Field Service Pocket Book 1914


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JflLITARY BOOKS, publishtd by Authbrity:_contlnued-.

'cAs to prices in. brackets, sea top of



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. Signal Service. Signal Company (Cable). Expeditionary Force 1913. 3d •. '(3<:1.)


S!~~!;.~ ~

o~~-P~~\1 (~~t~a£ivis


ur:.~er ~~~~


D Siittal Company (Lines of

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Field Service Regulations:- . , . . · .

Part I, Operations. 1909. (Reprinted, w1th Amendments, 191~). Sd. (6d.) Part II. Organization at\rl .A:ilmh>istration. 1!109. (Reprmted, with

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(lleprinted, with Amendments to Sept. 1, 1914). 4d. (4<1.) Flying Corps. Royal. Training

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· · · Do. Amendments. Jan. 1m5. 1d. (ld.) Part II . .M.ilitnry Wing. Provisional. 1914. '3d. (4d.) Foreii!'Il Languages. Study of. Regulations. 1~13. 2<!. (2d.) Fortification Permanent. For the Imperial Millt.ary Trainlng

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wmwtmted :- .

First Purt-llistory of the War to the Downfall of the

Emp~re-Vol. 1 (Secus. 1 to 5). Outbreak of Hostilities to Battle of Gravelotte.

n~ ~if~~

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~ct fn~~~~:~o~~e~':~~gp~~~~~~~





German Army nne! Peace of Frankfort. The Occupation. The Telegraph. Post, Supply of Ammunition, Commissariat, Hospital Service, Divine Service, Military Justice, Recruitment, and llon1e Garrisons.· ]Cesults. 5s. (3.s. lid.)

Analytical Index. 1s. 6d. (Is. !d.)

}:lfans-4. Battle of Colombey-Nouflly. 3d. (3d.)

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D Manreuvres Regulations. 1908. · ·I • rtfollo


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Do. Moltke's Projej,ts


·> n

egulations. With the





,;t~~e{,~t~ Isla~~~ HProv~t






Guns. Drill for. (And see Guns. an oo •

60-pr. B.L. 1912. ld. (1d.) 18-pr. Q..~'. 1914. 1d. (ld.) 15-p•·· B L. 1~14. ld. (1d.) 15-pr. ll. L.C. 1914. 1d. (ld.) J:>-pr. Q.F. 1912. 1d. (1d.) 13-pr. Q.F. 1914. ld. (l<t.) d) 12-pr. 12-cwt. Q.F. Land Service. 1914. ld. (I •

10 pr. B.L. 1914. lkd. IX(ld.) Mark IV Mountiu". Land Service. 1914.

9'2-inch B.L. Mar ., on · o



"C" Mark IX., on Marks V•. and


Mountings. Lan•l Service. 1914. IXd.


d X" on Mark


Mounting. 1914. Land 9'2-lnch B.L. Marks ., ., an ·•

Service. 1d. (!dJn d VII• Land Service. 1914. Jd. (ld.)


~:t: H~!~~:


·1~r2. (H~prin


with Amendments to Der.

1914). ld. (ld.) d (ld )







Hit4 with


!d. (1d.)

4'7-fnch Q.F. on Trl\velling Cama~s. 1:12 •. ld.





!d. (Jd.) 4'7-inch Q.F. Fixed Armament. a~d. ervJCe. 1 t (ld.) 4·7-lnch Q.~'. Heavy Batteries. PrOVISional. 1914. '• 4'5-lnch Q.~'. Howitzer. 1914. ld. (1d.)

4-lnch Q.F. Land Service. 1914. 1 d. (ld.)

2'9:>-lnchQ.F. 1914. ld. (1d.) D ill~ ) ._

Guns Band books for. (And see Guns. r or •

60-pf:B.L. Land

Servl~. 191







Amendments, 1914). 18-pr. Q.F. Land ServiCe. • · •

ls. (l1d.) . M k


and IV., and Wagon

15-pr. B.L. Marks Ilk. ItVo IVFi._. aldnBda~~~~~":esi9It ~ro~lsional. h. (!Od.)

and Limber, Mar • e ·


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1 Ib . arriage, and



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13-pr. Q.F. Land Serv1ce. 1913. (Reprinted with Amendments 1914)

Is. &t. (18. ld.) ' ' '



;rt:o!al~:nf~r;~ ~!


