " " . " . . " P e f f O f n a n C g O f t t A i f Z a i f e t t . . . o . . . r . . . " . . " T r a f f i c a t N t D i i f i a i r p o r t , K i n s h a s a . . . " " o " " o " o o ' o ' o T g l g c o n n u n i C a t i O n s . . . . o o . . ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

T O U f i S n . . . . . o . . . o . . . o . . . o ' ' ' ' ' ' t o

F o r e i g n v i s i t o r s f r o n s g l g c t g d c o u n t r i g s . . . " . . " " " " ' o ' . . " " H O t g l S , f O O n S a n d b g d S . . . o . . . o . . . o . . . ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' C U f l . e n g y a n d f i n a n C € . . . I o . o . . . r . . . " " " " o " O f f i C i a l g X C h a n g € f a t e $ . . . o . . o . . . o o . . . . o . . . . ' o " " o " " G O l d a n d C g f f g n c y f g s g f v g 8 . . . o . . . o . . " " " ' S e l g c t g d f i n a n c i a l a n d l o a n i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . . " " . . " " " " . . " o P u b l i c a c c o u n t s . . . . o . . o . . . o . . . ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' o C e n t f a l g g v g f n t r e n t b U d g g t . . . o . . . . o . . . o " " " " " B u d g e t r e v g n u e o f c e n t r a l g o v g r n t g n t . . . . o . " " ' o " " o " " " . . " ' B U d g g t e x p g n d i t u f e O f C g n t f a l g o v g f n l g n t . . . o . . . " " " N a t l o n a l d g b t . . . r . . . . o . . . ' ' o ' ' ' ' ' ' t ' U a g e S a n d S a l a f i e s . . . o . o . . . o . . . . " " t " ' o o ' t ' I n d g x o f n i n i n u n w a g g g . . . r . . . o " . . o " " " o I n d e x o f n g l i n h l a n d f e A l w e 9 9 8 . . . o . . . ' . . . " " . . ' o ' o H O U f l y W a g e s i n K l n g h a S a b y S e l e g t e d p l . o f e S t l O n S . . . " o . . " A v e r a g e l o n t h l y s a l a r i e s i n l l a r c h 1 9 8 2 b y s e l e c t e d s e c t o r c . . . , . . l l o n t h l v s a l a r i e s i n t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r b y s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n s . . . l { o n t h l i s a l a r i e s o f e r p l o y e e s b y s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n s l n

K i n s h e s S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . o e o ' ' '

(7)

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P f i C g S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

C o s t - o f - l i v i n g i n d e x i n K i n s h a s a . . . o . . . o . .

R g t a i l p r i c g i n d e x i n K i n s h a s a . . . o . . . . . . .

R e t a i l p r i c e s o f s e l e c t e d g o o d s i n K i n s h a s a . . . o . . . . R e t a i l p r i c e s o f s e l e c t e d o i l p r o d u c t s . o . . . o . . . . l l i n i m u n p r o d u c e r ' s p r i c e s f o r s e l e c t e d e g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . .

I n d e x o f i m p o r t a n d e x p o r t p r i c e s . . . . , . . . . A v e r a g e e x p o r t p r i c e s f o r s e l e c t e d g o o d s . . . , N a t i o n a l a c c o u n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G r o s s d o n e s t i c p r o d u c t a t m a r k e t p r i c e s . . . . . . ,

G e n e r a t i o n o f g r o s s d o n e s t i c p r o d u c t a t f a c t o r c o s t . . , . . . . U s e o f g r o s s d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t a t m a r k e t p r i c e s . . . , . . . . G r o s s d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t a n d n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t a t c u r r e n t p r i c e s . B a l a n c g o f p a y m e n t s . . . , . . . . . ' . . r . . . . D e v e l o p m e n t o f b a l a n c e o f p a y m e n t s . . . . . D e v e l o p m e n t , p l a n n i n g . . . . . . . . . D e v e l o p m e n t f o r c o o p e r a t i o n . . o , , . . . . . G r a n t s a w a r d e d b y d o n o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , 1 9 7 5 - 1 9 8 5 . . . , o . . . T o t a l O D A g r o s s d i s b u r s e m e n t s , 1 9 7 5 - 1 9 8 5 . . . . . . o . . . . S o u r c e s . . . . . . . . " " " " " " '

, 7 2 . 7 2 . 7 2 , 7 3 , 7 3 . 7 4 . 7 5 . 7 5 . 7 6 . 7 6 . 7 7 . 7 7 . 7 7 . 8 1 . 8 2

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6

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! = g e n e r a l b r e a k i n t h e s e r i e s a f f e c t i n g c o m p a r i s o n o v e r t i r e . i f i g u r e u n k n o w n

x = t a b u l a r g r o u p b l o c k e d , b e c a u s e i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t n e a n i n g f u l

G E N E R A L A B B R E V I A T I O N S T ) g = g r a m

k g = k i l o g r a m d t = q u i n t a l t = t o n

m m = m i l l i m e t r e c m = c e n t i m e t r e m a m e t r e k m = k i l o m e t r e m 2 = s q u a r e n e t r e h a = h e c t a r e

k m 2 = s q u a r e k i l o n e t r e I = l i t r e

h l = h e c t o l i t r e m 3 = c u b i c m e t r e t k m = t o n - k i l o m e t e r G R T = g r o s s r e g i s t e r e d t o n N R T = n e t r e g i s t e r e d t o n t d w = n e t r i c t o n

