Full text







Presented by


“The reintroduction of natural landscape elements into urban and suburban neighborhoods that are 

otherwise  dominated  by  introduced  species  may  be  the  greatest  contribution  to  ecosystem 

conservation that we can make.   Planting local native plant species in a rich, well‐planned butterfly 

garden reduces the isolation  of  native plants in reserves and parks, provides essential corridors 

between remaining patches of habitat, and aids in repairing the patchwork of ecosystems that survive.  

“Plant a tree” is a popular exhortation to those who are concerned about our environment, but 

significantly more tangible value can be had from planting a garden, a small forest, or a diverse native 

plant community to support an assemblage of native butterflies.   Such local conservation efforts 

provide not only much‐needed havens for the creatures themselves, but they also offer a promise that 

future generations will have the opportunity to experience the delight of watching a butterfly flutter 

about on a fresh spring morning.”   

Dennis D. Murphy, Director of the Center for Conservation Biology at Stanford University                 

“Butterflies will come to our gardens and flourish if they find nectar and food plants there.   Their 

presence will remind us of the essential bond we have with the natural world.  Our hope is that scores 

of butterfly gardens will emerge in every city, suburb, and town‐‐that gardeners will become directly 

engaged in the life cycle of butterflies and then in the biological systems of their gardens.  By doing so, 

butterfly  gardeners  will  find  themselves guardians  and  curators of  Lepidoptera‐‐and,  ultimately, 

stewards of nature.” 


Melody Mackey Allen, Executive Director of the Xerces Society   


The mission of Texas Discovery Gardens is to teach effective ways to restore, conserve and preserve  nature in the urban environment, with a focus on gardening organically and sustainably.  TDG is a  non‐profit 501(c)3 organization, supported in part by funds from the Dallas Park and Recreation  Department. 


Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard 214-428-7476 • www.texasdiscoverygardens.org

Butterfly Gardening! 

How to attract Aurelian delights to your backyard    Why garden for butterflies?  • Butterflies invoke pleasure in most people. Their bright colors and seemingly carefree  lives instill a sense of wonder and serenity.  • Butterflies are ecologically important to the environment.  They pollinate the plants  they visit for nectar and are the prey of other species.  • Butterflies are excellent environmental indicators and are among the first species to  leave an area that is damaged or degraded. Conservation is therefore a good reason for  gardening for these insects.     What is a butterfly?  • Butterflies are insects and together with skippers and moths make up the order  Lepidoptera, which means ‘scaly‐winged’. All members of this group have this character.    How do they differ from moths?  • Butterflies differ from moths in three major ways, although there are exceptions to the  ‘rules.’  • Butterfly antennae are clubbed or swollen at the end, most moths have simple hair‐like,  feather‐like, or comb‐like antennae.  • Butterflies have slender, smooth‐looking bodies whereas most moths have thick furry  bodies.  • Butterflies rest with the wings folded upright, most moths with the wings folded over  the body tent‐like or flat.    Gardening basics  • To attract butterflies to your garden you need to provide both adult and larval plants.  • Nectar plants provide the adults with nourishment and are what most people plant  when they want butterflies.  Flowers that attract butterflies often have heads of blooms  and a sturdy landing platform. Most are in shades of yellow, white, lavender, and pink.  • Host plants are those that are used in larval (caterpillar) development. Butterflies are  territorial and usually select their territory based on host plant availability.   • Research what species are in your area. Texas is home to about 450 species of  butterflies and due to its great range of environments, they live from the eastern forests  to the western deserts. Not all species live throughout the state though so garden for  what is likely to be in your area.  • Select the best location for your garden. Butterflies are sun‐loving creatures and prefer  the brightest areas out of the way of strong winds. 


Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard 214-428-7476 • www.texasdiscoverygardens.org • Select for greatest impact – In addition to nectar and host plants, butterflies require  shelter in the form of hiding places such as bushes and clumps of grasses.  Rocks are  appreciated as basking areas since they must warm themselves up before flight.   • Male butterflies visit the edges of puddles, streams and ponds for the water and  nutrients vital for sexual maturity.  Include a water feature such as a muddy‐edged pond  or bird bath.  • Select the right plants. These can be found by reading up on each species you are trying  to attract.  • Maintenance of the garden.  Expect your host plants to show damage. After all, the  caterpillars will be eating them!     Texas Butterflies   Eastern Black Swallowtail – Papilio polyxenes – umbelliferous plants such as dill,  fennel, parsley, carrot, water hemlock, etc.   Eastern Tiger Swallowtail – Pterourus glaucus – wild cherry, sweet bay, yellow poplar   Giant Swallowtail – Heraclides cresphontes – citrus, rue, hop ash, prickly ash   Pipevine Swallowtail – Battus philenor – pipevines   Alfalfa Butterfly – Colias eurytheme – alfalfa, white clover   Cloudless Sulphur – Phoebis sennae – senna, candelabra tree, cassia   Sleepy Orange – Abaeis nicippe – partridge pea, cassia, senna   Little Sulphur – Pyristia lisa – partridge pea, cassia, senna   Dainty Yellow – Nathalis iole – Spanish needles, beggars tick,  wild marigold   Imported Cabbage Butterfly – Artogeia rapae – cruciferous plants such as cabbage,  broccoli, turnips, mustard greens, water cress, etc.   Checkered White – Pontia protodice – cruciferous plants such as those listed above  plus shepherd’s purse, tansy‐mustard, peppergrass   Falcate Orangetip – Falcapica midea – wils spcies of crucifers such as rockcress,  peppergrass, bitter‐cress , rocket mustard, sickle‐pod   Great Purple Hairstreak – Atlides halesus – mistletoes   White‐M Hairstreak – Parrhasius m‐album – oaks, especially in the white oak (Q.  alba) and live oak groups   Olive Hairstreak – Callophrys (Mitoura) gryneus – junipers   Henry’s Elfin – Callophrys (Incisalia) henrici – redbud   Gray Hairstreak – Strymon melinus – malvaceous plants such as Sida, Turks cap,  globe mallows, etc. and legumes such as scalet runner bean, Lima bean, etc.   Soapberry Hairstreak – Phaeostrymon Alcestis – Western soapberry   Southern Hairstreak – Fixenia favonius – oaks   Banded Hairstreak – Satyrium calanus – oaks, walnut, hickory   Red‐banded Hairstreak – Calycopis cecrops – decaying leaves of many shrubs and  trees 


Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard 214-428-7476 • www.texasdiscoverygardens.org  Dusky‐blue Hairstreak – Calycopis isobeon – decaying leaves of many shrubs and  trees   Eastern‐tailed Blue – Cupido comyntas  ‐ many leguminous herbs such as bush  clovers, clovers, alfalfa, beggars lice, etc.   Spring Azure – Celastrina spp. – dogwood, New Jersey tea, Viburnum   Snout Butterfly – Libytheana carineta – hackberry, sugarberry   Variegated Fritillary – Euptoieta claudia – violets, passionflower, Maypop, blue flax   Gulf Fritillary – Agraulis vanillae – passionflower, Maypop   Gorgone Checkerspot – Chlosyne gorgone – sunflowers, crossword, other  composites   Silvery Checkerspot – Chlosyne nycteis – wingstem, sunflowers, asters, black‐eyed  Susan, crownbeard   Pearl Crescent – Phyciodes tharos –asters   Phaon Crescent – Phyciodes phaon – fog fruit   Texas Crescent – Anthanassa texana – acanthaceous plants such as shrimp plant,  Ruellia, flame acanthus, tubetongue, Dicliptera, water‐willow   Mourning Cloak – Nymphalis antiopa – elm, hackberry, sugarberry, willow   Questionmark –Polygonia interrogationis – elm, hackberry, sugarberry   Comma, Hop Merchant – Polygonia comma – hops, nettle, false nettle, elm   Painted Lady – Vanessa cardui – thistles, cardoon, sunflower   American Painted Lady – Vanessa virginiensis – cudweeds, everlastings   Red Admiral – Vanessa atalanta – nettle, false nettle, pellitory   Buckeye – snapdragon, snapdragon vine, toadflax, false foxglove, ruellia, fog fruit,  lemon verbena, plantain   Red‐spotted Purple – Limenitis arthemis astyanax – wild cherry, apple, plum   California Sister – Adelpha bredowii – oaks, especially evergreen species   Hackberry Butterfly – Asterocampa celtis – hackberry, sugarberry   Tawny Emperor – Asterocampa clyton – hackberry, sugarberry   Monarch – Danaus plexippus – milkweeds   Queen – Danaus gilippus – milkweeds   Goatweed Leafwing – Anaea andria – goatweed, croton   Little Wood Satyr – Megisto cymela – various grasses   Red Satyr – Megisto rubricata – Bermuda grass, St. Augustine grass   Carolina Satyr – Hermeuptychia sosybius – carpet grass, centipede grass, prob. other  grasses   Common Wood Nymph – Cercyonis pegala – purpletop and other large grasses   Gemmed Satyr – Cylopsis gemma – Bermuda grass     


Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard 214-428-7476 • www.texasdiscoverygardens.org









 Identify butterflies native to your area.   