~~'~/v(i~l)d C~r;iages



1?-pr. Jomted B.L •. Mule Equipment. 1914. Is. 6d. (ls 2d)

9_45;-inch B.L. How1tzer. 1906. 9d. (7d.) · ·

9 2-msch ~.L. Mark IX., "C" Mark IX., and Marks X


and' X* Lalid

ervJCe. 1912. Is •. (lid.) '' ., ·

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5·4-inch B.L. Howitzer. Mark I. 1902. I;. tid. ·(Is. 2d)

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. .w1th Amendm_ents, 1914). 9d. (&1.) • rm e ,

4 IHnch Q. F. How1tzer. Land Service. 1914 1s 3Jl (1s 1d)

2'9f>-inch Q.F. Mule Equipment and Man ·Tran.spo.rt Eq. uip.mer>t 19!4.

2s. (Is. 6d.) · ·

'303-inch Vickers Machine (Magazine Ri.lle Chamber) on Tripod Mo t'

Mark IV. 1914. tkl. (6d.) ' ' un mg

'303-inch ;"o~denfelt 3-barrel ann Gardner 2-barrel converted from 0'4-in~i;


900nd 0 4• 9' • C>-dmchdM) .H. (8 • I Chamber, 1l[agazine Hifle • Chamber, on Carriaa;s, 0 Historical Records of the British

Army:-Horse Guarrls. 5s.



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. o. 1~_th, and 13th. Each


(2s.' 3d.) • Marme Corps. 3s. (2s. 2d.) •·. · r

Foot, 2nd, 6th, 8th, lOth, 11th, J3th, 16th ;17th 18th 20th 2! t' 2~nd, 34th, 36th, 89th, 46th, 53rd; 67th 'ust 72n'd '73rd '74t'h'

86th, 87th, and U2nd. Each 4s. (3s.) ' ' ' ' '

.. Do. _.14th, 56th, 6lst, 70~h, a~rl 88th. ~en


(2s. 3il.) { 1,4)

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Do. The Scots Guarcls. Id. (ld.)

Do. The 6th (lnniskilling) Dragoons. ld. (ld.)

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(Yorkshire l!egiment). Light Infantry).

The Bcdfordshire Regiment. The Prince of Wales's Leinster The Black Watch (Hoyal Iligh- Uej(iment (Hoyn.l Canadians).

lanrlers). 1-'he Prince of \Vales's Vo~unteers The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles). (South Lancashire Hegiment,). The Cheshire l!egiment. The Princess Charlotte of Wales's The Duke of Wellington's West (The Hoyal Berkshire

Hegi-Hirlinl( Regiment. ment). •

The Durham Light Infantry. The Princess Louise's Argyll and

The Fast LancaShire Regiment. Sutherland Highlanders.

The Bast Surrey Jtegiment. 'Ihe Uoyal Inniskilling Fusiliers.

The Hampshh·e Jtegiment. The Hoyal Sussex Uegiment.

1'he Highland Light Infantry. The J!oyl\l Warwickshire Regi· 'l'lle Kings Own Yorkshire Light ment.

Infantry. The Hoyal Welsh F!lsiliers.

The Lancashire Fusiliers. !rhe Suffolk Hegiment. The Northamptonshire Hegiment. The Welsh Reghnent.

The Oxfords hire and Buckingham- (In t~e press)

shire Light Infant.ry. •

Hospitals. Military Families'. NursingStaff:Jlegulations. Dec .. l909. ld,


without Declaration of War from 1700 to 1870. 21.

(1s. 7d.)

Hygiene. Elementary Military. Manual of •. 1912. 6d. (6d.)

Indian Empire. Our. A Short Review and some Hints for the use of

Solcliers proceeding to India. 6d. (6d.) •

Infantry Training. (4-Company Organization.) 1914. 6d. (6d.) Institutes. Garrison anQ. Regimental. Rules for the Management of.

