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DEVELOP A LINEAR MEASUREMENT SENSOR SYSTEM

ANG SEI QI

This Report Is Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement For

The Bachelor Degree Of Electronic Engineering (Industrial Electronic)

Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering

University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

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UNIVERSTI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN ELEKTRONIK DAN KEJURUTERAAN KOMPUTER

BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS LAPORAN

PROJEK SARJANA MUDA II

Tajuk Projek : Develop a Linear Measurement Sensor System

Sesi Pengajian : 2009/2010

Saya ANG SEI QI mengaku membenarkan Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda ini disimpan di Perpustakaan dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1. Laporan adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.

2. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.

3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan laporan ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.

4. Sila tandakan ( ) :

SULIT* (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972)

TERHAD* (Mengandungi maklumat terhad yang telah ditentukan

oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan)

TIDAK TERHAD

Disahkan oleh:

__________________________ ___________________________________

(TANDATANGAN PENULIS) (COP DAN TANDATANGAN PENYELIA)

Alamat Tetap: 5-05 Lorong Bulan 1,

Pangsapuri Seri Orkid,

13000 Butterworth, P.Pinang.

Tarikh: Tarikh:

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“I hereby declare that this report is the result of my own work except for quotes as cited in the references.”

Signature :……….

Author :……….

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“I hereby declare that I have read this report and in my opinion this report is sufficient in

terms of the scope and quality for the award of bachelor of Electronic Engineering

(Industrial Electronics) With Honours.”

Signature :

Supervisor’s Name : MR. FARID ARAFAT BIN AZIDIN

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I would like to praise God for His blessing. He gave me physical and mental strength to carry on my final year project up to this status.

I would like to express gratitude and thanks to my supervisor, Mr. Farid Arafat Bin Azidin for his support and unfailing patience throughout the duration of the project. His encouragement and guidance are truly appreciated. I have learnt a lot under his guidance, be it practically or theoretically.

Other than that, I am grateful to my all friends who help me and giving me opinion along implementation of this project.

I would like to thanks my parent on their moral support as I can count on them whenever I am upset or down.

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ABSTRACT

Linear measurement sensor system is a created to measure the linear distance, by

using the reflective infrared system which controlled by PIC16F628A, and display result

on the screen of the LCD. A combination of reflective IR sensor, 2X8 LCD and PIC

controller, the reflective infrared sensor will detect black and white color in the roller,

and give small differences voltage signal, then the small voltage signal will be converted

by into linear measurement in mm. the output signal will be displayed in LCD 2x8. The

PIC will be programmed by using PIC complier software. The 2x8 LCD display is used

and this project will become small, easily to carry. The objective of this system is to

investigate new measurement tools of linear distance that can avoid error occur when

taking the measurement reading, this linear measurement sensor system is introduced to

provide a more accurate linear measured reading. In addition, to shorten time taking of

the reading after a measurement, by just looking at the 2x8 LCD display. To achieve the

objectives, the Protues software is used in the schematic circuit design and simulation,

and the MicroCode Studio software is used in the PicBasic programming development.

The feature of this project is specified by stated the scope of the project. The PIC

programming will be developed for converting the small voltage signal to linear

measurement in mm. The measurement range will be around 0 – 9999mm and show on

the LCD display. Furthermore, the precision of the project can also be stated in the

designing of the black and white roller. This system will be extremely handy and

convenience to operate at different environment condition with the special casing design

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ABSTRAK

Sistem sensor pengukuran lurus yang dibuat untuk mengukur jarak lurus, dengan

menggunakan sistem inframerah reflektif yang dikendalikan oleh PIC16F628A, dan

hasilnya dipaparkan pada skrin LCD. Kombinasi sensor IR reflektif, 2X8 LCD dan

controller PIC, sensor inframerah reflektif akan mengesan warna hitam dan putih di

roller, dan memberikan perbezaan kecil isyarat voltan, maka tegangan isyarat kecil akan

dikonversi kedalam pengukuran lurus dalam mm. isyarat keluaran akan dipaparkan di

