Lora Babilo Orange County Vector Control District

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Lora Babilo Orange County Vector Control District

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Mosquito Biology

Mosquito Biology

€ Mosquitoes have four life stages: y Egg y Egg y Larva y Pupap y Adult

€ The duration of the life

l d d th

cycle depends on the species and

environmental conditions

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Mosquito Biology

Mosquito Biology

€ Only the female needs a bloodmeal

y She uses the protein in the blood to produce eggsgg

€ The female uses her proboscis to obtain p

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West Nile Virus Symptoms

West Nile Virus Symptoms

€ West Nile virus has three gradations of the virus

the virus

y West Nile virus

y West Nile fever

y West Nile encephalitis € WN incubates in humans from 3-14 days days

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West Nile Virus Symptoms

West Nile Virus Symptoms

€ West Nile virus: Most of the population

(80%) ill t t

(80%) will contract WNV and never

show any symptoms show any symptoms.

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West Nile Virus Symptoms

West Nile Virus Symptoms

€ West Nile fever: About 20% of the

l ti th t population that

contract WN will get WN fever

WN fever

€ Symptoms are similar to flu-like symptoms: to flu like symptoms: fever, achy, possible rash

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West Nile Virus Symptoms

West Nile Virus Symptoms

€ West Nile

encephalitis: About

1% f l h

1% of people who contract WN will get the more extreme

the more extreme cases.

y West Nile encephalitis, p , meningitis, or

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West Nile Virus Symptoms

West Nile Virus Symptoms

€ There is no cure for West Nile virus

€ To date, there is no human vaccine for WN but scientists hope to have one in the next few

scientists hope to have one in the next few years

€ People most likely to get WNV are those with

€ People most likely to get WNV are those with weakened or compromised immune systems

€ Scientists also believe that once you have WN you are immune for life

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Personal Protective Measures

Personal Protective Measures

€ Avoid being outside during peak mosquito hours- Dawn and Dusk hours Dawn and Dusk € Wear long sleeves and

long pants when outside € Wear repellents

containing DEET,

Picaridin Oil of Lemon Picaridin, Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus, or IR 3535. € Avoid mosquito areas

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AHB Can Settle in a Variety of

Locations

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AHB Are Defending Their Hive

AHB Are Defending Their Hive

€ We should consider all bees in Southern California to be “Africanized”

€ AHB will defend an area as large as 50’ around their hive

around their hive

y Loud noises and vibration frequently sets them off from up to 100 feet away

Th i ft i f

€ There is often a warning sequence of “head butting” by individual bees

y Don’t ignore itDon t ignore it

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The Only Effective Response: Remove

the Threat

€ As quickly as possible leave the area of the q y p hive

y Run back the way you came

y Keep going for as long as it takes to get away

y Keep going for as long as it takes to get away

€ Do not try to hide or seek refuge in water

y Bees have been reported to wait up to 8 hours

€ If a vehicle is available, get in and close the door

y The bees that follow you in are a much smaller risk

y The bees that follow you in are a much smaller risk

€ Rescues should be given appropriate planning

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AHB Are Similar To European Honey

Bees

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Why Are Africanized Honey Bees More

??

Dangerous??

€

Unpredictable

€

Pursue for

€

Unpredictable

€

Nest in more

locations

€

Pursue for

greater

distance

locations

€

Respond and

tt

k

distance

€

Stay agitated

longer

attack more

quickly

longer

€

Attack with

greater

numbers

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Honey Bee Pursuit

Honey Bee Pursuit

European Honey Bees European Honey Bees

30 yards

Africanized Honey Bees

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Firefighters have special gear to make

safe rescues in serious attacks

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In an a attack each honeybee leaves her stinger behind when she stings Up to 20 000 bees can attack but each one can she stings. Up to 20,000 bees can attack but each one can only stings once

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RIFA have a red head and thorax and a

dark brown abdomen

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Fire Ants will aggressively defend their

colony

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RIFA are attracted to electrical current

RIFA are attracted to electrical current

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Black Widow Spider

Black Widow Spider

€ Shiny black body

usually with a reddish

h l th

hourglass on the underside of her abdomen

abdomen

€ About 1.5 inches long

€ Hangs belly upward

€ Hangs belly upward and rarely leaves the web

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Brown Widow Spider

Brown Widow Spider

€ Vary in color from light tan to dark brown with variable markings of black, white, yellow, orange or brown.