1912. Jd. (ld).

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Italian Cavalry Training Regulations. 1911. .Training for Marches, Tactics of Minor Units, and Training of Patrols. Translated. 4d. (!ld.) Jamaica. Stancling Orders. 1912. Is. (9d.)

Jersey. Royal Militia of the Island of. Regulations. 1914. With the Jersey Militia Law, 1905. ls. 3d. (lld.)

King's Regulations and OrJers for the Army. 1912. (Reprinted, . with Amendments publishecl in Army Orders np to An g. 1, 1914). ls. (ls.)

Kit Plates : - ·

Artillery. Royal:- .

1. Horse and Field. Kit in Barrack Room. 1912. 2d. (2d.)

2. Do. Kit laifl out for Inspection. 1908. 2d. (2d.)

6. Garrison. Kit laid out for Inspection. 1909. 2d. (2d.

10. Do, Kit in Barrack Room. 1909. 2d. (2d.) · . (15)


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Cavalry. 1891. ld. (ld.) Engineers. Royal :

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2. Dismounted. ~'ult Kit laid out lor Inspection in Barrack Uoom. 1914. ld. (ld.)

4. Mounted N.O.O. or Driver and Field •rroop Sapper. Full Kit laid out lor Inspection in Barrack Hoom. 1910. ld. (ld.)

5. Mounted. Detail of Shelf auil Beililin~. 1910. Jd. (ld.) 6. Drh·er, with pair of }lorses. Field Nit lalil out for Inspection on

Parade, inclucling Articles carried in Valise on Baggage Wagon.

1899. ld. (ld.) .

Infantr¥. : - .

l. K1t in Barrack Hoom. 1905. 2d. (2d.) 2. Kit laid out for Inspection. 1905. 2d. (2d.) Highland. 1884. ld. (ld.)

Medical Corps. Royal Army. Kit in Barrack Room. 2d. (2cl.) Ordnance Corps. Army. For Guidance at Marching Order and Kit

Inspections. 2d. (2d.)

Land·Warfare. An exposition of the Laws and Usages of War on Land for the guidance of Officers of ll.M. Army. Is. (10cl.) ' Large Formations. The OperaLions of. (Conduite iles Grandcs Unites).

1'ranslated from the Field Service Uegulations o! the French Army, dated Oct. 28, 1913. tiel. (5d.)

Law. Military. Manual of. 1914. 2s. (Is. 9d.)

Law for the Reserve Forces and Militia. Manual of. 1886. 18. 6d. (1s. 2d.)

Machine-Gun. Tests of Elementary Training. ld. (ld.)

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Do. Amendments, July 1914. Jd. (id.)

Map Reading and Field Sketching. Manual. 1912, (Reprinted, with Ailditions, 1914). 1s. (lld.) (And see Schools, Army.)

Mechanism as applied to Artillery. Notes on. Second Edition. 190~. 1~. (Ud.)

Medical Corps. Royal Army. (And see Territorial Force) : -Admission to. Uegulations for. Jan. 1912. 1d. (1d.) Standing Orders. 1914. 1.1. (IOd.)

Training. 19ll. 9d. (9d.)

Medical Department. Army. Index to Appendices of Ueports from 1859 to 1896. 3d. (3d.)

Medical Service. Army. Regulations. 1906. (Reprinted, wiLh Amend-ments up to Sept. 30, 1914). 4d. (5d.)









1 914.





BY HAURISON AND SONS, 45-47, S·r. MARTIN's LANE, W.O., PRINTERS IN OnmNARY To Hrs MAJES~·r. To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from WYMAN AND SONS, LTD., 29, BREAMS BuiLDINGS, FETTER LA11E E.O., and



or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and· Dependencies,

the United States of of Europe and Abroad of















B 1






50M 3/










P.lGR A bbrevlatlons v Definitions viii Section CHAPTER I. 1. War Establishment. • • . . 1

2. System of Command In the Field . . • • • • 24 3. General Organizat.ion and Function• ol the Stall • • . . 25 4. Distribution of Duties among Administrative Services and

Departments . • . . • • • . • • 28

5. Organization of the Executive on L. of C. . . 29 CHAPTER II.

6. Marches and March Discipline 7. Time and Space

8. Quarters. . . .

9. Camp Cooking, etc. . • . . 10. Sanitation of Camps and Bivouacs 11. Water Supply .• CHAPTER III. 12. Ordero • . . • 13. Intercommunication 14. Information 15. Protection .. 16. Overse"' Operations . . . . 17. Map Reading and Field Sketching



18. Field Engineering . . . . • • • • • • • • 19. Summary of Tools and Explosives • • • • . . . . 20. Table of Time, Men and Tools required for certain work .. 21. Defence of Localities, etc.