LCD 2X8. PIC akan diprogram dengan menggunakan “software compiler” PIC. Layar

LCD 2X8 digunakan dan projek ini akan menjadi kecil, mudah untuk dibawa. Tujuan

dari sistem ini adalah untuk mengetahui alat ukur baru jarak lurus yang boleh

mengelakkan kesalahan terjadi saat memuat pembacaan pengukuran, sistem pengukuran

garis lurus sensor diperkenalkan untuk memberikan yang lebih tepat membaca lurus

diukur. Selain itu, untuk memendekkan masa turun membaca selepas pengukuran,

dengan hanya melihat layar LCD 2X8. Untuk mencapai tujuan, Protues perisian yang

digunakan dalam desain skema litar dan simulasi, dan microcode Studio adalah software

yang digunakan dalam pembangunan program PicBasic. Ciri-ciri dari projek ini adalah

ditentukan oleh lingkup projek lain. Pemprograman PIC akan dikembangkan untuk

menukar isyarat voltan kecil untuk pengukuran lurus dalam mm. Rentang pengukuran

akan sekitar 0 – 9999mm dan menunjukkan pada paparan LCD. Selain itu, ketepatan

projek juga boleh dinyatakan dalam perancangan roda hitam dan putih. Sistem ini akan

sangat berguna dan kemudahan untuk beroperasi pada keadaan persekitaran yang

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

PROJECT TITLE i

BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS LAPORAN ii

STUDENT DECLARATION iii

SUPERVISOR DECLARATION iv

DEDICATION v

ACKNOWLEGEMENT vi

ABSTRACT vii

ABSTRAK viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ix

LIST OF TABLES xiii

LIST OF FIGURES xiv

LIST OF ABBREVIATION xvi

LIST OF APPENDIX xviii

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1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Objectives 3

1.3 Problem Statement 4

1.4 Scopes of Project 4

1.5 Briefly Explanation of Methodology 5

1.6 Report Structure 7

II LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction 8

2.2 Peripherals Interface Controller (PIC) 9

2.2.1 Introduction of PIC 9

2.2.2 Comparison PIC16F628A to Other PIC 11

2.2.3 Benefit of 16F628A 13

2.3 Infrared Sensor 13

2.3.1 Introduction of Infrared Sensor 13

2.3.2 Reflective IR sensor 14

2.3.3 Advantages of Reflective Infrared Sensor 16

2.4 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 17

2.4.1 Introduction 17

2.4.2 Three Control Lines of LCD 19

2.4.3 Liquid Crystal Display Pin Description 20

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III PROJECT METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction 22

3.2 Flow Chart 23

3.3 PicBasic Programming Flow Chart 26

3.4 System Block Diagram 27

3.5 Circuit Design 27

3.5.1 Voltage Regulator Circuit 28

3.5.2 Main Functional Circuit 28

3.5.3 List of Component 31

3.6 Circuit Simulation 32

3.6.1 Circuit Construct Using Protues ISIS 33

3.6.2 Testing the Programming in ISIS 37

3.7 Test Board Construction 39

3.7.1 Soldering Skills 39

3.7.2 Desoldering Skills 41

3.8 PIC Programming 41

3.8.1 Steps of LCD Programming 42

3.9 PIC Pro Basic Programming Compiling 43

3.10 Circuit Testing 46

3.11 PCB (Printed Circuit Board) Design 46

3.11.1 PCB Layout Design 47

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IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction 50