Z = z a i r e U S $ = U S d o l l a r

E C U = E u r o p e a n C u r r e n c y U n i t S D R = S p e c i a l D r a w i n g R i g h t s h = h o u r

k l { E k i l o w a t t k W h = k i l o w a t t - h o u r l ' l l { , G t { a m e g a w a t t , g i g a w a t t p . = p i e c e

P = p a i r

M i l l . E m i l l i o n B i l l . 3 b i l l i o n B Y = b e g i n n i n g o f y e a r M Y = m i d - y e a r

Y E = y e a r - e n d Q r t . = q u a r t e r H Y = h a l f y e a r D = a v e r a g e

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7

F O R E h I O R D

E u r o s t a t ' s s e r i e s o f " R e p o r t s o n A C P c o u n t r i e s " a r e c l o s e l y b a s e d o n r e p o r t s c o m p i l e d b y t h e S t a t i s t i c a l 0 f f i c e o f t h e F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f G e r m a n y , a n d a r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s ' ' r S t a t i s t i k d e s A u s l a n d e s " ( S t a t i s t i c s o f f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s ) s e r i e s . A C P - E E C r e l a t i o n s a r e i n t e n s i f y i n g a n d i m p r o v i n g p a r t l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e 3 r d L o m e c o n v e n t io f l , b u t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n t h e E ü r o p e a n C o m m u n i t y , i s v e r y p o o r l y i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . T h e a i m o f t h e " n e w " s e r i e s o f r e p o r t s i s t h u s t o m a k e r e a d i l y a v a i I a b l e t h e m a i n c u r r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l .

T h e r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d b y t h e S t a t i s t i s c h e s B u n d e s a m t a r e i d e a l a s a b a s i s f o r t h e E u r o s t a t s e r i e s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e , e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d t h e y s e t o u t i n a s t a n d a r d f o r m k e y i n f o r m a t i o n , b a s e d o n t h e l a t e s t d a t a o n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c a n d e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r i e s t h e y c o v e r . T o m a k e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n e v a i l a b l e t o a w i d e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e a d e r h s ip , E u r o s t a t i s p u b l i s h i n g t h i s E u r o p e a n v e r s i o n i n F r e n c h a n d E n g I i s h . T h e o r i g i n a l r e p o r t , i n G e r m a n , i s a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e S t a t i s t i s i h e s B u n d e s a m t in t { i e s b a d e n o r t h e K o h l h a n m e r V e r l a g i n M a i n z . M o s t o f t h e E u r o p e a n v e r s i o n i s d i r e c t l y t r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e G e r m a n o r i g i n a l w i t h t h e d a t a e s s e n t i a l l y u n c h a n g e d , a p a r t f r o m a f e w v e r y m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s . I n t h r e e o f t h e 2 a c h a p t e r s h o w e v e r , E u r o s t a t h a s m a d e c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n s t o t h e d a t a o n b i l a t e r a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t s ( e x t e r n a l t r a d e , i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r i c e c o m p a r i s o n s , t e c h n i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n ) t o m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f n o n - G e r m a n re a d e r s .

T h e t r a n s l a t i o n , t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s a n d t h e a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l a r e s o l e l y E U R O S T A T ' s r e s p o n s i b i I i t y .

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1 1

-I . G E N E R A L D A T A S t a t e a n d G o v e r n r e n t F u l l n a n e : T h e R e p u b l i c o f Z a i r e

S h o r t f o r r : ? a i r e

E s t a b l i s h r e n t / i n d e p e n d e n c e : I n d e p e n d e n t s i n c e 3 0 J u n e t 9 6 0

c u r r e n t n a t i o n a l C o n s t i t u t i o n : F e b r u a r y I 9 ? 8 ( a ü e n d e d i n N o v e r b e r 1 9 8 0 ) F o r n o f C o v e r n t r e n t : P r e e i d e n t i a l R e p u b l i c

H e a d o f S t a t e a n d c o v € r n r e n t : P r e s i d e n t l l a r s h a l l l o b u t u S 6 s 6 - S 6 k o ( s i n c e t 9 6 5 ; r e - e l e c t e d i n f 9 ? 0 . t 9 ? ? a n d 1 9 8 4 : h e i s a l s o c h a i r n a n o f t h e P o l i t i c a l B u r e a u a n d o f t h e i l a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . C o u n c i l o f i l i n i s t e r s )

E l e c t o r e l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n / L e g i s l a t i v e

N a t i o n a l L e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l ( s i n g l e c h a m b e r ) $ i t h 3 1 0 r e n b e r s e l e c t e d f o r f i v e y e a r s ( P e o p l e s ' c o r D n i s s e r s ) .

P a r t i e s / e l e c t i o n s :

T h e s i n g l e n a t i o n a l p a r t y i s t h e " l l o u v e E e n t P o p u l a i r e d e l a R e v o l u t i o n " / l t P R f o u n d e d i n I 9 6 ? , A t t h e 1 9 8 2 e l e c t i o n s , a l l t h e s e a t s w e r e w o n b y n e n b e r s o f t h e s t a t e p a r t y . O p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s e r e n o t p e r n i t t e d .

