Science

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1. A doctor was advising a patient who just had his gallbladder removed to limit his intake of which of the following food? Select one: a. Apples b. Fresh vegetables c. Pork d. Seafoods Feedback

The correct answer is: Pork (The gallbladder secretes bile, produced by the liver, for emulsification of fats. Without the gallbladder, a person may not be able to digest fatty foods such as pork. Since fats are not soluble in water, they should be emulsified and broken into smaller molecules.)

2. All of the following animals are mammal, aside from: a. Giant whale

b. Seal c. Walrus d. Shark

The correct answer is: Shark (The shark is a fish, being a member of the class Pisces. All the others are members of the class Mammalia – they are warm blooded and they give birth to their young.)

3. They transmit proteins produced by the ribosomes of the cells: a. Mitochondria

b. Endoplasmic reticulum c. Golgi apparatus d. Cytosol

The correct answer is: Golgi apparatus (Ribosomes manufacture all kinds of cell proteins and the golgi apparatus or complex that packages protein for storage or transport out of cells.)

4. A doctor advised a patient to eat food rich in Calcium and Phosphorous. Most likely the patient has problems with: a. Blood

b. Skin and hair c. Bones and teeth d. Nerves

The correct answer is: Bones and teeth (Calcium and Phosphorous are used in the building and maintenance of bones and teeth. They are found in milk and dairy products and in leafy vegetables.)

5. A researcher obtained a sample of matter from the deep ocean. Which of the following would cause the researcher to suspect that the matter was from a living tissue?

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a. A change in the temperature of the sample b. When exposed to air, the sample changed in color c. The sample releases gases

d. The presence of DNA and enzyme in the sample

The correct answer is: The presence of DNA and enzyme in the sample (Viruses are not considered free-living since they cannot reproduce outside of a living cell; they have evolved to transmit their genetic information from one cell to another for the purpose of replication.)

6. Which of the following statements correctly explains why viruses are not considered free-living? a. Their cells contain DNA

b. They are too small to be seen by light microscopy c. Their cells lack cytoplasm

d. They cannot reproduce outside a living cell

The correct answer is: They cannot reproduce outside a living cell (Viruses are not considered free-living since they cannot reproduce outside of a living cell; they have evolved to transmit their genetic information from one cell to another for the purpose of replication.)

7. Lichen has no specific taxonomic group due to:

a. Lichens are among the most widely distributed of living things.

b. The fungi characteristics for classification are the same as those of the algae. c. Lichen mutualism is unique in the plant world.

d. The fungi of lichens are not found alone.

The correct answer is: The fungi characteristics for classification are the same as those of the algae. (Lichens, which are composed of alga and fungi, have mutualistic relationship; that is, they cannot live without the other. Lichens have characteristics similar to kingdom protest and kingdom fungi.)

8. It is coined as the powerhouse of the cell: Select one:

a. Endoplasmic reticulum b. Ribosomes

c. Mitochondria d. Golgi bodies

The correct answer is: Mitochondria (Cell respiration takes place in the mitochondria when energy is released. It is also in here that the energy compound ATP is produced by the solution surrounding the cristae. The ATP holds and keeps the energy until it is needed.)

9. All of the following statements are true about water, except: a. It hardly changes its temperature even when it absorbs heat b. It is a medium for chemical reaction

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c. It can dissolve most substances d. It transports substances in the body

The correct answer is: It hardly changes its temperature even when it absorbs heat (When water absorbs heat, the temperature changes and it becomes higher until it reaches its boiling point where, even of the heat increases, the temperature stays stable. On the other hand, when the temperature lowers, the water starts to cool so that the temperature changes and becomes lower, too, until it reaches its freezing point where the temperature remains constant again.)

10. Arthropodes which has many legs are termed as: Select one:

a. Icopoda b. Myriapods c. Chilopoda d. Diplopods

The correct answer is: Diplopods (Diplopoda have two pairs of legs per segment and they can have as many as 100 segments. Chilopoda have only a pair of legs per segment and can only be a few centimeters long.)

