PROCEEDINGS JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

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October 9-10, 2015

Published by Sons and Daughters Publishing House Inc.

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Open Access

ISSN 2423-298X

The Effect Of 7e Learning Cycle Approach On Students’ Conception On Changes In Matter, Energy And Time

Andrelyn Taguiam – Clavero Kalayaan National High School Department Of Education Philippines

Division Of City Schools Pasay City

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of 7E Learning Cycle Approach on students’ level of conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What is the students’ level of conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time before and after the class is taught using the 7E learning cycle approach? (2) Are there differences on the students’ level of conception in each subtopic before and after using the 7E learning cycle approach? (3) Are there differences on the students’

overall level of conception before and after using the 7E Learning cycle approach? (4) What is the students’

perception on the use of the 7E Learning cycle approach in Changes in Matter, Energy and Time? The experiment lasted for three weeks and involved one intact class of 48 students enrolled in High School Chemistry class during the School Year 2010 – 2011. Before the implementation of 7E learning cycle approach a 15-item researcher made two-tier test was administered. The results of the pretest and posttest were used in determining the students’ level of conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time. A perception questionnaire was given to 10 randomly selected students. The subtopics included in the study were: Law of Definite Composition, Information from Balanced Equations, Types of Reactions, Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions, and Factors Affecting the Rates of Chemical Reaction. To determine how well the students understood the topic for the day, a two- tier concept test for evaluation was given to the class every session as their output. Students got high scores which imply that they understood the lesson after exposing them to 7E learning cycle approach. According to them they understood the lesson easily using the said approach. They enjoyed learning and promoted the spirit of cooperation in doing the activities which are based on the 7E learning cycle. Students who have difficulty in understanding the Chemistry concepts realized that they have the capacity to understand the lesson. The answers in the two-tier concept test in the pretest and posttest were then evaluated to get the students’ level of conception per subtopic. The level of conception was determined by computing the weighted means for each subtopic. In addition to that, t-test for correlated means was also applied in determining the differences of the students’ level of conception in each subtopic before and after the 7E learning cycle approach. The overall level of conception was also determined by using the grand weighted mean of pretest and posttest. The t –test score was also used in determining the overall level of students’ conception before and after using the 7E learning cycle approach. Result of the study revealed that the 7E learning cycle approach improved the students’ conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time. The students perceived that the approach is enjoyable, helped them develop positive attitude towards Chemistry, understand the concept better and deeper, and give a clear understanding on the concepts on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time.

Andrelyn Taguiam – Clavero sweetaey318@gmail.com

Paper Reference Number: JU23WF77O

*Corresponding Author

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Published by Sons and Daughters Publishing House Inc.

© 2015 The Authors

Peer review under the responsibility of International Research Enthusiast Society Inc.

121 Introduction

Chemistry is a world filled with interesting phenomenon, appealing experimental activities, and fruitful knowledge for understanding the natural and manufactured worlds. However, it is so complex. Not only do students need to understand the symbols, terminologies, and theories used in learning chemical concepts, but they also need to transform instructionallanguage or materials that teachers use in the chemistry classroom into meaningful representations. Learning chemistry can become challenging work for students of differentages. Although many studies have been conducted in the area of misconceptions (otherwiseknown as “alternative conceptions” or

“student conceptions”) in chemistry, few studies existthat systematically collected students’ conceptions of their understanding of chemicalconcepts.

Numerous studies have repeatedly shown that students come to their chemistry class with alternative conceptions already formed as a result of their interactions with the world (Watson & Boo, 2001). These conceptions were normally acquired in their learning environment such as in class discussion and in textbooks.

Chiu, et al. (2002) reported that students generate understanding via the interaction between their existing knowledge structure and new information that might have representations of concepts that are different from their original ones. As a result, the bridge between existing and new conception creates difficulties in learning science, specifically Chemistry. Skelly and Hall (1993) defined a misconception as a mental representation of a concept, which does not correspond to currently held scientific theory. They divided misconceptions into two categories:

experiential and instructional. The experiential misconceptions are also referred to as alternative, intuitive or native conceptions. In experiential misconceptions a concept has been understood, at least to some extent, through everyday experience and interaction with the phenomenon involved. Examples of experiential misconceptions occur in connection with phenomena such as motion, energy, and gravity. Misconceptions pertaining to some chemical phenomena, however are fundamentally different because the existence of atoms and molecules are not directly within the realm of everyday experience. Misconceptions pertaining to these more abstract phenomena result from some instructional experience, within or outside of the classroom, including independent study.