€ Rarely bite and are non-€ Rarely bite and are non

aggressive. Although their venom is twice as potent as black widow potent as black widow venom, they do not inject as much venom.

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Brown Recluse Spider

Brown Recluse Spider

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Recluse Spider Map

Recluse Spider Map

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Snake Venoms

Snake Venoms

€

Complex mixtures that vary by species and

work synergistically to subdue prey

y Enzymes (over 25 identified)

y Polypeptides

y Misc (glycoproteins inorganic ions amino acids)

y Misc. (glycoproteins, inorganic ions, amino acids)

€

Typically venoms emphasize either

€

Typically, venoms emphasize either

y Hemotoxicity (tissue destruction)

y Neurotoxicity (CNS collapse)

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Venom Delivery

Venom Delivery

€ Venom produced in modified salivary modified salivary glands

€ Muscles around the gland control venom delivery during a bite by t ti contracting € Quantity regulated by snakes by snakes depending on prey size and venom

availability availability

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Pit Vipers

Pit Vipers

Subfamily

Subfamily CrotalidaeCrotalidae

€ Found only in the Americas and in Asia

€ Characterized by € Characterized by

specialized structures, loreal pit-organs, that house

radiant heat receptors

y Can “see” endothermic prey by its infrared radiation

y Short-range detectors important

y Short-range detectors important in aiming the snake’s strike,

especially at night

y Receptor fields overlap, giving t i i f d i i

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Rattlers in California

Rattlers in California

Red diamond

Red diamond Mojave / Mojave greenMojave / Mojave green Red diamond

Red diamond Crotalus

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Rattlers in California

Rattlers in California

Western diamondback

Western diamondback SidewinderSidewinder Western diamondback

Western diamondback Crotalus atrox

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Rattlers in California

Rattlers in California

Western

Western SpeckledSpeckled

Western Western Crotalus helleri

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Rattlesnake

Rattlesnake Envenomation

Envenomation

>99% S i b t P ti i Still th B t C >99% S i b t P ti i Still th B t C

>99% Survive, but Prevention is Still the Best Cure >99% Survive, but Prevention is Still the Best Cure

€ Approx. 800 bites per year in California with 1 to 2 deaths

y Most occurred while handling or molesting a snake

y News Flash! Males ages 15 - 30 are bitten most often € More venom may be injected in defense

€ “Roadkills” may bite

€ Roadkills may bite

€ The amount of venom delivered in bites is highly variable and 15-50% of bites are “dry”

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Rattlesnake Bites

Rattlesnake Bites

Whi h W ? Whi h W ?

Size

Which are Worse? Which are Worse?

S e

y Eastern and Western diamondbacks may exceed 6 ft. and inject huge quantities of venom

y Small species and babies should not be considered “safer”

Species

y #1: Mojave rattlesnake, C. scutulatus

y #2: Southern Pacific rattlesnake, C. helleri

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If Bitten by a Rattlesnake…

If Bitten by a Rattlesnake…

€ Need to receive treatment

ASAP “Ti i ti ”

ASAP “Time is tissue”

-€ Do not panic

€ Do NOT try to capture the snake for identification

y All pit vipers in the USA are covered by the CroFab

antivenom

€ Remove jewelry, watches, etc. – swelling may progress

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Rattlesnake

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If Bitten by a Rattlesnake…

If Bitten by a Rattlesnake…

€ Keep bite area immobilized below the level of the

h t

heart

y Do not use a tourniquet

y Do not “slice and suck”

y Suction devices (e.g., Sawyer Extractor) are unproven

D 't i t l th d f th f i th

y Don't use ice to slow the spread of the venom - freezing the stricken limb is a major factor leading to amputation

A ti i th ONLY th f

€ Antivenom is the ONLY proven therapy for snakebites!

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Good Websites for Information

Good Websites for Information

€

www ocvcd org

€

www.ocvcd.org

€

www.cdc.gov

€

www westnile ca gov

€

www.westnile.ca.gov

€

www.ochealthinfo.com

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