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International Law Studies—Volume 35

International Law Situations

With Solutions and Notes

U.S. Naval War College (Editor)

The thoughts and opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily of the U.S.

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(3)

INDEX

?age Anland I~ands_________________________________________ 4 Aireraft:

Armed priYate --- 95 Belligerent_________________________________________ 90 B(nnhardment frmn_________________________________ 102

Bombing, rn·or1osed limitation of_____________________ 105 Internntent of ___________________________________ 89,93,96

111 distre~~--- 89 :\Iilitar~· --- 90, 9-3, 95

~eutraL _______________ :_ __________________________ _

On hoard warship __

---Propo~al:-;• of Limitation of Arnum1~nt Couferenc·P.

1932, a~ to ______________________________________ _ Propo~ed control of, hy Lengue of Nations _______ ..,.._ TTSC'

o-:

---Aircraft IWr~omwl, internment of---Argentine. snppl~·ing ve~~els of war from ports of ________ _ Anned merchant yessels _________ -

---British instructions as to _________________________ _ A~ylum:

g.g

10) 105

SG

96

28 32

In ease of insurgelll'Y---~---- 67 In neutral ports ___________________________________ 42:, 49 United States-Peru treaty as to______________________ 43 Auxiliarr Ye~sels ___________________________ 21, 25, 37, 39, 52, 53 Con Yersion of ________________ --- 33 Base ot' naval overations______________________ 7, 11. 17, 38, 4-4 Belligerent right~---·--- 5. 10 Bloc·kade:

AeriaL_________________________________________ 87, 88, 94 Breach of, by airc:raft______________________________ 9'4 Effective________________________________________ Sf>, SH. 94 Paper______________________________________________ 88 Submarine --- _________________ 88 Bluefield~ iuciclent______________________________________ 58 Bombardment, aeriaL _________________________ 102 .. 103. 106, 106 Boundary. pursuit across internationaL ____ --·___________ 60

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128

IN"DEX

llrazil : Page

lleJligerent war!"hivs in vort~ of____________________ S, 10

He11airs in ports of________________________________ 8, 40 Cargoes:

Belligerent, clearance of_____________________________ 17 Xeutral, detention of_______________________________ 14

Central American court of justice________________________ G7 Central American states. general treaty of peace of______ 57

( 'harter, liability under ___________________________ =--- 78 Chile, n ttitude of, toward rPconYersion ________ :___________ 32

China, attitude of, to"·ard British action in Xanking____ 70

G.iYil strife:

Action (luring--- 55, G:! Convention concerning rights and dutie~ of stntes in

the eyent of, Ilabana, 1928 ______________ 62, G3, GO, 71, SO

(Text) --- 123 Clay, Secretary of Stnte _____________ -:--- 30

Clearance, fro1n neutral ports __________________________ 17,28 Closed ports ___________________________________________ 47.53

Closure of ports________________________________________ G Coaling:

From neutral vorts _____________________________ 37, 3!), -1:-i

In tin1e of peace___________________________________ 75 Code of Private Internationnl Law, 1028________________ 78

Commerce, between neutral states _______________________ 17, 20

Commission of Inquiry--- ~

Conunission of Jurists, 1923, as to aircraft ____ 87, !)0, 93, 9:J, 103

ConYention concerning rights and duties of states in the eYent of civil strife. (Sec Civil strife.)

ConYention on ~Iaritnne Xeutrality. (Sec ::\Iarithne neu-trality.)

ConYersion _____________________________________________ 21,33

In neutral ports---~--- 27 On high seas______________________________________ 2-1

(Sec also ReconYersion.)