11. Among the different blood vessels, which receives the highest oxygen concentration? a. Pulmonary artery

b. Renal vein c. Aorta

d. Pulmonary vein

The correct answer is: Pulmonary vein (Pulmonary vein has blood which comes from the lungs. In other instances, in the body, arteries usually carry blood with more oxygen than the blood in the veins. This is not true in the specific instances of (1) the pulmonary artery, carrying oxygen poor blood to the lungs and (2) the pulmonary vein, returning oxygen-rich blood to the heart from the lungs. The only consistent rule is arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins return blood to the heart.)

12. Which of the following statements accurately explains how trees prevent floods? a. Their roots bind the soil

b. Excessive water are stored in their stems c. Their roots help absorb excess water d. Their leaves can store excess water

The correct answer is: Their roots bind the soil (The roots of trees grow into the soil and attach to the soil particles, helping to hold the soil together. When forests are cut down, the soil is not held together and is washed away by the action of running water. With the loss of topsoil, which normally acts as a spongy layer, the water runs off in large amounts, causing floods.)

13. Crystallized viruses retain their ineffective properties. This indicates that: a. The crystals became contaminated

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b. The crystallization was properly done

c. The viruses have properties quite unlike any other organism d. They are very primitive living organisms

The correct answer is: They are very primitive living organisms (Viruses are composed only of protein coat enveloping either RNA or DNA (nucleic acids). In fact, they are practically nonliving cells outside living cells, and use living cells as hosts in order to reproduce.)

14. Vultures may kill animals for food or feed on the remains of animals killed by other animals. Therefore, vultures may be described as:

Select one:

a. Predators and herbivores b. Predators and omnivores c. Scavengers and parasites d. Scavengers and predators

The correct answer is: Scavengers and predators (A scavenger is an animal that eats refuse and decaying organic matter while a predator is an animal that captures and feeds upon other animals. An herbivore is an animal that feeds chiefly on grass or other plants while a parasite is a plant or an animal that lives on or in an organism of another species from which it derives sustenance or protection without benefit to and usually with harmful effects on the host.)

15. Which of the following things happens when you perspire while exercising? a. Your hormone decreases

b. Oil is removed from the surface of your skin c. Your body gives off excess heat

d. Your body takes in air

The correct answer is: Your body gives off excess heat (A considerable amount of heat energy is needed to turn a ram of water (in the form of sweat) to a gram of water vapor. So, each molecule of water that evaporates and leaves the skin carries heat energy with it. Thus, evaporation of perspiration helps rid the body of excess heat. This is called evaporative cooling.)

16. Which of the following instruments can be utilized for culturing microorganisms? a. Microscope

b. Petri dish c. Scalpel d. Forceps

The correct answer is: Petri dish (A petri dish is a very shallow, cylindrical, transparent glass or plastic dish with an overlapping cover, used for the culture of microorganisms. A scalpel is small, light, straight knife with a very sharp blade, used by surgeons and in anatomical dissections. Forceps are tongs or pincers for grasping, compressing and pulling used especially by surgeons and dentists. A microscope is an instrument consisting essentially of a lens or

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combination of lenses, for making very small objects, as microorganisms, look larger so that they can be seen and studied.)

17. The Pyramid of energy is best described as:

a. The top of the pyramid consists of the producers which are the supplier of most the most energy. b. The base of the pyramid is composed of the highest consumers needing the most energy.

c. The base of the pyramid consists of producers which supply the most energy

d. The top of the pyramid is composed of the highest consumers who need the most energy.

The correct answer is: The base of the pyramid consists of producers which supply the most energy (The base consists of the producers that supply the most energy. As one moves up the pyramid, energy is lost. Found at the top are the highest consumers who have lost energy from the pyramid in the form of heat and unavailable chemical energy.) 18. Where is the site of majority of photosynthesis in a leaf?

Select one: a. Epidermis b. Palisade layer c. Spongy layer d. Cuticle

The correct answer is: Palisade layer (The palisade layer has cells that are packed together and serves for most photosynthesis. The spongy layer is a site for gas exchange. The cuticle and the epidermis are for protection.) 19. The breathing rate is increased by an increase in the content of:

a. Nitrogen b. Water vapor c. Carbon dioxide d. Oxygen

The correct answer is: Carbon dioxide (An increased in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood stimulates the cells of the medulla to send impulses to the diaphragm and the rib muscles, causing them to contract and expand more rapidly. The breathing rate then increases.)