22. Obstacles . . . .

23. Working Parties and Tasks . . . • 24. Knots, Cordage, Blocks and Tackles 25. Bridges and Bridging Expedient. 26. Delllolitlons

CHAPTER V. 27. Transport • • .. . . .. .. 28. Details of Vehicles and Stores In common nse 29. Convoys ..

SO. Transport by Rail

Sl. ,, Sea


All 33 37 (3 i9 51 t;Z t;5 69 iO 76 79 84 88 92 97 101 104 104 106 109 116 120 130 137 138 1515




32. Small Arms and Guns 159

33. Supply of Ammunition 165

34. Rations, .Fuel and li'orage 166

35. Notes on Supplies 172 36. Supply Arrangements 174 CHAPTER VII. 37. Pay . . 179 38. Clothing. . 181 39. Field Kits 182 40. Medical Service 198 41. Remount Service 205

42. Veterinary Service 206


43. Office Work and Private Correspondence 210

44. Discipline . . 216

45. Courts-Martial . . . . . . . . 217

46. Provost-Marshal and Military Police 225

47. International Law 226


48. The Army in India . . . • . . . . 235 49. The Military Forces of the Oversea Dominions, Crown "colon!~~

and Protectorates other than India . . ~39 50. Details of Foreign Armies . . . . . . . . . . 251 51. Weights, Measures and ~Ioney (British, Indian and F'oreigu) 259

52. Thermometer • . 268


Points of the Compass 269


Magnetic Variation • • 270


Dates of the Full Moon, 1913-1915 271


Sunrise and Sunset 272

APPENDIX V. Authorities to whom Indents should be addressed

(a) Dilleting Demand (b) Billeting Order .•


APPENDIX VII. Private Post Card, A.F. A 2042

APPENDIX VIII. Aeronautical Terms in Common Use


274 275 275 276 277 27~



To face page

1. Type of Bivouac for a Cavalry Regiment or Battalion of Mounted !.




8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Infantry.. . • •• .. •• , a Battery . • . . , an Ammunition Column ., , , an Infantry Battalion Tvpe of Perimeter Camp for a mixed force .• Bivouacs and Destructor

Cooking in the l<'ield Latrinen

Beales . • . • Conventional Signa






•. Cover for Gunll. . . . Raft and Bridge Details ••



'l'ypes of Bridges • . • . • . . .

Diagram of Ammunition Supply for a Division . . . . . . . Diacrram of Ammunition Supply for a Cavalry DivisiOn . . . . Supply Service in an Army of 4 Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division,

44 44 44 44 44 46 46 50 84 84 102 102 10-l 110 110 165 165 2 Mounted Brigades, and other Army Troops, when the Force I• Marching . . • . . • . . . . . . . . . . 174 Supply Rervice for 3 Divisions and Army Troops when Stationary 174 Sliding Alphabet Cipher . . . . . . 212 DistinguJshing Flags and Lamps at end of book


Abbreviations denoting nameo of corps such as R.H.A., A. S.C., .&c., arc omitted.



before an abbreviation oignifylng a principal staff officer, or the head of a service or department, means Assistant, similarly " D " signifies Deputy. A.A. A.A.G. A • .B. A.F. A. D.C. Admn . .. A.D. Sigs. Adv. Gd ... A. G. Amm . .. A. ami S. A.D.M.S ... A.O. A.P. A.P.M. Art. Batt. B.C. Bde. B.M. Bn. Br. .. Brlg.·Gen. Capt. Cav. C. B. C.O.D. C.G.S. Col. Coin. Army Act.

Assistant Adjutant· General. Army Book.