4.2 Software Development Analysis 50

4.2.1 Main Functional Circuit Simulation 50

4.2.2 PCB Layout Design 53

4.2.3 PIC Programming 53

4.3 Hardware Development Analysis 56

4.3.1 Test Board 56

4.3.2 PCB (Printed Circuit Board) 57

4.3.3 Final Product with Casing 58

4.4 Measurement Result Analysis 60

4.4.1 Linear Measurement 60

4.4.2 Curve Line Measurement 61

4.4.3 Circle Measurement 62

V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

5.1 Conclusion 63

5.2 Suggestion 64

REFERENCES 65

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LIST OF TABLES

NO TITLE PAGE

Table 2.1: Comparison between PIC16F628A and PIC16F84 11

Table 2.2: Comparison between PIC16F628A and PIC 16F877 12

Table 2.3: LCD Pin Description 20

Table 3.1: PIC 16F628A pin connection 29

Table 3.2: 2X8 LCD Pin Connection 30

Table 3.3: Component List of Voltage Regulator Circuit 31

Table 3.4: Components List of Main Functional Circuit 31

Table 3.5: Soldering Reminder and Warning 40

Table 3.6: Command Operation 43

Table 4.1: Result Analysis of Linear Measurement 60

Table 4.2: Result Analysis of Curve Line Measurement 61

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xiv   

LIST OF FIGURES

NO TITLE PAGE

Figure 1.1: Carpenter’s Folding Rule and Metal Tape Measure 2

Figure 1.2: System Block Diagram 3

Figure 1.3: Flow Chart 6

Figure 2.1: Size Comparison 10

Figure 2.2: The Operation Diagram of Reflective Infrared Sensor 15

Figure 2.3: Construction of the LCD 17

Figure 2.4: Character 2X8 LCD 19

Figure 3.1: Flow Chart 23

Figure 3.2: PicBasic Programming Flow Chart 26

Figure 3.3: System Block Diagram 27

Figure 3.4: Voltage Regulator Circuit 28

Figure 3.5: Protues ISIS user’s interface 32

Figure 3.6: Step of Component selection 33

Figure 3.7: Pick Devices Window 33

Figure 3.8: Placing Component on the schematic sheet 34

Figure 3.9: Component Rotation 34

Figure 3.10: Wiring 35

Figure 3.11: Power Supply and Ground 35

Figure 3.12: Edit Terminal Label 36

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Figure 3.14: Circuit Execution/Simulation 37

Figure 3.15: Simulation Error Log 37

Figure 3.16: Constructed Circuit in ISIS Protues 38

[image:15.612.119.520.71.468.2]

Figure 3.17: Programming Compiling 44

Figure 3.18: Program Loader 45

Figure 3.19: MicroCode Loader 45

Figure 3.20: ARES Professional Window 47

Figure 3.21: Route size selection and Miter Selection 48

Figure 3.22: Side View & Front View 49

Figure 4.1: System Description Shown 51

Figure 4.2: LCD Display 51

Figure 4.3: Clock Pulse Supply 52

Figure 4.4: Memory Button 52

Figure 4.5: PCB Layout Bottom View and Top View 53

Figure 4.6: Testing Board 57

Figure 4.7: Finished PCB: Bottom View and Top View (Components Align) 57

Figure 4.8: Top View of Final product 59

Figure 4.9: Bottom View 59

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LIST OF ABBREVIATION

PIC - Programmable Interface Controller

LCD - Liquid Crystal Display

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

PSM - Projek Sarjana Muda

CPU - Central Processing Unit

ROM - Read-Only Memory

I/O - Input/Output

RISC - Reduced Instruction Set Computer

EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

UART - Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

PWM - Pulse Width Modulation

RAM - Random-Access-Memory

EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

IDCC - Integrated Data Communications Controller

DVI - Digital Visual Interface

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MCU - Microcontroller Unit

EN - Encoder

PCB - Printed Circuit Board

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xviii   

LIST OF APPENDIX

NO TITLE PAGE

A Data Sheet of PIC 16F628A 67

B Data Sheet of 7805 5V Voltage Regulator 78

C Data Sheet of 2X8 LCD Monitor 87

D Data Sheet of QRD 1113 90

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter will give reader a basic introduction to how the idea of this project generated. The chapter contains introduction, objective of the project, problem statement, scopes of project, brief methodology, and report structure.