A d r i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s :

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(14)

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(16)

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(17)

1 5

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Z a i r e e x t e n d s f r o r l a t i t u d e 5 e 3 O ' n o r t h t o l 4 o s o u t h o f t h e e q u e t o r , a n d f r o n l o n g i t u d e 1 2 " t o 3 1 " 2 0 , e a 6 t l n e q u a t o r l a l A f r l c a , T h e t h i r d - l a r g e s t c o u n t r y i n A f r i c a , i t h a s e t o t e l ' a r e a o f 2 , 3 4 { , 8 8 5 k r z . z a l r e s t r a d d l e s t h e e q u a t o r , H i t h a b o u t o n e t h i r d o f i t s t e r r i t o r y t o t h e n o i t h a n d t w o t h i r d s t o t h € s o u t h . I t i s b o u n d e d b y t h e P e o p l e ' r R e p u b l i c o f C o n g o t o t h e w e s t , t h e C e n t r a l A f r i c a n R e p u b l i c a n d S u d a n t o t h e n o r t h , U g a n d a , R w a n d a , B u r u n d l a n d T a n z a n i a t o t h e e a s t , a n d Z a l b l a a n d A n g o l a t o t h e s o u t h .

Z a i r e c a n b e d i v i d e d l n t o f i v e l a r g e n a t u r a l r e g i o n s :

T h e c o a s t a l r e g i o n i s r e l a t l v e l y E t a l l . Z e i r e h a s o n l y a v e r y n a r r o r e c c e s s t o t h e A t l a n t i c O c e a n ( 4 0 k n o f c o a s t l l n e ) . T h e e s t u a r y o f t h e C o n g o R i v e r s e p a r a t e s t h e A n g o l a n e n c l a v e C a b l n d a i n t h e n o r t h f r o r t h e n a i n b o d y o f A n g o l a o n t h e s o u t h e r n b a n k o f t h e r i v e r . T h e l a r g e s t a r e a i s o c c u p i e d b y t h e C o n g o B a s i n w h i c h h a s a d i e r e t e r o f a r o u n d 1 t 0 0 . k r . T h i s B a s i n i s a b o u t 3 0 0 t o 4 0 0 D e t r e s i n a l t i t u d e a n d l l e s b e t w e e n t h e A s a n d a h i l l s l n t h e n o r t h ( 6 0 0 t o 8 0 0 l . ) . t h e L u n d a h i l l s i n t h e s o u t h ( l 1 0 0 t o I { 0 0 f , , ) a n d t h e C e n t r a l A f r i c a n R i f t V a l l e y a n d t h e v o l c a n i c c h a i n l n t h e e a s t . I n t h e w e s t , i n a s e r i e s o f 3 2 r a p l d s , t h e C o n g o f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e b o r d e r i n g h i l l s . o f l o w e r G u i n e a ( 7 0 0 t o 8 0 0 r . ) . I n t h e r a l n y s e a s o n , v a s t a r e a s o f t h e C o n g o b a s i n a r e f l o o d e d t { h e n t h e n o r u a l l y s h a l l o w r l v e r s b r e a k t h e i r b a n k s . P a r t i c u l e r l y e x t e n s i v e f l o o d a n d l w a t p a r e a s l l e t o t h e w e s t o f t h e b a s i n , b e t w e e n t h e C o n g o a n d U b a n g i . i n t h e r e g i o n o f L a k e s T u r b a a n d l l a i - N d o n b e ( L a k e L e o p o l d I I ) .

T h e L u n d a r i d g e c o n s i s t s o f a p l a t e a u w i t h n o n o t o n o u s t e r r a c e s , i n t o w h l c h t h e t r i b ü t a r i e s o f t h e K a s a i f l o w i n g n o r t h w e r d s h a v e c u t p a r a l l e l l i n e s . T h e s u r f a c e i s r o r e s h a r p l y c u t u p i n t h e S h a b a ( K e t a n g a ) p l a t e a u d u e t o g e o l o g l c a l f a u l t s a n d r i f t s . T h e o p e l b e a n d L u f l r a p l a i n s a r e e r b e d d e d l n t h e s h a b a p l a t e a u . T h e U p e l b a r i f t i s a t e n a l t i t u d e o f 6 5 0 n . a n d i s w a t e r e d b y L a k e U p e t r b a a n d n a n y o t h e r s n a l l e r l a k e s . S o u t h - e e s t o f t h e i l a n i k a p l a t e a u , t h e ü i t u t r b a c h a i n r e a c h e s a n a l t i t u d e o f l 8 9 o n . , a n d t h e K u n d e l u n g u t r o u n t e l n s , s t r e t c h i n g f u r t h e r s o u t h H a r d s , r e a c h a n a l t l t u d e o f l ? 0 0 r .

T h e n o u n t a i n o u s r e g i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l A f r l c a n r i d g e b o u n d s t h e C o n g o B a s i n i n t h e e a s t . I n t h e s o u t h , t h e l o u n t a i n s e x t e n d t o t h e l l a r u n g u r a n g e w l t h a l t i t u d e s o f n o r e t h a n 2 5 0 0 t r . , n o r t h x a r d s , w i t h p e a k s h l g h e r t h a n 4 5 0 0 D , i n t h e V i r u n g a v o l c a n i c r a n g e , t h e y a l s o r e a c h t h e g l a c i e r - c o v e r e d p e a k s o f t h e n u z e n z o r l n a s s l f r a n g i n g o v e r 5 1 0 9 u . h i g h .

