Container Architecture

Full text

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container_

architecture

Building Systems Integration Case Study William J Penland November, 2008

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The objective of this document is to study the different ways in which prefabricated elements of our global economic infrastruc-ture (ISO shipping containers specifically) can be used as archi-tecture after they have fulfilled their primary use in the shipping industry, by providing places of habitation for multiple sectors of

the building industry.

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table of

contents :

general...

shipping containers in america... 1

upcycling_W. McDonough...3

specifications_loads...5

massing...

kalkin house_adam kalkin...7

dwell home_ jpa...9

sanlitun south_lo-tek...11

nomadic museum_shigeru ban...13

connecting...

lateral connection_types...15

outfitting_finishing...

cutting openings...17

making them habitable...19

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shipping

containers

in america :

* image by So Cal Metro, Flickr.com, jan. 2006

In America we import most of our goods from other countries, many times hundreds or thousands of miles away. These goods are typically shipped to our country using ISO shipping containers, however, once they arrive and are emptied, these containers are typically not refilled with goods and exported out to people around the world. Sadly, they usually end up in one of two places; being stacked in storage in large ports or train yards, filling up valuable urban land, slowly succombing to rust and weather, or they go the the scrap yard, where they enter an extreemly energy intensive process of melting them down to be recycled into useable steel.

Why does this happen? because it is actually cheaper for exporting countries to make

new ones for the next shipment instead of investing capital in transporting them back overseas to be refilled. This leaves america and other net importers with huge surplus-es of shipping containers that we have no use for.

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* image by OneEighteen, Flickr.com, aug. 2007

* image by rustyjaw, Flickr.com, no. 2007

* image by myfear, Flickr.com, oct. 2006

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upcycling :

* http://images.ted.com/images/ted/91_254x191.jpg

William A. McDonough

upcycling: the term “upcycling” was coined by William McDonough and Michael

Braugart in their groundbreaking book on ecologically-intelligent design, Cradle to Cradle, published in 2002. In the simplest terms, upcycling is the practice of taking something that is disposable and transforming it into something of greater use and value.

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* image by Val Ann, Flickr.com, aug. 07

* image by Vincent, Flickr.com, apr. 2008 * image by guitarchitect, Flickr.com, apr. 2008

this

[architecture]

or

this

[recycled]

or

this

[wasted]

?

?

?

4

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container specs_

measurements :

http://www.freightraders.co.nz/containerspecs.html

precise construction: standard ISO shipping containers are built to meet rigid

international standard dimensions. They come in an assortment of sizes and shapes depending on the different types of freight needed to be shipped. The most popular, and most readily acceptable 20’ and 40’ low and high-box [8’6” high and 9’6” high respectively] are also the types typically used for container architecture

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roof/uniform load 300 psf [20 psf req’d by code] floor/uniform load 101 psf [40 psf req’d by code] stacking/axial load 211,670 pound/post [500 pound/post req’d] racking/shear load 33,600 lb [1,600 lb req’d by code]

end wall/lateral load 366 psf [20 psf req’d by code] racking/shear load 16,800 lb [680 lb req’d by code] sidewall/lateral load 234 psf [20 psf req’d by code]

loads_forces:

6

point loads

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adam kalkin_

Kalkin House :

* image from ‘architecture & hygiene’ [Kalkin, 2002] * image from ‘architecture & hygiene’

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description:

a 2-story, 20’x80’ pre-fab shed houses 3 stacked ISO shipping containers, creating hybrid indoor/outdoor space by opening up facades with operable glass garage doors, and balconies with metal grids.

conclusions:

the skin within a skin motif used here makes sense from a ther-mal comfort standpoint, especially with the addition of concrete floors. The simple vertical stacking strategy used, takes most ad-vatage of space and load distribution from each container down to the foundation without the need for additional structure. diagramatic model of

container massing

Kalkin [Collector’s] House

Shelburne Museum, Shelburne Vermont [2001]

- simple vertical container stacking - container skin housed within industrial pre-fab skin

[increased floor area, frames living spaces,

decreases ISO thermal load]

- garage door facades open to exterior

[cross ventilation,

blending of exterior & interior]

* image from ‘architecture & hygiene’

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jones partners

architecture_

Dwell Home :

* image from ‘el segundo’ [J.P.A. 2007]

* image from ‘el segundo’ [J.P.A. 2007]

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Dwell Home

Pittsboro, NC [2003]

- uses J.P.A.’s PRO/con system

[20’ containers used as basic building block to create an almost limitless variety of dwellings]

- massing of containers around central interior volume

[containers contain bedrooms/bath rooms and enclose living spaces in the void]

- container becomes a habitable wall

description:

utilizes ‘PRO/con’ system, built of 20’ ISO contian-ers and steel framed infill panels for roof and floor on driven steel piles; aluminum sliding glass door and solid interior partition system.