Cuba__________________________________________________ 65 Protection of alien pro11erty ilL_____________________ GS Treaty of, with lJnited States_______________________ (in

Declaration of London, 1!)0!)____________________________ JS

Declaration of Paris, 185() _____________________________ 85, SS

Denmark:

As to repairs in neutral ports_______________________ 7, 10 As to use of belligerent flags______________________ 77

Destination --- 17, 41 Detention of neutral cargoes____________________________ 14

(5)

IXDEX

129

Page Bmcrald. The__________________________________________

70

Enemy forces, internment of______________________ _____ Dl Ethiopia, Unitea States recognizes state of war between,

and Italy--- 1:-i Export of arms and munitions __________________________ 1-!, 20

Farn~ The (KD-3) --- 00

Flag:

Display of, in neutral waters_______________________ 7~

JTalse---

72, 73, 78

,

81

Foreign ____________________________________________

71

,

77

La~ of the________________________________________ 70

Xntional, t1se of flag similar to_____________________ 7:) Protection of______________________________________ 73 Use of __________________________________________ 2fl, 7:3~

78

Fieet auxiliary. (Sec Auxiliary vessels.)

F~rce m a jcure ______________ _:______________________ _____ !J2 Ji..,ueling _____________________________________________ 6, 37, 3S

( Seo also Coaling.)

Gas warfare, prohibition of___________________________ DU Gases, use of _______________________________________

08

,

00, 10G

Geneva Convention,

1864 _____________________

__

_____

_

_ 107,113

Geneva protocol,

1925________________

_

____________

__

_

__

100

Great Britain:

Defines "~arship" --- -Instructions,

as

to armed nlerchantnwn _____________ _ Pt·otection of citizens by _________________________ _

I1abana Convention concerning the rights and duties of States in the event of civil strife. (See Ch·ii strife.) IIahnna Convention on ~Iarithnc Xeutrality. ( Sre

l\lnri-tilne neutrality.) Hague Conyention:

I.

1800 __________________________

_

_____

__

__

__ _

III. 1809~---~---

---2;)

70

' )

• )

107

,.II.

1907 _______________________

_

______

__

___

____

___

21,~0 ~.

1007 ____________________

_

________________

_

_

__

_ 108,110

XIII.

1007---

-

--- 5, 12,

:=m

,

40, 45,

ri(l

IIonlluras______________________________________________ !37 Detention of American Yessel by____________________ 7:2 Hospital ships ___________________________________ !33,

80, ct seq.

llagne Convention X as to__________________________ lOS

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130

I:XDEX

H~·tle. Prof. C. C. Page

As to repairs in neutral ports_______________________ H As to unarmed belligerent puhlic vessels_____________ 35 Hydroplane:-:. (See Seaplanes.)

Inuocent passagfl_______________________________________ 12

Institute of International Law:

As to coHver~ion___________________________________ 25

As to as~·Ium______________________________________ 4~

lti~urgency_____________________________________________ 62

Insurgents--- 66 Liahility of________________________________________

71

Seizure of foreign merehantmpn 1>~·--- 8:.! Yessels of ____________________________________ 66. 71, 7~~ 81

I nsurreC'tiou___ _____ _________ ______ ____ _ ________ __ ____ _ _ 80 l.Jnite<l States attitude toward.

1891_________________

()6

Internment_____________________________________________ 3!)

Briti~h memorandum as to_________________________ BO

De<·ree of Argentine on ________ _:____________________

37

Xiea raguan regulation as to________________________ 37 Of aircraft ______________________________________ 8~93, 96

Of helligPreiH warships____________________________ 10 Of Sflaplanes_______________________________________

rn>

Repairs on ves:-:els <luring___________________________

:-n

Rules for__________________________________________ 91 Interposition___________________________________________ 64 InterYention ________________________________________ 62

et

.~eq.

Italy. United States recognizes ~tate of war between EtlliOJli:t an<l_________________________________________ 15

Juncal, the_____________________________________________

30

.Jurisdiction, ovpr }H'ivate ve~sel:-: in foreign ports________ 74

KD-3. (Ser Farn, The.)