T h e C e n t r a l A f r i c a n R i f t x i t h i t s g r e a t l a k e s e x t € n d s l n a n o r t h - s o u t h d l r e c t i o n . T h e l a r g € s t l a k e s a r e l l o b u t u - S e s € - S e k o

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1 6

Z a i r e , g i v e n i t s s i t u a t i o n a s t r i d e t h e e q u a t o r , h a s a n e q u a t o r i a l c l i n a t e . I n t h e C o n g o b a s i n , r a i n f a l l i s I 7 0 0 t o 2 0 0 0 l l p e r y e a r . H u m i d i t y i n t h e B a s i n i s v e r y h i g h , o t 9 0 t o t 0 0 % , e n d e v e n i n t h e l e s s h u n i d n o n t h s d o e s n o t d r o p l o w e r t h a n ? O f . T h e h i I l y r e g i o n s i n t h e s o u t h a n d w e s t h a v e a h u r i d t r o p i c a l c l i r a t e w i t h t w o r a i n y s e a s o n s ( A p r i I a n d S e p t e r b e r ) a n d t w o d r y s e a s o n s ( J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y a n d J u n e t o A u g u s t ) . R a i n f a l l o n t h e S h a b a p l a t e a u i s f r o r I 0 0 0 t o o I 3 0 0 n t . p e r y e a r . T h e d r y s e a s o n l a s t s f r o l J u n e u n t i I O c t o b e r . I n t h e D o u n t a i n o u s r e g i o n s o f t h e e a s t , r r i n f a l l o f o v e r 3 0 0 0 t D h a s s o n e t i n e s b e e n r e c o r d e d .

N a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l a n d n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e C o n g o B a s i n c o n s i s t s o f e v e r g r e e n t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t , w h i c h c o v e r s a b o u t 4 0 f o f t h e l a n d . T h i s l s o n e o f t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e r a i n f o r e s t s i n t h e w o r l d . H o w e v e r , t h e p r l r e v a l f o r e s t h a s b e e n c l e a r e d b y f l r e i n o a n y a r e a s t o r a k e p l a c e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , a n d i s t h e r e f o r e c o n s t a n t l y d w i n d l i n g . S a v a n n a c o v e r s a b o u t 5 0 f o f t h e t o t a l a r e a . T h e S h a b a p l a t e a u c o n t a i n s d r y s a v a n n a a s w e l I a s l e s s d e n s e d r y n i o m b a f o r e s t s . T h e c o a s t a l a r e a i s p a r t l y c o v e r e d b y r a n g r o v e s w a n p s .

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1 8

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T h e e s t i r a t e d p o p u l a t l o n o f z e l r e l n i l d - t 9 8 ? r a 3 3 t , I r i l l i o n . r e p r e s e n t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y o f 1 5 . 0 l n h r b i t a n t s p e r k r z o f t o t e l l a n d a r e a , T h e l o s t r e c e n t c e n s u s w a s c a r r i e d o u t o n I J u l y 1 9 8 { , e n d t h e f l g u r e r e g i s t e r e d a t t h e t i t r e r e s 2 9 . ? r i l l i o n , O y e r t h e l l y e 8 r i b e t w e e n t h e p r o v i s i o n a l c e n s u s o f l 9 ? O a n d t h e p o p u l . t i o n c e n 3 u 8 o f I 9 8 4 , t h e p o p u l a t l o n i n c r e a s e d b y a r o u n d e l g h t r l l l i o n ( 3 ? t ) , s h o r l n g a n a n n u a l a v e r a g e g r o w t h r a t e o f 3 . 2 t f o r t h i s p e r i o d .

T h e p o p u l a t i o n l s ö h a r a c t e r i z e d b y e t h n i c a n d l i n g u i s t l c d i v e r s i t y , b y a n a g g l o n e r a t l o n o f i n h a b i t a n t s i n s o t e a r e a s a n d v a s t e r p t y s p a c e s i n o t h e r s . T h e U n i t e d l { a t i o n s i n d l c a t e d a n a v e r a g e a n n u a l p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r e t e o f 3 , 0 t f o r t h e p e r l o d b e t w e e n l 9 ? 3 t o 1 9 8 { . T h e g r o w t h r a t e f r o l 1 9 8 0 t o 2 0 0 0 i s e s t i r a t e d e t 3 . 2 7

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T h e n u r b e r o f b i r t h s p e r 1 0 0 0 i n h a b i t a n t s d e c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g t o U n i t e d N e t i o n s d a t a f r o t r { 8 . f ( 1 9 6 0 / 6 5 D ) t o 4 5 . 2 ( 1 9 8 0 / 8 5 D ) . A t t h e s a n e t i n e t h e a v e r a g e f i g u r e f o r d e a t h s ( p e r 1 0 0 0 i n h a b l t a n t s ) w e n t d o w n f r o n 2 3 . 8 t o 1 5 . 8 . T h i s a c c e l e r a t e d t h e n a t u r a l p o p u l a t l o n g r o w t h ( d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e n u n b e r o f b i r t h s a n d d e a t h s , H i t h o u t i n c l u d i n g c r o s s - b o r d e r t r i g r a t i o n s ) f r o t r 2 . 4 % 1 1 9 6 0 t 6 5 D t t o 2 , 9 * ( 1 9 8 0 / 8 5 D ) p e r y e a r . I n f a n t r o r t a l i t y ( d e a t h H i t h i n t h e f i r s t y e a r p e r I 0 0 0 l i v e b i r t h s ) d e c r e a s e d f r o t r 1 4 6 ( 1 9 6 0 / 6 5 D ) t o I 0 ? ( t 9 8 0 / 8 5 D ) . L i f e e x p e c t a n c y a t b l r t h w a s 5 l y e a r s i n I 9 8 4 ,