Army Form. Aide·de-Camp. Administration.

Assistant Director or Army Signals. Advanced guard.

Adjutant-General. Ammunition. Ammunition and Store.

Assistant Director or Medical Services. Army Order.

Armour Piercing. Assistant .Provost-Marshal. Art!llery.


Battery Commander. Brigade. Brigade Major. Battalion. Bombardier or Buglet. Brigadler·General. Captain. Cavalry. Confinement to Barracks. Commander of Coast Defences. Chief of the General Staff in tho Field. Colonel.


/ Comdt • •• Comdr . . . C.-in-C . •• Comdng •.•


Co. Cpl. D.A.G .. D.D.M.S .. . D.J.A.G ... . Det. Dept. Dist. Div. Dn. D.G. Dr. D.R.F. D.Sigs. D.M.S. D.O.S. D. Post. D.R.T. D. Remounts D.S. D.S.T. D.T. D.V.S. D.W. Est. F. Amb ... F.C. F. Co. .. F.G.C.M ... F. Imp. F.M. F.O. F.S.l\1. F.S.R. f.s. G.C. G.C.M. Gd. G.G.C. G.H.Q. G.O.C. Gr. G.S. lid. Qrs. Hd. Qrs. Gen. lid. Qrs. Sig. C'.o. Hd. Qrs. Army lfd. <~rs. Sig. Co. ,R.E. Rowr. Hosp. Hr. I.A. i/c. I.G.C. Jnf. J'.J\.G. CoJJlDlAndant. Commander. Commander-In-Chief. Commanding. Commanding Officer. Company. Corporal. Deputy Adjutant-General. Deputy Director o! Medical Services. Deputy Judge Advncatc General. Detachment.

Department. District. Division. Dragoon.






ver. Depression Range-Finder. Director of Army Signals.

Director of Medical Services.

Director of Ordnance Services.

Director of Postal Services. Director of Railway 'rransport. Direct.or o! Remounts. Director o! Supplies. Director o! Sea Transport. Director o! Transport. Director of Veterinary Services. Director of Works.

Establishment. Field Ambulance. l!'ire Commander. Field Company. Field General Court-Martial. Field Imprisonment. Field Marshal. Field Officer. l!'ield Service Manual. Field Service Regulatlom. l!'eet per second. Gun Captain. General Court-Martial. Guard. Gun Group Commander. General Headquarters. General Otbcer Commanding. Gunner.

General Staff, also General Service.


Headquarter• o! a General Headquarters Signal Company.

Headquarters of an Army Headquarters Signal


Horizontal Equivalent, also Hlgb Explosive. Howltaer.

Hospital. nuosar. l••d•::u. Army.

In charge of.

Inspector-General o! Communlcatlona Infantry. Judge AdTocate-GeneraL Lieut. . . Lt.-Gen •.. L. o! C. Lr. M.G. .. Maj.-Gen. Med. M.F'.P. M.L. M.J,.O. M.l'. M.M.P. :M.l!'.E. M.O. Mtd. ~f.T. m.v. m.p.h. N.C.O.


Otrr. 0.0. Ord. O.R.S. P.C. Pl. P.M. Pmr. P.O. Pte. P.W. Q.F. Qr.l\Ir. Q.M.G. Q.M.S. R.C.M. R.F. R.T.O. Rgt. R.l\1. S.A.A. Sec. Sjt. . . Sig. Sec. A. Sig. Sec. C. Sig. Co. D. Sig. Sec. W. Si!:~.o. . . Sig. Sqn ... Sig. 'l'p. S.M.



Sqn. Sup.O. Tel. T.O. T. & S Tp. Tpr. Tr. Vet, Lieutenant. Lieutenant-General. Line of Communication. Lancer. Afachlne Gun. ~fajor-General. Medical.

Military l!'oot Police. Muzzle Loader. Military Landin~ 01!icer.

Wlitary Police. Military Mounted Police.

Manual of Field Engineering Medical Officer.


Mechanical Transport, Muzzle Velocity.

Miles per bour.

Non-Commissioned Omcer. Officer Commanding. Officer.

Ordnance O.mcer. Ordnance.