20. Which among the following is a first – order consumer? a. Omnivores

b. Herbivores c. Insectivores d. Carnivores

The correct answer is: Herbivores (Herbivores are animals that feed on plants. They are first – order consumers because they feed on the producers of food.)

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a. Ligaments b. Skin c. Bones. d. Cartilage

The correct answer is: Bones (Muscles are attached to the bones and RBCs are made in the red marrow of flat and long bones)

22. Which of the following genes will most likely be inherited together? a. None of the above

b. Segregated genes in different chromosomes

c. Independently assorted genes on different chromosomes d. Genes located on the same chromosomesno

The correct answer is: Genes located on the same chromosomesno (By the principle of gene linkage, genes located on the same chromosomes will most likely be inherited together.)

23. Jesse who is normal for color vision marries Jessa, a normal heterozygous woman. What is the chance of their son being color blind?

a. 0% b. 25% c. 50% d. 75%

The correct answer is: 50% (When XY and XX are crossed, the possible results are: X Y X XX XY Y XX XY Male: 50% normal; 50% color blind Female: 100% normal (50% heterozygous))

24. Which of the following relationships can be observed among grasses and vegetables in a garden? a. Parasitism

b. Competition c. Mutualism d. Commensalism

The correct answer is: Competition (Competition is the interaction among organisms seeking a common resource such as food or light which is in limited supply in the area occupied by the community. Grasses and vegetables in a garden for example, compete for soil nutrients and sunlight.)

25. Algae and Fungi are put together under Phylum Thallophyta due to this reason: a. Both algae and fungi need a certain amount of moisture

b. Both algae and fungi can reproduce c. Both algae and fungi are plants

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The correct answer is: Both algae and fungi do not have roots, stems and leaves (Algae and fungi are placed together under phylum Thallophyta because they do not have vascular tissues. They have no roots, stems or leaves. They are soft or thallus (old classification), but today they are classified separately.)

26. What makes meiosis different from mitosis?

a. The chromosome number remains the same in meiosis, but is halved during mitosis.

b. Meiosis produces identical daughter cells, but mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically different. c. Meiosis produces four daughter cells, while mitosis produces only two daughter cells.

d. Meiosis occurs in somatic cells, while mitosis occurs in sex cells.

The correct answer is: Meiosis produces four daughter cells, while mitosis produces only two daughter cells. (Meiosis produces four daughter cells each with half the original chromosome number. Meiosis occurs only in sex cells, producing sperm and eggs, and since the chromosome number is half the parent cell, these cells are genetically different from the original parent cell.)

27. Plant eating animals get their main source of energy from: a. Glycogen

b. Cellulose c. Starch d. Sugar

The correct answer is: Sugar (Organisms eat sugar and starch in the form of complex molecules which are digested and broken down into simpler glucose molecules. These glucose molecules are taken apart and energy is released to be used for all activities of the organism.)

28. Photosynthesis can be carried on by which of the following organisms? a. Scavenger

b. Heterotrophic c. Autotrophic d. Saprophytic

The correct answer is: Autotrophic (Autotrophic organisms need sunlight to manufacture food through

photosynthesis. Heterotrophs feed on plants or autotrophs; scavengers eat dead plants or animals; while sporophytes feed on decaying matter.)

29. A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment is known as: a. Habitat

b. Ecosystem c. Niche d. Environment

The correct answer is: Ecosystem (Ecosystem is a relatively self-contained, dynamic system composed of a natural community along with its physical environment. The concept, first developed in the 1920s and 1930s, takes into

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account the complex interactions between the organisms – plants, animals, bacteria and fungi – that make up the community and the flows of energy and matter through it.)

30. A correct food chain is exemplified by which of the following? a. Plants - Insects - Lizards - Snakes - Decomposers

b. Insects - Plants - Snakes - Lizards - Decomposers c. Plants - Decomposers - Snakes - Lizards - Snakes d. Decomposers - Insects - Lizards - Snakes - Plants

The correct answer is: Plants - Insects - Lizards - Snakes – Decomposers (Plants are the producers of food. The insects who eat them are, in turn, eaten by lizards. Lizards are eaten by snakes. When snakes die, they are broken down by decomposers and their constituent compounds are released so that they could be used by other organisms.)