 Assess the yard or garden space in its present state, noting trees, shrubs, &herbaceous 

flowering plants that are a food source for butterflies & caterpillars.   

 Select a variety of plants that will attract butterflies to your garden.  Include a selection of 

larval food &adult nectar plants.   

  Locate the garden in full sun, or an area that receives at least 4 hours of sunlight.   

  Provide a windbreak or screen of trees, shrubs or a fence to block excessive wind.   

  Plan for continuous bloom through the butterfly season (February thru November).   

  Use groups of plants to display splashes of color to attract more butterflies.   

  Plant single flower varieties, which are easier for butterflies to nectar upon.   

 To encourage butterfly visitation, include a water source for puddling or rotted fruit for the 

sap feeding butterflies.   

 Garden organically to attract butterflies and other beneficial insects.   

  Record your butterfly visitors, taking note of the plants that appear to be their favorite 

nectar sources. 

For further information: 

Butterfly Garden Programs & Butterfly Habitat Certification 

John Watts, Entomologist – JWatts@TexasDiscoveryGardens.org 

Roger Sanderson, Director of Horticulture – RSanderson@TexasDiscoveryGardens.org  

Program & Volunteer Opportunities 

Jennifer Hoffman – JHoffman@TexasDiscoveryGardens.org 

Children’s Programming 

Erin Shields – Edu@TexasDiscoveryGardens.org 

The Dallas County Lepidopterists’ Society 

Dale Clark – www.dallasbutterlies.com 


Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard 

214‐428‐7476 • www.texasdiscoverygardens.org 

Native and Adapted Plants for a Diverse Butterfly Garden 

Buy/grow organic plants, protect your garden from strong winds, and choose a sunny spot to attract native  butterflies. Try to keep from cleaning up too much plant material in the fall; many species overwinter in leaf  litter or on plants in chrysalis form.  


Top Native and Adapted Butterfly Host Plants 

Caterpillar host plants, also referred to as larval food plants, are the plant species on which a female butterfly  will lay eggs.  The caterpillars will then feed upon this plant until they pupate  

(form a chrysalis).  Plant at least 3‐5 of each plant in order to accommodate hungry caterpillars! Note: these host  plants also make great nectar plants for butterflies and/or other pollinators.  

  1.   Hop Ash, Ptelea trifoliata      

        Butterfly:  Giant Swallowtail  

  2.   Passionvine, Passiflora incarnata, P. lutea             Butterfly:  Gulf Fritillary 

  3.   Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, Dill, Anethum graveolens                Butterfly:  Eastern Black Swallowtail 

  4.   Rue, Ruta graveolens       

        Butterfly:  Eastern Black Swallowtail, Giant Swallowtail    5.   Milkweed, Asclepias sp.       

        Butterfly:  Monarch, Queen 

  6.   Hackberry, Celtis sp.         

        Butterflies:  Hackberry, Snout, and Tawny Emperor butterflies    7.   Pipevine, Aristolochia sp.      

        Butterflies:  Pipevine Swallowtail    8.   Frogfruit, Phyla nodiflora               Butterflies:  Buckeye, Phaon Crescentspot    9.   Sennas, Senna sp.          

        Butterflies:  Giant Cloudless Sulphur, Orange Sulphur, Little Yellow, Sleepy Orange    10. False nettle, Boehmeria cylindrica   

        Butterflies:  Red Admiral, Question Mark, Eastern Comma    11. False Indigo, Amorpha fruticosa     

        Butterfly:  Dogface butterfly, Silver‐spotted Skipper, Gray Hairstreak    12. Clammyweed, Polanasia dodecandra  

        Butterfly: Great Southern White, Checkered White 


Top Native and Adapted Butterfly Nectar Plants 

Butterfly Nectar plants provide nourishment for most butterfly species in the nectar, and   sometimes pollen, contained in the flowers.   