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-I n B a s - Z a i r e , K i v u , I e s t K a s a i a n d E a s t l ( a s a i t h e p o p u l e t i o n d e n 6 i t y i s a b o v e t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e ( 1 9 8 / t : 1 2 . ? i n h a b i t a n t s p e r k r z ) . T h e r o E t t h i c k l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a i s t h e d i s t r i c t o f t h e c a p i t a l c i t y . I n l l a u t z a i r e a n d t h e e q u a t o r i a l r e g i o n s , a n a v e r a g e o f o n l y 8 . 4 i n h a b l t a n t s p e r k l 2 H a s r e c o r d e d i n 1 9 8 { . I n s h a b a ( l ( a t a n g a ) , w h i c h l s t h e r o c t t h i n l y p o p u l a t e d r e g i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y , t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d r a l n l y i n t h e l a r g e r t o H n s o f t h e n a r r o H r l n l n g s t r i p .

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2 6 6 . 3 3 6 . 6 r 2 . 5 8 . 4 8 . 4 2 0 . 2 7 . 8 1 4 . 6 t 4 . 3

1 9 8 5 l 4 5 9 8 4 4 . 2 1 8 4 5 4

5 5 . 8 * ) C e n s u s r e s u l t s

U r b a n i z a t i o n h a s n a d e r a p i d p r o g r e s s i n r e c e n t d e c e d e s . I n I 9 8 5 , t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n w a s b a r e l y 5 6 % , w h i l e i n l 9 ? 0 i t w a s a l r o s t ? O % T i t h i n t h e s e l 5 y e a r s , t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f r u r a l d i E t r i c t s g r e H b y a r o u n d 2 2 [ f h i l e t h e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h i n t o w n s v e s 1 2 2 % T h e h i g h g r o w t h r a t e i n t o w n s a n d c i t i e s c a n o n l y b e e x p l a i n e d b y t h e r u r a l e x o d u s t o t h e c i t i e s . A n a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r i s t h a t t h e n a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r a t e i n c i t i e s i s h i g h e r t h a n i n r u r a l a r e a s . B e t t e r n e d i c a l c a r e a n d -t o s o n e e x -t e n -t - b e t t e r s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s l e a d t o h i g h e r l i f e e x p e c t a n c y , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t o a l o w e r r a t e o f i n f a n t r o r t a l i t y i n u r b a n a r e a s . C h a n g e s i n s e x u a l b e h a v l o u r , H h e r e b y t r a d i t l o n l e n g t h y p e r i o d s o f a b s t i n e n c e w e r e r e q u i r e d a f t e r c h i l d b i r t h , p r o b a b l y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i n c r e a s e d b i r t h r a t e i n t o w n s .

3 . 5 P o p u l a t i o n b y u r b a n a n d r u r a l a r e a s * ) U r b a n / r u r a l a r e a s

T o w n s . . R u r a I a r e a s .

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* ) U n i t e d N a t i o n a l e s t i m a t e . S i t u a t i o n : m i d - y e a r I ) P o p u l a t i o n c e n s u s r e s u l t

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2 1

-l ( i n s h a s a , t h e c a p i t a l , c o n s t i t u t e s t h e l a r g € s t u r b a n c e n t r e . I t s p o p u l e t i o n d o u b l e d b e t w € e n l 9 ? o a n d 1 9 8 4 , a p p r o a c h i n g a b o u t o n e f l f t h o f t h e e n t i r e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . T h e d € t r l D e n t a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f s u d d e n u r b a n i z a t i o n c a n b e s e e n p a r t l c u l a r l y c l e a r l y i n K i n s h a s a . i l o s t o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s l i v e i n s u b u r b a n h o u s i n g d e v e l o p r e n t s , w h l c h p r o l i f e r a t e d l n a r a t h e r c h a o t l c r a n n e r i n t h e l a s t f o r t y y e a r s , T h e s e s u b u r b s g e n e r a l l y h a v e n o r a t e r o r e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l y , n o r e r e t h e y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s e w a g e E y s t e [ , N o p u b l l c t r a n s p o r t n e t w o r k e x i s t s f o r i n t e r - s u b u r b a n c o r r u n l c a t l o n .

T h e s e c o n d - l a r g e s t c i t y , w i t h 9 3 8 0 0 0 i n h a b i t a n t s , i s r e g i o n a l c a p i t a l o f U e s t K a s a i . I n 1 9 8 4 , a b o u t 2 9 i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e S h a b a ( K a t a n g a ) r e g i o n l i v e d i n i t s t o w n s .