Orderly room Serjeant. Principal Chaplain. Platoon. Provost-Marshal. Paymaster. Post o.mce. Private.

Royal W&rrant for Pay and Promotion. Qulckfiring.

Quartermaster. Quartermaster-General. Quartermaster-Serjeant. Regimental Court-Martial. Representative Fraction.

Railway Transport Officer.

Regiment. Riding Master.

Small Arm Ammunition.



Signal Section Air-line.

Signal Section Cable. Signal Company with Dl vision. Signal Section Wireless. Signalling Officer. Signal Squadron. Signal Troop. Serjeant-Major. Staff Olllcer. Squadron. Supply Officer. Telegraphs. Transport Officer. Transport and Supply. Troop. Trooper. Trumpeter. Veterinary.




V.I. W.E.



6' .. 6' .. 6X • • Vertical Interval., War Establishment~ 5 degrees.

5 feet or 5 minutes (geographically only). 5 inches or 5 aeconds.

5 yards.


(For special definitions of terms used In oversea expedition• ,.. p. 80.) ABATIS. An obstacle formed of trees or branches of trees picketed to tho

ground with their points towards the enemy.

ACCOUTREME.!i:TS r.omprise belts, pouches, bandoliers, slings, mess tins, haversacks, water bottles, and similar articles (other than arms) carried

outside the clothing.

ADMIN1STRATIVE CO~IMANDER. An officer vested with the command of administrative troops only; e.g., administrative commandants, directors of administrative services and their representatives.

ADMINIS1'RATIVE DEPARTMENTS. The departments of the Jndge Advocate-General, Principal Chaplain and Paymaster-in-Chief.

ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES. Signal, medical, supplies, transport, ordnance, railways, works, remounts, veterinary, postal.

ADMINISTRATIVE TROOI•S. Troops, combatant or otherwise, belonging to the administrative services, including R.E. other than those of field units; A.S.C.; R.A.M.C. ; A.O.C.; A.V.C.; A.P.C.; A.P.O.C. ADVANCED BASE. The area within which may be situated the advanced

depots of ammunition, supplies, animals, and material, from which issues are made to field units.

ALIGNMENT. Any straight line on which a body of troops Is formed, or is to form.

BANQUETTE. The place upon which men stand to fire over a parapet ..

BASE. A place where the L of C. originates, where magazines of stores for the forces in the field are situated and maintained under direct military management and control, and where th~. business of supplying these forces is located and orgamzed under the mJhtary authorities. BABIN. (i) A small arr.a of level ground surrotmded (or nearly so) by

hills-(ii) a district drained by a river and its tributaries. ' BA ULK. A road b~arer in a military bridge.

BAY. The distance bridged by one set of banlks.

BEARING. True bearing is the angle a line makes with the true north line. Magnetic bearing is the angie a line makes with the magnetic north line. In each case the angle Is measured from North by East and South. BENCH MARK. A ~tone placed t.o mark a level fixed by


BERM. A small space left between the parapet and excavations ol a work. BIG~~otte/oop formed on a rope, the two parts of which lie alongside one BIVOUAC. An encampment without tents or huts.

BOMB-PROOF. A shelter, proof against penetration by shells.

CALIBRE. The diameter of the bore of a gun in inches measured acroSII the lands.

CAPONIER. A small chamber formed in the ditch of a work projecting from the escarp to give fire along the bottom of the ditch.

C.t.SEMATE. A shell-proof chamber constructed for the accommodation of a garrison of a work or position.

ix CHESS. A plank forming a portion of the flooring of a iJri ige.

COL. A depression between two adjacent hills: a break in a ridge; the neck of land connecting an outlying feature with the main range. CoLUMN. Bodies of troops formed one in rear of another.

CoMMAND (Mil. Eng.). Vertical height of the crest of a work above the natural surface of the ground.

COMMANDEl\. An officer vested with the comman(l of a detachment, unit, or formation of fighting or administrative troops.

CONl'OUR. A contour is the representation on a map of an imaginary line running along the surface of the ground at the same height above mean soa level throughout its length.

CONTRIBUTION. A levy made on a town or community (see Sec. 47 and!

l!'.S.R., Part II, Sec. 35).