31. To which phylum does an organism with a certain segment with a ventral nerve cord which is solid and has a worm-like body shape and exoskeleton?

a. Nematoda b. Annelida c. Chordata d. Arthropoda

The correct answer is: Arthropoda (Arhtropods like the centipede and the millipede have these characteristics. Chordates have a dorsal nerve tube and an endoskeleton. Annelids and nematodes do not show these

characteristics.)

32. Muscles may be controlled or may contract even without conscious thought. Which of the following muscle groups are considered involuntary?

a. Smooth and Cardiac b. Skeletal and Cardiac c. Smooth

d. Skeletal

The correct answer is: Smooth and Cardiac (Both smooth and cardiac are not controlled by thought but by autonomic system. Skeletal muscles are attached to the bones and are controlled by an individual consciously.)

33. This relationship best describes a protozoan which causes malaria in a human host: a. Mutualism

b. Commensalism c. Parasitism. d. Predation

The correct answer is: Parasitism (Parasitism is a symbiotic association of to kinds of organisms in which the parasite is benefited while the host is usually harmed)

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a. Amphibia b. Pisces c. Aves d. Mammalia

The correct answer is: Mammalia (Class Mammalia consists of animals covered with hair, having a four-chambered heart and are blooded. Fishes and amphibians are cold-blooded, scale covered animals. Aves are warm-blooded feathered mammals or vertebrates.)

35. Reproduction is a must among plants and animals to continue survival. Which of the following is the simplest method of reproduction?

a. Fertilization b. Fission c. Conjugation d. Parthenogenesis

The correct answer is: Fission (Fission is a form of asexual reproduction, found in various simple plants and animals, in which the parent organism divides into two or more approximately equal parts, each becoming an independent individual.)

36. Energy is obtained from food in the process of: a. Assimilation

b. Digestion c. Storage d. Respiration

The correct answer is: Respiration (During respiration, the chemical-bond energy of food is released and stored in ATP molecules. The breakdown of ATP into ADP occurs when a phosphate group is given off and energy is released for the life activities of the cell.)

37. An amoeba is attempting to engulf an escaping paramecium. Which structures are involved in the activity? a. Pseudopods and cilia

b. Tentacles and cilia c. Setae and pseudopods d. Tentacle and flagella

The correct answer is: Pseudopods and cilia (Pseudopods are the false feet of amoeba, cell projections that in this case are flowing around the prey. The paramecium is using the cilia to escape. Tentacles are attributes of multicellular organisms like squid while the setae are the epidermal protrusions in earthworms.)

38. In a residential backyard, there could be flowers, grasshoppers, grasses, dragonflies, worms and ants. Collectively, these organisms represent which of the following?

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b. Tissue c. Community d. Habitat

The correct answer is: Community (A community refers to the population of different species living in a particular habitat and interacting with each other.)

39. Ferns and flowering plants differ in what way? a. Dominance of the sporophyte or gametophyte b. Kind of chlorophyll present in them

c. Presence or absence of conducting tissues d. Means of reproduction

The correct answer is: Dominance of the sporophyte or gametophyte (In ferns and flowering plants, sporophyte generation is most dominant. Matured fronds of ferns produce spores for reproduction. Gametophyte is a separate plant in ferns while flowering plants are not. The gametophytes in seed-bearing plants are very small and are inside the mature sporophyte plant. Another difference is that the male and female gametophytes in flowering or seed-bearing plants develop from different types of spores, while those in ferns develop from only one type of spore.) 40. The part of the plant cell that captures the light energy needed in photosynthesis is which of the following? a. Stigmata

b. Nucleus c. Cytoplast d. Chlorophyll

The correct answer is: Chlorophyll (The first step in photosynthesis is the absorption of light by pigments. Chlorophyll is the most important of these because it is essential for the process. It captures light energy in the violet and red portions of the spectrum and transforms it into chemical energy through a series of reactions.