K a n a n g a , t h e % o f a l l t h e t h r e e , l a r g e s t

3 . 6 P o p u l a t i o n b y s e l e c t e d u r b a n a r e a s I 0 0 0

T o w n s

r 3 2 4 2 3 l 2 5 2 3 l 3 l l t 4 l 0 l l

2 0 0 8 6 0 1 4 0 4 3 3 7 3 1 1 t 8 2 1 5 0 1 3 4 1 4 4

2 4 4 4 7 0 4 7 5 1 3 8 3 3 3 9 2 0 9 t 7 2 t 6 2 r 4 9 t 6 2

2 6 5 4 5 4 3 4 2 3 3 8 4

:

1 9 4

1 9 8 5

e 3 ä 7 6 5 6 2 5 5 5 7 4 1 8 3 4 6 ? 9 4 2 t 6

Z t i r e B u f f e r s r o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r A f r l c a n c o u n t r y f r o r t h e d i v e r s i t y o f i t s e t h n i c g r o u p g ( a b o u t 2 5 0 d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s a n d s u b - g r o u p 3 ) . F u r t h e r r o r e , r e r b e r s o f l n d i v i d u a l e t h n i c g r o u p s a r e o f t e n c ü t o f f f r o n t h € r e 6 t o f t h e i r t r i b e s i n n e i g h b o u r i n g | c o u n t r i e s b y n a t l o n s l f r o n t l e r s . T h l s a p p l i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e c o n g o , A s e n d a a n d C h o k w e , a n d a l s o t o s r a l l e r t r i b a l g r o u p s .

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2 2

-D e p e n d l n g o n c h a n g i n g p o l i t l c a l . s l t u a t i o n s a n d c i v i l w a r s l n n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s , a g r o w i n g n u i b e r o f r e f u g e e s s e e k a s y l u t l n Z a i r e . I n I 9 8 5 t h e r e w e r e L o r e t h a n 3 0 0 0 o o r e f u g e e s c o r i n g t a i n l y f r o r A n g o l a ( a b o u t 2 5 0 0 0 0 ) , U g a n d a , R w a n d a , Z a r b i a a n d ( s o u t h e r n ) S u d a n . T h e n u r b e r o f o t h e r f o r e i g n e r s l l v i n g i n Z a i r e w a 6 e s t i r a t e d a t 6 0 0 0 0 i n

1 9 8 4 , o f w h o n a r o u n d 2 5 0 0 0 w e r e i n K i n s h a s a . T h e l a r g e s t f o r e l g n g r o u p i n 1 9 8 4 c o n s i s t e d o f l 5 0 0 0 B e l g i a n s , f o l l o r e d b y a b o u t 5 0 0 0 F r e n c h . T h e o f f i c i a l l a n g u a g e i s F r e n c h ( e v e r a i n c e c o l o n i a l d e y s ) . ü a J o r v e r n a c u l a r s a r e t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h e l a r g e r t r i b a l g r o u p s . S u p r a - r e g i o n a l n a t i o n a l l a n g u a g e s a r e S x a h i l l ( [ i s u a h e l i ) i n t h e e n t l r e e a s t e r n a r e a o f t h e c o u n t r y . L u b a ( ( i l u b a , T s h l l u b a ) i n t h e s o u t h e a s t , L i n g a l a i n t h e c e n t r e a n d l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e Z a i r e r i v e r , a n d l ( l k o n g o $ e s t o f K i n s h a s a . T h e s e s u p r a - r e g i o n a l n a t l o n a l l a n g u a g e s a r e b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d t o a n l n c r e a s i n g e x t e n t l n t h e r e g l o n a l a d r i n i s t r a t i o n s a n d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e r .

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2 3

-4 . H E A L T H

l l e d i c a l c a r e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s t i l l s u f f e r s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e d e p a r t u r e o f f o r e i g n d o c l o r s i n t h e e a r l y s i x t i e s : c o n s i d e r a b l e p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t a n d a c h r o n i c s h o r t a g e o f n o n e y a l s o h a d d e t r i q e n t a l e f f e c t s o n h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . T h e r e r ' a s ä l r o s o u e o b s t r u c t l ; n t o t h e c h u r c h e s , - w h i c h p r e v i o u s l y h a d a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f h e a l t h - s e r v i c e s i n t h e i r h a n d t ' T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , c o n b i n e d w i t i r a s u d d e n i n c r e a s e i n d i f f i c u l t i e s o f f o o d s u p p l y , p a r t l y e x p l a i n w h y , f o r u e " e r a i y e a r s , n o d a t a h a s b e e n . a v a i l a b l e o n t h e h e a l t i r s i i u a t i o n .

T h e g e n E r a l s t a t e o f h e a l t h o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s p o o r , i l a n y d i s e a s e s , m a i n l y t r o b i c a l a n d o f t e n e p i d e r i c ( L . g . c h o l e r a ä p t o e n i c i n t s z s l ,

" . " r e r p a n t , a n d a r e c a u s e d p r e d o n i n a n t i y b y a n u n b a l a n c e d d i e t o r D a l n u t r i t i o n , a n d b v i n a d - q u a t e s a n i t ä r y t r e a s u r e s ( o n l y a b o u i i i r ä - r t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a s a c c e s s t o c l e a n , r u n n i n g w a t e r ) . I n r e m o t e r ü r a l a r e a s r e d i c a l c a r e i s o f t e n l a c k i n g a l i o g e t h e r , a n o e v Ä n t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n i s a t t i t r e s a f f e c t e d b y a s h ö r t a g e ' o i p t r i r a a c e u t i c a l p r o d u c t s . l t a n y z a i r i a n s , b e c a u s e o f i n ! u f f i c i " n t o i n o n - e x i i i e n t i n c o n e , c a n n o t a f f o r d e x p e n s i v e r e d i c i n e s .