Science educators and cognitive researchers have emphasized that science education improvement should focus on fundamentally important knowledge domains and that effective instructional provisions, including the strategies necessary for problem solution, vary with scientific domain.

However, school curricula tend to motivate students to quickly memorize and rapidly forget the scientific concepts, principles and findings. Hence the practical and pedagogical underpinnings of conceptual understanding in science hinge on the advances in research on learning and instruction which characterizes the learner as (a) actively constructing a view of the natural world, (b) coming to class with isolated conceptions rather than integrated ideas, (c) benefiting from the robust model of scientific phenomena, and (d) capable of learning self – monitoring skills (Linn & Songer, 1991).

In order to attain quality education, teaching strategies in science and mathematics had been tried and proven to be effective in current classroom strategies. Examples are collaborative learning, problem based learning, inquiry –based approach, and 7E learning cycle approach.

According to conceptual change theory new learning is limited by what learner knows. New concepts are defined

by a network of connections made among them and numerous other concepts from which the learner has already

established meanings (Roach & Wandersee, 1995). As a result, instructional changes mandate significant

change both in what is assessed in chemistry and how that assessment is done. New question formats, new

assessment delivery systems, and new assessment objectives are supplementing those that have been used and

valuing the past. The result is that chemistry instructors can do a better job than ever in matching assessment

with curricula (Eubanks, 2005). Due to misconceptions that arise in the field of chemistry education, the 7E

Learning cycle approach was developed. One of the teaching strategies in making learning more meaningful and

effect conceptual understanding among chemistry students is the adaptation of 7E Learning cycle. The 7E

Learning cycle is the expansion of the 5E Learning Cycle. The proposed 7E model expands the engage element

into two components – elicit and engage. Similarly, the 7E model expands the two stages of elaborate and

evaluate into three components – elaborate, evaluate and extend. The said learning cycle will help the instructors

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122 to give emphasis on the crucial elements of learning. The goal of the 7E learning model is to emphasize the increasing importance of eliciting prior understandings and the extending, or transfer of concepts. With this new model, teachers should no longer overlook these essential requirements for student learning. This research, therefore, attempted to examine the students’ conception and perceptions on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time using the 7E Learning cycle approach.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of 7E learning cycle approach on students’ conception on Change, Energy and Time. It also assessed the students’ perception on the teaching method used. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What is the students’ level of conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time before and after the class is taught using the 7E learning cycle approach?

2. Are there differences on the students’ level of conception in each subtopic before and after using the 7E learning cycle approach?

3. Are there differences on the students’ overall level of conception before and after using the 7E Learning cycle approach?

4. What is the students’ perception on the use of the 7E Learning cycle approach in Changes in Matter, Energy and Time?

Methodology

This chapter presents the research design, the sample of the study, the research instruments, the data gathering procedure and the data analysis employed with the collected data.

Research Design

The study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods of research. It utilized a pretest – post test single group pre – experimental design to determine the effect of the 7E learning cycle approach on the students’ level of conception on Change, Energy and Time.

The design employed is shown below:

O1 X O2 Where:

O1 – pretest O2 – posttest X –treatment The Sample

The study was conducted during the Fourth Grading Period of school year 2010– 2011 at the Kalayaan National High School in Pasay City. The sample consists of 48 third year high school students taking High School Chemistry. The sample was chosen by convenience sampling since the schedule of this intact class is convenient to the observation time of the selected observers. The topic chosen in this study was based on the Learning Competencies in Science and Technology III (Chemistry) given by the Department of Education since students are taking up High School Chemistry. The lecture was done in their first period in which they had maximized the activities performed on the discussion on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time using the 7E learning cycle - based lessons.

Research Instruments

This study used four instruments which are (1) 7E learning cycle - based lessons on the topics on Change, Energy and Time,(2) Chemistry Conceptual Understanding Test, (3) Questionnaire on the students’ perception on the use of 7E Learning Cycle Approach and (4) Observation guide.