conclusions:

the systematic approach presented by Jones Part-ners attempts to use the container as a building block within a larger, more complicated system. Seemingly endless possibilities of spatial and struc-tural articulation are made possible with the use of a logical organization pattern.

diagramatic model of container massing

* image from ‘el segundo’ [J.P.A. 2007]

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lot-ek_

Sanlitun

South :

* image from lot-ek.com

* image from lot-ek.com

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Sanlitun South

Beijing, China [2005]

- contianers idependantly supported within conventional structure

- containers become extrusions from fa cade, providing for signage and retail level pedestrian protection from precipitation

[seem to float out in space, visually interesting but structurally intensive]

description: organized like a medieval

village with a dense fabric of narrow open-air alleys [circulation channels] between low-rise buildings connected by elevated walkways and bridges throughout. with shipping containers inserted randomly into facades, functioning as canopies for the floors and entrances below.

conclusions: The insertion of shipping

con-tainers into larger structures allows them to be utilized for functions other than just program. They can have multiple pur-poses and operate in various ways at the same time. Incorporating them with other architectural moves [solar shade screens] allows for passive cooling, reducing energy consumption.

diagramatic model of container massing

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shigeru ban_

Nomadic Museum :

* image by PaoloMazzo, Flickr.com, sept. 2006

* image by PaoloMazzo, Flickr.com, sept. 2006

* image by PaoloMazzo, Flickr.com, sept. 2006

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* image by PaoloMazzo, Flickr.com, sept. 2006

Nomadic Museum

worldwide [debuted N.Y.C. 2005]

- staggered vertical container massing

[maintains point loads]

- containers and canvas sheets provide a semi-enclosed exhibition space

- designed for mobility

[primary structure is shipping con tainers and recycled paper collumns]

description:

designed as a temmporary structure to house the Ashes and Snow photography and film exhibition by Gregory Colbert The museum is an on-going project that changes and evolves as the years go by. The design discussed here is the origional.

conclusions:

the clever staggering of the containers in the hori-zontal while maintaining the integrity of the axial point loads provides a unique opportunity to pay equal attention to the mass and the void.

the use of used container adds an extra layer of depth and meaning to the temporality of the structure.

diagramatic model of container massing

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connecting

multiple

containers :

how are containers connected together to allow for structural stability through-out the entirety of the structure?

- connectors are used at adja cent corner fittings to clamp adja cent container together. these are used at each connection to tie together individual neighboring units [in the vertical and/or the horizontal] and provide stability to the whole stack.

- various tyes of connectors may be used depending on project requirements.

see ‘container connector clamps’ http://www.tandemloc.com/ for additional examples of container connectors

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basic screw-type container connector clamp

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perforating the

container_

cutting holes:

how are habitable spaces made within the fairly constrained interior dimen-sions of the shipping container?

- sometimes larger spaces are required by program than can be provded by one container. when this happens, cut desired opening into corrugated metal facade and frame with structural steel.

[framing required due to loss of lateral stability in facade due to cut opening] - this same approach is taken for cutting all types of openings

[doors, windows, & room expansions]

- where framing is not applicable [the removal of an entire facade], tie structural member of neighbor ing containers together, or [in the case of replacing with a glass cur tain wall] add tension bracing to achieve lateral stability.

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structural framing around container openings

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finishing out the

container_

making it habitable:

* image by petraalsbach, Flickr.com, mar. 2007

how are habitable spaces made within the fairly constrained interior dimen-sions of the shipping container?

- sometimes larger spaces are required by program than can be provded by one container. when this happens, cut desired opening into corrugated metal facade and frame with structural steel.

[framing required due to loss of lateral stability in facade due to cut opening] - this same approach is taken for cutting all types of openings

[doors, windows, & room expansions]

- where framing is not applicable [the removal of an entire facade], tie structural member of neighbor ing containers together, or [in the case of replacing with a glass cur tain wall] add tension bracing to achieve lateral stability.

*note: see compact disk [included] for closer details of digital container models.

tie with connectors extruded foam insulation gypsum board floated floor [wood stud] container structure

cap void between containers

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example container building elevations [front, side]

example container building sections [front, side]

tie with connectors extruded foam insulation gypsum board floated floor [wood stud]

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container structure

cap void between containers

example container building digital model

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bibliography :

architectureandhygiene.com firmitas.org

flickr.com

Jones, Partners: Architecture, “El

Segundo”, Princeton Architectural Press, NY, 2007

jonespartners.com

Kalkin, Adam “Architecture & Hygiene”, BT Batsford, London, 2002 Keetwonen - http://www.tempohousing. com/projects/keetwonen.html Lot-ek.com shigerubanarchitects.com

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