J( NJ11 p r i 11 z 1l" i l h e 1111 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :~ 1 Lansing, Heeretar.r of ~tate, as to C'OUYPrsion____________ :29 League of Xations, }H'OIWSed control of aireraft h~·--- 105

Limitation of Armament Conference:

1921~22____________________________________________ 99

193:!_______________________________________________

104

)lagdalPna Bay, coaling

ilL_____________________________

76 )laritime juri:-:<lictiou___________________________________ 9.

7-!

)l<lritinw twutrality, Convention on. HalJana. lf)~8_________ 7.

19.33,3-!.40

(Text) --- 115

~Ierehant vessels:

Arming of--- 22 .Jurisdiction over foreign___________________________ 74

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INDEX

:\Iexico:

Disturbed <.:onditions ilL ___________________________ _

De facto recognition of ____________________________ _

Reciproeal arrange1nent with United States as to

coal-131

Page 60 60

ing______________________________________________ 76 l\Iontevideo Conference, 1933____________________________ 6~. 64

Xanking incident_______________________________________ 70 Naval officers, powers of, in foreign ports________________

SO

~ etberlands :

Admission of warships to ports of_________________ GO

Internment:

Of belligerent aircraft_________________________

SO

Of Briti~h seaplane____________________________ 90

Xeutral jurisdiction:

Belligerent aircraft in ______________________________ 89~ 92 l\Iilitary aircraft in_________________________________ 95 Neutral persons, sale of war material by_________________ 13

Neutral ports __________________________________________ 36,38 Asylu1n in _________________________________________ 4~,49

Conversion ilL--- 21, 27 Entrance of converted ships to______________________ 3-1 Repairs in ________________________________ 4,7,S,29,31,43 Refuge in _______________________________________ 42.4~50

Supplying of warships at sea from ___________________ 41, 45 Use of_____________________________________________ 30 'Tessels and________________________________________ 1-5-1 Xeutral rights _________________________________________ 5,10

Habana Convention, 19'28___________________________ 41 Xeutral territory:

Crossing of________________________________________ 91 Sup!)lying warships at sea frmn _____________________ 41, 4-1

~eutral waters:

Passage through____________________________________ 12 Refuge ilL_____________________________________ 50

Xeutrality, maritime. (See l\Iaritilne neutrality.) Xicnragua:

Internment of n1erchant vessels by__________________ 37 Unite(} States attitude toward. 19'09_________________ G8 Norway:

As to re!)airs in neutral ports ____________________ _ Belligerent submarines in waters of _______________ _ Regulations as to use of flag in waters of ___________ _ Rules as to entrance of warships ___________________ _

Olinde Rodrigues, The _________________________________ _

Ophelia, The __________________________________________ _

7 11

78

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132

IXDEX

Page Orcl, The______________________________________________ 107

Oxford :\Ianual of XaYal \Var, 1913______________________ 26

Pnnama, 'Treaty of, with United States as to neutral

obli-g-n ti ODS

-Panama Canal .7.:one, belligerent warships in _____________ _

]Jcrl as, 'l'he ___________ --- ____ _

Phillips, \Yilliam. on interYention ______________________ _

I 'i rae;..· ___

---Pirates _______________________________________________ _

51

52

72

65

66,71

68

Pisa. The______________________________________________ 44

Political refugees, asylum to____________________________ 68

Prinz Eitel Fr-iedrich __________________________________ 20, 31

Privateers ---~--- 68

Projectiles, use of _____________________________________ 8~105

Property:

Alien______________________________________________ 68

Public, on 1nerchant vessels ____ ·____________________ 18

Protection :

Of alien property--- 68

Of American interests in Nicaragua_________________ 59

Of citizens_________________________________________

66

Of lives and 11roperty in :Kanking____________________ 70

Pursuit:

Across international boundary______________________

60

Into foreign jurisdiction____________________________ 81

Heay, Lord, as to conYersion____________________________ 22

Heconversion ____________________________________ 22, ~·-±, 31, 32

Hed Cross protest, as to attacking of hospital ships____ 111

Reefs, submerged_______________________________________ 9

Ilefuge in neutral ports ______________________________

42,49,50

Repairs in neutral ports ________________________ 4, 7, 29, 31, 43

Brazilian rules as to_______________________________ S

On interned ship___________________________________ 31

Hetalia tim1 --- 97

Sale of war material by neutral persons________________ 13

Seacoast. state without_________________________________ 41

~paplanes:

Internment of______________________________________ !JO

~Parcl1 of__________________________________________ 89

(Sec also Aircraft.)