COSSACK l'OST. A" group" in outpost mounted troops (see Group). COUNTERSCARP. The side of the ditch of a work farthest from tho parapet. CHEST (Mil. Eng.). The intersection of the interior and superior slopes of a


CREST (:l'OPO.). The edge of the top of a hili or mountain; the position at which a gentle slope changes to an abrupt one.

CRIB-PIER. A support for a bridge formed of layers of baulks of wood laid alternately at right angles to each other.

DEAD Gt\OUND. Grouncl which cannot bo covered by fire.

DEFII,E. A portion of the route which troops can only traverse on a narrow front, e.g., a mountain pass, a bridge, an embankment.

DEnntcK. A single spar held by four guys, used for lifting or moving weights. '

DIST.I.NCE. The space between men or bodies of troops from front to rear. DIVISIONAL COLT.EC'.I'!Nll STATION. A place where slightly wounded men who

arc able to walk are collected. '

DRESSINO STATION. A place where wounded arc collected and attended by the personnel of a field ambulance.

ECHELON. A formation of successive and parallel units facing in the same direction, each on a flank, and to the rear of, the unit in front of it. El!BRASURE. A channel through the parapet of a work through which a..

gun is fired.

EPAUL:UENT. A small parapet to give cover to a guu and detachment in action.

ESCARP. The side of a ditch nearest the parapet.

FASCINE. A long bundle of brushwood used for revcttiug, roadmaking, &c.

FIELD ARMY. That portion of the forces in the field not allotted to fortresses, coast defences or garrisons.

:FIELD DEPoT. A small temporary depot of supplies in the immediate vicinity nf the field units.

]fiELD UNITS. Uobiic units of the field army allotted to divisions, e;avalry divisions, brigades, army troops, or L. of C. defence troops.

FIGHTING TROOPS. Infantry, cavalry, artiUery (including ammunition columns), flying corps and engineer field units. The headquarters vf

commanders of fighting troops are fighting units.

FIRE, EN~'ILADE. Fire the line of which sweeps troops or defences from flank.

FIRE, DIRl:CT LAYING. When the gun is laid by looking over or through the sights at the target.

;FIRE, FRONTAL. Fire, the line of which is perpendicular to the fwnt of the target.

FIRE, HIGH ANGLE. Fire from ali guns and howitzers at all angles of eleva-tion exceeding 25°.

FIRE, INDIRECT LAYING. When the gun is laid for direction on an aiming point or on aiming posts and elevation adjusted by sight clinometer.



:FIRE, OBLIQUE. li'ire, the line of which is inclined to the front of the target. FIRE, REVERSE. Fire, which is directed against the rear of a target. FILE. A front rank man and his rear rank man.

FORGES IN THE FIEI.D. The whole of the military forces mobilized in the theatre of operations under the supreme command of the C. in C. In-cludes the field army or armies, fortress, coast defence and garrison troops, and L. of C. units and defence troops.

FORM LINE. An approximate contour; a sketch contour.

FouGASSE. A small mine filled with stones which ·arc projected towards the enemy on the mine being fired.

GABION. An open cylinder of brushwood, sheet iron, &c., used for revetting. IJT.ACIS. The ground round a work within close rifle range. Sometimes

formed artificially.

GoRGE (TOPO.). A rugged and deep ravine. (~fil. Eng.) The face of a work least prepared to receive frontal fire.

GRADIENT. A slope expressed by a fraction. -,hi represents a rise or fall of 1' in 30'.

GROUP. On outpost duty, a sentry post of from 3 to 8 men.

GuY. A rope fastened to the tip of a spar or frame, to support, raise, or lower it.

GYN. A tripod with tackle, used for raising weights.

HEADERS. Sods, sandbags, &c., placed so that the longest side is at right angles to the face of the structure.

HEADQUARTERS, ARMY CORPS. The headquarters of the commander of an army corps or group of divisions.

HEADQUARTERS, AJUIY. The headquarters of the commander of an army or group of army corps. If army corps are not grouped in separate armies army hevnquarters and general headquarters become identical, and the latter term will be used.