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41. Chloroplasts were seen in a specimen under the microscope. The specimen might be: a. A virus

b. A hydrilla c. A cheek cell d. A paramecium

The correct answer is: A hydrilla (The specimen with chloroplasts must be a plant, such as a hydrilla.)

42. Which of the following states that you will have a better chance of reaching reproductive age if you possess a combination of favorable characteristics?

a. Punctuated equilibrium b. Sexual isolation

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d. Mutation Feedback

The correct answer is: Survival of the fittest (“Survival of the fittest” dictates that those individuals best suited to their environment will live and reach reproductive age and pass their characteristics on to their offspring.)

43. The digestive tube is composed of how many openings? a. Six

b. Two c. Four d. Three

The correct answer is: Two (The digestive process always starts in the mouth which is an opening for the digestive tube. Digested food enters the blood stream fro absorption into the body while undigested food leaves the small intestine and enters the colon, or the large intestine, for waste elimination from the body.)

44. A _____ is composed of all the members of a single species inhabiting a given location. Select one:

a. Food chain b. Ecosystem c. Population d. Niche

The correct answer is: Population (The functional units of an ecosystem are the populations of organisms through which energy and nutrients move. A population is a group of interbreeding organisms of the same kind (a species) living in the same place at the same time. Groups of populations within an ecosystem interact in various ways. These interdependent populations of plants and animals make up the community, which encompasses the biotic portion of the ecosystem.)

45. Which of the following is considered as a natural ecosystem? a. Terrarium

b. Coral reef c. Aquarium d. Garbage

The correct answer is: Coral reef (A coral reef is a ridge or elevated part of a relatively shallow area of the seafloor, approaching the sea’s surface. It is formed by a rocklike accumulation of calceous (calcium-containing) exoskeletons of coral animals, calcareous red algae and mollusks.)

46. Which of the following is an example of a biotic factor that will determine which animals or plants inhabit an environment?

a. The amount of oxygen present in the water or a pond b. The acidity of a lake near a factory

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c. Berry plants growing in abundance at the edge of a forest d. The high daytime temperatures and low night time temperature

The correct answer is: Berry plants growing in abundance at the edge of a forest (The only biotic or living factor among the choices is berry plants. The others are abiotic. Factors affecting the ability of an organism to inhabit an area. Birds and small mammals feeding on berries will most likely thrive in areas teeming with berry plants.) 47. Why do some marine fishes don’t survive in fresh water?

a. Marine fishes cannot maintain homeostatic water balance b. Fresh water has a low oxygen concentration

c. Fresh water lacks suitable food for the marine fishes d. Fresh water has a lower temperature

The correct answer is: Marine fishes cannot maintain homeostatic water balance (Homeostasis refers to the ability of an organism to maintain an internal stability by coordinated responses of its organ system that automatically compensate for environmental changes. Marine fishes are adapted to a water environment in which there is a relatively high concentration of salt. They are not able to survive in fresh water because they cannot maintain homeostatic water balance.)

48. A cell in the stems of an eggplant contains 20 chromosomes. After this cell divides, how many chromosomes should each resulting daughter cell contain?

a. 40 b. 50 c. 10 d. 20.

The correct answer is: 20 (A cell in the stem tip of a corn plant divides by mitosis. In mitosis, the daughter cell always has the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell, whether the parent cell is haploid (monoploid, 1N) or diploid (2N). A diploid parent cell produces diplod daughter cells; a haploid parent cell produces haploid daughter cells. The cell in the stem tip of an eggplant has 20 chromosomes, so through mitosis, its daughter cells will also have 20 chromosomes each)

49. Bacteria cause various diseases in humans. They produce a poisonous substance known as: a. Antibodies

b. Microbes c. Antigens d. Toxins

The correct answer is: Toxins (Toxins are the poisonous compounds produced by some microorganisms that cause certain diseases. Antibodies are the specialized proteins produced by certain lymphocytes, especially in response to the presence of an antigen, to neutralize, thus creating immunity to, specific antigens. Germs are disease producing microorganisms, such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickettsia and viruses.)

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a. Mutation b. Molting c. Autonomy d. Regeneration

The correct answer is: Regeneration (Regeneration is having the power to restore or grow again the lost part of the body. This is common to echinoderms, such as the starfish and brittle star.)

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