~elf-presPITa tion --- SO

Sojourn:

In neutral ports___________________________________ 5, 13

Xorwrginn rules as to______________________________ 47

(9)

INDEX

133

Page

Spaight, .J. ~I., as to air hlocl{acle_______________________ KT

State, without access to the sea__________________________ -II

Sub1narine blockade. (Sec Blockade.)

Submarines, in Norwegian waters ______________________ 11, 7K

~ubsidized vessels______________________________________ :.!1 Sweden, as to repairs in port____________________________ 7 Territorial acquisitions originating in violence,

nonrecog-nition of_____________________________________________ 0~ Territorial waters ______ ·---~--- 38, ~:3

Con£1uct of n:1val forces in foreign__________________ SU

Jurisdiction of foreign merchant vessels in__________ 7::i Xor~·egian rules as to ___________________________ 11,47. 7S Submarines in ______________________________________ 11, 78 Unlawful use of--- 81

(See also Keutral ports.)

Tbree-n1ile lin1i L--- ___ --- :-3, U

Trade, between neutral states ___________________________ 17,

:::o

Traffic in auns aud munitions ________ :_ _______________ 15, 62, GH Transit:

Through neutra I state ______________________________ :.W, 41 Transit of goods_______________________________________ 41 Treaty of Paris, 1903___________________________________ 69 Treaty of Yersailles, as to use of gases in war ________ 100, 102. Treaty of 'Vashington, 1871____________________________ 5, SO Twenty-four hour rule ___________________________ 4, 8, 29, 38, GO U. S. S. R_____________________________________________ 18 United States:

Act as to use of its ports, 1915 _____________________ 17, 38 Acts as to export of arms, 19-35, 1936 ________________ 14, 15 Agree1nent with l\Iexico as to coaling in time of peace_ 75 As to belligerent submarines in Norwegian wate1·s___ 11 As to jurisdiction over foreign n1erchantmen_________ 70 Circular us to sale of war material by neutral persons_ 13 Conversion in ports of______________________________ 27 Protection of flag by--- 7R

Reciprocal agreement 'vith 1\Iexico as to pursuit across boundaries________________________________________ 60 United States Xavy Hegulntions________________________ 80

Unneutral service ____________________________________ 18,19,42 Yessels:

Charter of, h~· neutral to belligerent_________________ 18 Conversion of ________________________________ 21, 24, 27. 33

Enen1y, liability of, to attack________________________ 35

(10)

134

I~DEX

Yessels-Contiuued. Page

Xeutral, seizure of_________________________________ 19

Of iu~urgent:..: ________________________________ 66,71,7:2,81

Xeutral ports and__________________________________ 1-:1-1

Public, unarmetL___________________________________ 3:;

Yessels of war:

Aircraft on board__________________________________ D6

.And :-:hips a~similated thereto_______________________ 51

A~ylum in ueutra l port of__________________________ 50

Brazilian rules as to sojourn of _____ ,________________ 8

Definition of term __________________________________ 25. i12

Entrante of, in time of peace_______________________ 47

In neutral ports ___________________________________ 4.50

Jurisdiction over___________________________________ 10

ReconYer~iou of____________________________________ 31

Interment of _______________________________________ 31, 91

Supplying at sea of ____________________ 37, 38, 41, 44, et seq.

Supplying of, in foreign waters_:...____________________ 75

Yisit and search________________________________________ 35

Of seaplane________________________________________ 89

'Yar material, supplying of, by neutral persons___________ 13

'\'arfare, asphyxiating gases ilL ______________________ 98

et

seq.

Bacteriological ---______ 101, 103

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