7E Learning Cycle - Based Lessons

The study used the 7E Learning Cycle Approach in developing the lesson plans which covered topics about

Changes in Matter, Energy and Time. The learning cycle has the following stages elicit, engage, explore, explain,

elaborate, evaluate, and extend. The format of the lesson plan was adapted from the 7E by Arthur Eisenkraft

(2003) entitled Seatbelt lesson using the 7E model. The format consists of the following content; eliciting prior

understandings wherein the teacher asked their prior understanding in a given subject matter, engage

component wherein the goal was to continue to excite the interest of the students, explore phase provided an

opportunity for the students to observe, record data, identifying variables, experimentation, and organize their

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123 findings, explain phase wherein the teacher guided the students toward coherent and consistent generalizations, elaborate phase provided an opportunity for students to apply their knowledge to new domains, evaluate phase included both formative and summative evaluations of student learning, and the extend phase wherein the students practiced the transfer of learning. The researcher prepared five 7E Learning Cycle - based lesson plans which cover the topics, Law of Definite Composition, Balancing Equation, Types of Chemical Reaction, Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions and Factors Affecting the Rate of Chemical Reaction. It was content validated by three experts. There were minor revisions made to come up with the final draft.

Chemistry Conceptual Understanding Test

The researcher-made two tier concept test includes topics on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time. The students were given four possible answers to choose from on the first tier. Once they have chosen their answer they will explain why they have selected that particular choice by choosing four possible explanations on the second tier.

An initial of 15-item two tier concept test was drafted based on the Table of Specifications to aid the teacher in determining the number of questions per subtopic and the type of questions covering the three cognitive domains;

remembering, understanding, and applying. This was based on the Learning Competencies given by the Department of Education in Science and Technology III (Chemistry). The following topics were included: Law of Definite Composition, Information from Balanced Equations, Types of Reaction, Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions, and Factors Affecting the Rate of Chemical Reaction. The test consists of the first tier, multiple choice and the second tier, multiple choice, reason for choosing the answer in the first tier. This was content validated by three experts in the field of Chemistry. Minor revisions were made such as addition of illustrations and trimming of the questions as well as the stem of the choices in each item. The test was administered to 48 students taking Physics who took Chemistry last School Year 2009-2010. They were not included in the study but comparable to the target group of students. The test items were analyzed, the indices of difficulty and discrimination were calculated. Item analysis was done to serve as basis for items to be accepted, revised and rejected (Appendix A).

All of the questions were accepted which covers the topic on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time. The test - retest reliability of the CCUT is calculated using Pearson r and has a computed value of 0. 50 (Appendix B) the test is reliable enough to be used as instrument in this study.

The final draft consists of 15 items (Appendix C). The test was used for the pretest and the posttest to determine the level of conception of the students on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time.

Scoring Criteria and Scoring Guide for the Multiple –Choice Two Tier Concept Test

The scoring guide includes the numerical score equivalent to the level of conception and the criteria for scoring tiers 1 and 2. The scoring criteria for classifying students’ level of conception (Table 1) include the interval, the numerical score and level of conception, and the criteria for scoring.

To get the score of each student’s level of conception for each item in the pretest and the posttest, a scoring guide was used (Table 2) which was adapted from the study of Camento (2009). The scoring guide was composed of answers in tier 1 and tier 2 portions of the test. For each item, a student may get a score of 4 wherein he/she gets a correct answer in both tier 1 and tier 2, a score of 3 wherein he/she gets a correct answer in tier 1 and partially correct explanation in tier 2, a score of 2 wherein he/she gets a correct answer in tier 1 and wrong explanation in tier 2, a score of 1 wherein he/she gets a wrong answer in both tier 1 and tier 2, or a student may get a lowest score of 0 if he/she did not answer both tier 1 and tier 2. The scoring criteria are a categorization scheme to describe the students’ level of conception based on the students’ responses in an open ended concept test (Table 1). The levels of conception were classified into five categories namely Sound Understanding, Partial Understanding with Specific Misconception, Specific Misconception, and No Understanding.

Results And Discussion

The data presentation follows the same sequential order of the problems as stated in Chapter 1 and

interpretations of findings are accompanied in each question. Furthermore, the presentation of the data is in

tabular form with the analysis of the specific questions.

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Published by Sons and Daughters Publishing House Inc.

© 2015 The Authors

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124 Students’ Conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time

Students’ conception on Changes in Matter, energy and Time was determined through a concept test administered before and after the use of 7E Learning Cycle Approach. To further support the result of the concept test, a perception questionnaire was given to the students.

Problem 1: What is the students’ level of conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time before and after the class is taught using the 7E learning cycle approach?

Table 1 specifically answers the students’ level of conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time.