1.1 Introduction

 

Linear measure is used to express distance and to indicate the differences in their elevations. The standard units of linear measure are the foot and the meter. In surveying operations, both of these standard units are frequently divided into tenths, hundredths, and thousandths for measurements. For longer distances are involved; the foot is expanded into a statute or to a nautical mile and the meter into a kilometer. But for the short distance or short range measurement, normally will use centimeter (cm) as a unit. 1 meter is equal to 100 centimeter.

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measurement tools, can be folder or retracts, nevertheless, the long scale of these measurement tools have bring a lot of inconveniences for the user.

[image:20.612.171.502.130.239.2]

Figure 1.1: carpenter’s folding rule and metal tape measure

Digital measuring tools seem to be a great idea and new trend in the measurement world. There is no tape or scale to deal with. But with a digital measuring tape it have to holding both ends of the tape measure and the tape measure bending and giving an inaccurate reading. Digital measuring tools accuracy with an old fashion measuring tools there were so many ways to make the reading inaccurate. With the combination of electronic technology, the reading can also be memorized by using the digital measurement tools, to avoid the user in forgetting the reading. The character LCD also is a trend in the developing measurement tools.

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[image:21.612.125.536.68.208.2]

   

Figure 1.2: System Block Diagram

1.2Objectives

The main purpose of this project is to develop a linear measurement sensor system with three main electronic components, which is reflective infrared sensor, PIC and character LCD display. Therefore the objectives below should be achieved.

1.2.1 To avoid error occur when taking the measurement reading, this linear

measurement sensor system is introduced to provide a more accurate linear measured reading.

1.2.2 To apply electronic technology and to investigate new measurement tools of

linear distance.

1.2.3 To shorten time taking of the reading after a measurement, by just looking at the 2x8 LCD display.

1.2.4 To explore the programming of PIC controller by using PIC Pro Basic for

distance measurement application.

1.2.5 To explore the application of infrared sensor in industry and to design a

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1.3Problem Statement

1.3.1 There will be some error occur when taking the reading from measurement tools, such as parallax error.

1.3.2 For someone who is not familiar to the measurement tools, they may take time to take the reading from the scale of the measurement tools.

1.3.3 Old fashion measurement device cannot memorize the reading.

1.3.4 Some measurement tools may not suitable to measure curve line. 1.3.5 The measurement tools may be suitable to use on any kind of surfaces.

1.3.6 Others problem may be faced in this project are to write a programming to

generate the output reading according the range had been stated.

1.4Scopes of Project

1.4.1 Write the PIC programming for converting the small voltage signal to linear

measurement in cm. The measurement range will be around 0 – 9999mm and show on the LCD display.

1.4.2 Design the sensor system circuit board with a 5V voltage regulator. i. PIC controller (PIC 16F628A) with input voltage 5V,

ii. Reflective infrared sensor with input current 100µA – 10mA. iii. 2x8 LCD display with input voltage 5V.

iv. Push button as a memory button.

v. Other components such as, resistors, power switch, and etc. 1.4.3 The rubber roller will be used and the black-white will be colored inside the

roller for determining the precision of the measurement.

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1.5Briefly Explanation of Methodology

First of all, this project is beginning by having a discussion with supervisor about the general ideas and concepts that would be used in this project. Next, for literature review stage, the background of this project is studied and research is done by referring various sources like: reference book, I.E.E.E journals, website of Labcenter (Proteus Software Company), and the datasheet. For the following stage, all the information related to components, PIC, infrared sensor, character LCD display information is searching, and the most suitable would be selected for used in this project.

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[image:24.612.117.564.70.607.2]

   

Figure 1.3: Flow Chart Yes No

Design the circuit and simulate 

Development for Hardware 

Interfacing (Design circuit board)

 Circuit Testing 

Design a user friendly Casing 

End

Study for Current Project Analyze and understand project 

PIC Programming study and create 

Start

Meeting & discuss with Project 

Supervisor (PSM Briefing and 

Literature Review)

Soldering circuit 

Troubleshooting 

Figure

Figure 4.10:  Side View
Figure 1.1: carpenter’s folding rule and metal tape measure
Figure 1.2: System Block Diagram
Figure 1.3: Flow Chart

References

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