I n 1 9 8 2 t h e f i r s t n a t i o n a l f i v e - y e a r - p l a n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s w a s l a u n c h e d . u e d i c ä l c a r e w a s t o b e i n r p i o v e d i n r u r a l a r e a s b y t h e c r e a t i o n o f 1 4 0 r u r a l " h e e l t h z o n e s " . i h e p l a n a l s o i n c l u d e d t h e e s t a b l i s h n e n t o f a b o u t z 6 o 0 h e a l t h c e n t r e 6 ( ä o b u l a t o r y d i s p e n s a r i e s ) , a n d t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e n e c e s s a r y n e d i c a l s t a f f . I n t e r i n r e s u l t s i n 1 9 8 { s h o w e d t h a t 9 0 o f t h e s e h e a l t i r z o n e s w e r e o f e r a t i o n a l , 7 0 0 h e a l t h c e n t r e s o r s i n i l a r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a d o p e n e d a n d a L o u t 5 0 s o f t h e n e c e s s a r y a r e d i c a l s t a f f h a d b e e n t r a i n e d .

H e a l t h c a r e i n Z a i r e i s s t i l l l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t o n f o r e i g n s u p p o r t . o n e o f t h e l a r g e s t d o n o r s i s t h e u n i t a d S t a i e s A g e n c y f o r I n t e r n a t r o n a l D e v e l o p n e n t ( u s A I D ) w h o s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s g e n e r a l i y g o t o n o n - ; o v e r n n e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,

A v a i l a b l e d a t a o n d i s e a s e s , p r e v e n t i v e v a c c i n a t i o n s a n d d e a t h s a r e n a n y y e e r s o l d ' a n d e v e n - f o r t h a t p e r i o d t h e y p r o v i d e a h i g h l y l n c o n p l e t ä p i c t u r e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h s i t u a t i o n

4 . I R e g i s t e r e d d i s e a s e s D i s e a s e

1 9 7 8 I ) T y p h o i d a n d p a r a t y p h o i d . n u m b e r

B a c t e r i a l d y s e n t e r y . . . . . n u m b e r P l a g u e . . n u m b e r D i p h t h e r i a . . n u m b e r P e r t u s s i s ( w h o o p i n g c o u g h ) . . 1 0 0 0 M e n i n g o c o c c u s i n f e c t i o n s . . . n u m b e r A c u t e p o l i o m y e l i t i s . . . . . n u m b e r M e a s l e s

V i r a l h e p a t i t i s . . . . . n u m b e r I n f l u e n z a . . . 1 0 0 0

I 5 9 8 3 r 9 9 t 7 4 4 2 7 . 9

5 6 5 5 8 7 s 7 . 8 5 ? 4 9 1 3 4 . 9

8 5 3 3 8 3 3 I 4 7 2 4 . , 6

4 8 4 7 t 2 5 l . l 5 7 7 9 t 4 2 . 3

t 2 5 4 3 5 9 8 t z 2 3 1 9 . 0 5 3 4 5 3 1 5 9 . 9 s 3 9 7 1 4 1 . 5

5 6 6 a ) 2 1 0 4 a l

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24

4 . 2 S e l e c t e d p r e v e n t i v e v a c c i n a t i o n s I 0 0 0

T y p e o f v a c c i n a t i o n C h o l e r a . . . . . . . .

r u b e r c u l o r i r : : : : : : : : . . . .

T e t a n u s . . . . r P o l i o n y e t i t i s . . .

P o x M e a s le s Y e l l o w f e v e r . . .

C a u s e o f d e a t h

I l l 6 1 5 6

9 6 l 8 9 2 9

l 5 9

4 . 3 D e a t h s b y s e l e c t e d c a u s e s

t 2 3 8 4 . 8 0

8 ? 8 9 6 8 3 0

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1

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7 4 t 3 7 T y p h o i d

B a c t e r i a l P l a g u e . . . D i p h t h e r i a

P e r t u s s i s ( w h o o p i n g c o u g h ) . l l e n i n g o c o c c u s i n f e c t i o n . . . . P o l i o m y e l i t i s . . . . . . o l l e a s l e s

V i r a I h e p a t i t i s . . . . . I n f l u e n z a . .

a n d p a r a t y p h o i d . d y s e n t e r y . . . .

t 2 l 6 I t 6 6 5 3 2 0 7 6 6

z 2

| 2,7

I n g e n e r a l , n e d i c a l c a r e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r u r a l a r e a s , h a s d e t e r i o r a t e d a s c o l p a r e d $ i t h t h e s i t u a t l o n p r i o r t o t 9 6 0 , A b o v e a l l , a l a r g e n u r b e r o f s r a l l d i s p e n s a r l e s w e r e E h u t d o w n f o r l a c k o f n e d i c a l a n d a u x i l i a r y p e r s o n n e l , f i n a n c i a l l e a n s a n d p h a r r a c e u t l c a l s . A s i n d i c a t e d . a b o v e , h o n e v e r , s o t r e i r p r o v e i e n t s w e r e a c h i e v e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e s e r u r a l a r e a s , i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h € f i v e - y € a r h e a l t h p l a n .