Table 1. Students Level of Conception in Each Subtopic Before and After the 7E Learning Cycle Approach

Legend: PM – Partial Understanding with Specific Misconception SM – Specific Misconception

SU – Sound Understanding

Problem 3: Are there differences on the students’ overall level of conception before and after using the 7E Learning cycle approach?

To analyze the difference on the students’ overall level of conception before and after using the 7E learning cycle approach the t- test for correlated means was used and is presented in Table 2.

Topics Item

Pretest Weighted

Mean

Level of Conception in

Pretest

Posttest Weighted

Mean

Level of Conception

Posttest 1. Application of phase/chemical

change used at home 1 1.75 PM 4.0 SU

2. Evaluate evidence of chemical

change 2 1.77 PM 3.73 SU

3. Explain the Law of Conservation of

Mass 3 1.67 PM 3.83 SU

4. Explain the Law of Definite

Composition 4 1.29 SM 3.77 SU

5. Derive the molecular formula given the molecular mass of the

compound 5 1.63 PM 3.77 SU

6. Determine the percentage

composition of a compound 6 1.60 PM 3.83 SU

7. Explain the information from

balanced equations 7 1.79 PM 3.85 SU

8. Classify the type of reaction based

on the chemical equation 9 1.29 SM 3.77 SU

9. Describe how entropy and enthalpy affect the spontaneity of reaction

8 1.40 SM 3.94 SU

10 1.33 SM 3.94 SU

11 1.45 SM 4.00 SU

10. Name and explain the factors affecting the rate of chemical reaction

12 1.42 SM 3.97 SU

13 1.44 SM 3.95 SU

14 1.13 SM 3.94 SU

15 1.63 SM 3.97 SU

Average Weighted Mean 1.40 SM 3.96 SU

Grand Weighted Mean 1.56 PM 3.86 SU

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125 Table 2. Over-all Level of Conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time

Test Grand Weighted Mean t value p value Remarks Pretest

Posttest

1.5660 3.8570

31.856 .000 Significant Conclusions

Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions were derived:

1. The use of 7E Learning Cycle Approach as a teaching strategy improved students’ level of conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time.

2. There are significant differences between the students’ level of conception before and after using the 7E learning cycle approach. The students after having been exposed to the 7E Learning Cycle Approach had significantly higher test scores in each subtopic in the posttest as compared to the pretest. This implies that there is an improvement of conception among the students when the 7E Learning Cycle Approach was applied in the lesson proper.

3. There are significant differences on the students’ overall level of conception before and after using the 7E learning cycle approach. This indicates that students after having been exposed to the 7E learning cycle approach had significantly higher test scores in the posttest compared to the pretest.

4. The students perceived the use of 7E Learning Cycle Approach as enjoyable, helped them develop positive attitude towards Chemistry, understand the concept better and deeper, and gain a clear understanding on the concept on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and the conclusions drawn, the following are hereby recommended:

1. Chemistry teachers are encouraged to use the 7E learning cycle approach to enhance the students’

conception on Changes in Matter, Energy and Time.

2. Further researches similar to present study may be conducted in other topic as well as in other areas of discipline to confirm its effectiveness and applicability both to teachers and students.

3. The instructional materials developed in this study may be used in other studies concerning teaching approach.

4. School administrator may be encouraged to plan for future trainings and seminars of using the 7E Learning cycle approach.

References

Akar, Elvan (2005)“Effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model on students’ understanding of acid-base concepts”.

Unpublished Master’s Thesis Graduate School Of Natural And Applied Sciences Of Middle East Technical University.

Akku, H., Kadayıfçı, H., Atasoy, B. and Geban, Ö.(2003). Effectiveness of instruction based on the constructivist approach on understanding chemical equilibrium concepts. Research in Science and Technological Education, 2003.21(2), 209-227.

Bevevino, M., Dengel, J. and Adams, K. (1999) constructivist theory in the classroom

Bransford, J., A. Brown, and R.R. Cocking, (2000) eds.. How People Learn. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Brooks, J. and Brooks, M. (1993). In search of understanding: the case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA:

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Bybee, R.(1997) Achieving scientific literacy. Portsmouth, N.H.:Heinemann.

Caluban, M.(2007). Conceptual change of Science and Technology III (Chemistry) Students of Catanduanes National High

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Catanduanes.

Camento, M. (2009). Determining engineering technology students’ conception of algebraic fractions using peer instruction

method. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Technological University of the Philippines, Ayala Boulevard, Manila.

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