HEADQUAR1'ERS, GENEltAJ.. The headquarters of C. in C. of the forces in the field.

HORIZONTAL EQUIVALENT. The distance in plan between two adjacent contours measured in yards.

HORSE· LENGTH. 8 feet.

WIDTH. 3 feet, which includes 3 inches outside the rider'• knee on either side.

INTERVAL. The lawral space between men, units or corps measured from flank to flank.

KNOLL. A low detached hill.

LINES o~· COMMUNlCATION. The systems of communi_catlou by rail, ro_ad and navigable waterways between the army and Its base or bases m-clusive, together with the distric~ through which they pass, within such limits as the C. m C. may determme.

L. oF C. DEFENCES. The defences of that portion of t~c L. of C. for _the security of which the commander of L. of C. defences IS made responsible by the C. in C., together with all fortifications and defences in that I •. o;rc.DEFENCE TROOPS. That portion of the field army which is detailed

for the defence of the L. of C.

L. OF C. UNITS. Administrative units on the L. of C. and under the com-mand of the I.G.C.

MAGNETIC MERIDIAN. A magnetic north and south line.

MAGNETIC VARIATION. The angle between the true north and !l'lagnetic north.

MERIDIAN. A true north and south line.

MOBILIZATION is the process by which an armed force passes from a peace to a war footin~- The mobiliza' :on, therefore, of a unit means lt.s com· p!etlon for war m men, horse~. and material.


ORDERS, OPERATION. Orders which deal with all stratc~lcal and tactical operations and which include such information regardmg supply, trans-port, &c., as it is necessary to publish to the troops.

ORDERS, ROUTINE. Orders which deal with matters not concerned with operations such as discipline, int.erior economy.

ORDERS STANDING. Orders issued to adapt existing regulations to local conditions and to save frequent repetitions in operation and routine orders.

PACE. The denomination of different degrees of speed; also a measurement of distance (30 inches).

PARADOS. A traverse to give cover from reverse fire.

PATROL. A body of men sent out to reconnoitre, or to guard against surprise. PLATOON. The quarter of an infantry company. Consists of four sections. PLOTTING. The process of bying down on paper field observations and


POSITION OF OBSERVATION (artillery) implies batteries in action watching all ground in their field of fire and ready to open fire.

POSITION OF READINESS (artillery) implies batteries limbered_ up under cover with positions in the immediate neighbourhood reconnoitred and every-thing ready for their occupation.

PROFIIE. The outline of the section of a parapet at right angles to the crest. PRJMEl\S. Small discs of dry guncotton used to detonate wet guncotton

(see page 117).'

RAILHEAD. A looality on the railway where ammunition and supplies are transferred to ammunition parlts and supply columns.

REDOUBT. A work entirely enclosed by a defensible parapet, which gives rifle lire all round.

RE-ENTRANT. A valley or depression running Into a main feature. ltEFILLING POINTS. Places where divisional ammunition columns and supply

sections of trains are refilled from ammunition parks and supply columns respect! vely.

REGULATING STATION. A place where railway trains are marshalled, and whence they arc despatched to railheads.

RELIEF. The length of time that men have to work before being relieved, or a number of men who work, or are on duty, for a given length of time. RENDEZvous. Places where ammunition parks and supply columns are met-by representatives of the headquarters concerned and directed to refilling points.

REQUISITION. A mode of making inhabitants of a district contribute supplies, &c., to an army. Must be paid for (see pagel76), but altcquisi-tion Receipt Note implies no promise to pay.

REVETMENT. Any material formed into a retaining wall to support earth at a steeper slope than the natural one.

RIBAND. A beam or spar fastened down on each side of a roadway to keep the chesses in place.

SADDI.E. See Coi •.

SANGAR. A dry built stone wall to give protection against rifle fire. SAP. A trench formed by constantly extending the end towards the enemy. ScALE. The proportion which a distance between any two points on a map

bears to the horizontal distance between the same points on the ground. SECTION. Cavalry. 4 front rank men with their coverers.

Artillery. 2 guns of a battery with their complement of men, horses and wagons.

Infantry. The quarter of a platoon.

Topography. The outline of the intersection of the mrfa):e of the ground by a vertical plane.





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