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F a c i l i t i e s

H o s p i t a l s a n d c l i n i c s . .

S t a t e - r u f l . . . o ! . . .

M a t e r n i t y h o m e s . . . . . , . . S t a t e - r u f l , . . . . L e p r o s y c e n t r e s . . , . . . . . _ S t a t e - r u n . . . . P s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s . . . . T u b e r c u l o s i s s a n a t o r i a .

S t a t e - r u n . . H e a l t h c e n t r e s . S t a t e - r u n . .

25

4 . 4 M e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s

3 1 5 t 5 7 1 8 8

6 7 5 6 3 Z 4 t 7 l 4 2 9 5 4 a 1 2 2 3 4

3 5 t t 7 6 3 3 0

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t 9 7 I 3 5 t t 7 6 3 3 0 8 9 2 9 l 0

3 5 5 2 2 4 t 0 2 a ) I n c l u d i n g a n b u l a t o r y s e r v i c e s a n d d i s p e n s a r i e s

T h e n u m b e r o f h o s p i t a l b e d s s I i g h t l y i n 1 9 7 9 a s c o n p a r e d c I i n i c s ) . T h e n u m b e r o f b e d s a g a i n s t t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , a n d 3 0 %

i n m e d i c a l f a c i I i t i e s i n c r e a s e d o n l y w i t h 1 9 7 8 ( n a t e r n i t y h o n e s , p s y c h i a t r i c i n h e a l t h c e n t r e s d e c r e a s e d s I i g h t t y i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h 1 9 ? 0 , i t d e c r e a s e d b y

4 . 5 H o s p i t a l b e d s S e r v i c e s

H o s p i t a l s a n d c l i n i c s . . S t a t e - r u n . . . . M a t e r n i t y h o m e s . . . .

S t a t e - r u n . . . . L e p r o s y c e n t r e s . . . .

S t a t e - r u n . . . P s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c s . . . . T u b e r c u l o s i s s a n a t o r i a .

S ta t e - r u n . H e a I t h c e n t r e s . S t a t e - r u n . .

4 8 2 8 l 2 4 t 0 8 8 l 0 l

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_ x r _

T h e r e w e r e r o r e d o c t o r s i n t h e c o u n t r y b e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e ( f 9 5 9 : ? 6 1 ) t h a n i n l 9 ? 0 ( ? t 8 ) . c i v e n t h e g r o w i n g p o p ü l a t i o n , t h e " d e n 3 i t y " o f d o c t o r s c h a n g e d f r o r a r o u n d 2 3 0 0 0 t o a r o u n d 3 1 0 0 0 i n h a b i t a n t s p e r d o c t o r , D u r l n g t h € s e v e n t i e s , t h e n u r b e r o f d o c t o r s i n c r e a s e d s h a r p l y ' ' a n d

t h e s t e t i 6 t i c a l r a t i o o f i n h e b i t a n t s p e r d o c t o r l r p r o v e d t o a r o u n d 1 5 0 0 0 i n l g ? 9 . l t s h o u l d n o t , h o n e v € r , b e f o r g o t t e n t h a t a p D r o x l r a t e l y o n e t h i r d o f a l l d o c t o r s a r e i n t h e c a p i t a l c l t y , a n d r o s t o f t h € o t h e r s a r e i n t h e l a r g e r p r o v i n c i a l c l t i e s . I n € v a l u a t i n g t h e r e l a t l v e l y s r a l l n u r b e r o f d o c t o r s a n d r e d l c a l p e r s o n n e l , i t s h o ü l d b e b o r n e i n . l n d t h a t a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t l o n s t i l l t u r n s t o t h e h e a l i n g l e t h o d s o f t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n r e d i c i n e , a n d t o E o r e e x t e n t t h e g o v e r n t r € n t h a s e n c o u r a g e d t h i s .

4 . 6 D o c t o r s a n d d e n t i s t s

C a t e g o r y t 9 7 9

D o c t o r s I n h a b i t a n t s D e n t i s t s . . . I n h a b i t a n t s

ä;; i;; : :

ä ; ; i i; i :

'\

n u n b e r I 0 0 0 n u r b e r I 0 0 0

7 1 8 3 0 . 6 2 l 1 0 4 7 , 2

r ? 2 3 1 9 0 0 1 5 . 9 1 4 . 8

5 3 5 8 5 1 5 . 4 4 8 4 . 9

1 9 7 9 T y p e o f p e r s o n n e I

P h a r m a c i s t N u r s in g s t a f f

A u x i I i a r y n u r s i n g s t a f f M i d w i v e s

A s s i s t a n t n i d w i v e s

4 , 7 0 t h e r n e d i c a l p e r s o n n e l

l l l t 6 3 5 7 7 9 5

3 0 0 l 3 6 l

5 3 7 l r 4 3 6 6 7 4 0 9 7 l 0 l { 4 1 0 5 6 4

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Table l9.l f985. Arong the relbers

References

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