1.    Lantana, Lantana sp.     2.    Verbena, Verbena sp. 

  3.    Gregg’s Mist Flower, Eupatorium greggii      4.    Frostweed, Verbesina virginica 

  5.    Pentas, Pentas lanceolata     6.    Autumn Sage, Salvia greggii  

  7.    Buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis     8.    Hummingbird Bush, Anisacanthus quadrifidus    9.    Coral Honeysuckle, Lonicera sempervirens     10.  Blackfoot Daisy, Melampodium leucanthum  

  11.  Zinnia, Zinnia sp. (Do not buy double petal varieties. Pollinators can’t access the nectar.)    12. Mexican Sunflower, Tithonia rotundifolia 


Texas Discovery Gardens • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard 

214‐428‐7476 • www.texasdiscoverygardens.org 


Petunia x hybrida      Petunia 

Viola sp.        Johnny Jump Ups 

Zinnia spp.        Zinnia 


Achillea sp.        Yarrow 

Allium sp.        Chives, Onions 

Camassia scilloides      Wild Hyacinth 

Centranthus ruber      Red Valerian 

Dalea wrightii       Wright Dalea 

Dianthus sp.        Garden Pinks, Carnations 

Engelmannia pinnatifida    Engelmann Daisy 

Gaillardia sp.        Blanket‐flower 

Iberis sempervirens      Candytuft 

Marshallia caespitosa     Barbara’s Buttons 

Phlox divaricata      Wild Sweet William 

Phlox stolonifera      Creeping Phlox 

Phlox sublata        Thrift 

Phyla nodiflora      Frog‐fruit 

Salvia sp.        Salvia 

Scabiosa columbaria      Scabiosa 

Sisyrinchium spp.      Blue‐eyed Grass 

Verbena spp.        Verbena 

Viola sp.        Pansies, Violets 


Berberis  trifoliolata      Agarita 

Buddleia marrubiifolia    Woolly Butterfly‐bush 

Ceanothus sp.       Ceanothus, Red‐root 

Cornus drummondii      Rough‐leaf Dogwood 

Itea virginica        Virginia Sweetspire 

Philadelphus spp.      Mock‐orange 

Prunus rivularis      Creek Plum 

Spiraea sp.        Bridal Wreath 

Viburnum rufidulum      Rusty Blackhaw Viburnum 



Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. 214-428-7476 • www.TexasDiscoveryGardens.org

Arbutus texana      Madrone 

Crataegus sp.        Hawthorn 

Ilex decidua        Possumhaw 

Ilex vomitoria        Yaupon 

Malus ioenensis      Prairie Crabapple 

Prunus caroliniana      Cherry Laurel 

Prunus mexicana      Mexican Plum 

Prunus serotina var. eximia    Choke Cherry 


Gelsemium sempervirens    Carolina‐jessamine 

Lonicera sempervirens    Coral Honeysuckle 



Centaurium sp.      Bachelor Buttons 

Cosmos sp.        Cosmos 

Cuphea sp.        Cuphea 

Gomphrena globosa      Globe Amaranth 

Helianthus sp.       Sunflowers 

Heliotropium indica      Heliotrope 

Melampodium leucanthum    Blackfoot Daisy 

Monarda sp.        Bee Balm 

Pentas lanceolata      Pentas 

Tagetes hybrids      Marigold 

Tithonia rotundifolia      Mexican Sunflower 

Verbesina enceloides      Cowpen Daisy 

Zinnia hybrids       Zinnia 


Anisacanthus sp.      Anisacanthus 

Asclepias sp.        Butterfly Weed 

Caesalpinia gilliesii      Bird of Paradise 

Coreopsis sp.        Coreopsis, Tickseed 

Echinacea purpurea      Coneflower 

Eupatorium fistulosum    Joe Pye‐weed 

Eupatorium greggii      Gregg’s Mist Thoroughwort 

Lantana sp.        Lantana 

Liatris sp.        Gayfeather 

Lobelia sp.        Cardinal Flower 

Phlox paniculata      Summer Phlox 

Rudbeckia sp.       Black‐eye Susan 

Salvia sp.        Salvia 

Verbena sp.        Verbena 

Vernonia sp.        Ironweed 



Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. 214-428-7476 • www.TexasDiscoveryGardens.org

Aloysia gratissima      Bee‐brush 

Amorpha fruticosa      False Indigo 

Buddleia sp.        Butterfly Bush 

Cephalanthus occidentalis    Buttonbush 

Eysenhardtia sp.      Kidneywood 

Leucophyllum frutescens    Cenizo, Texas Sage 

Malvaviscus arboreus     Turks Cap, Drummond Wax‐mallow 

Pavonia lasiopetala      Rose Pavonia 


Acacia sp.        Acacia 

Albizia julibrissin      Mimosa 

Leucaena retusa      Golden Ball Lead‐tree 

Prosopis glandulosa      Honey Mesquite 


Polygonum aubertii      Silver Lace Vine 

Senecio confusus      Mexican Flame Vine 




Heliopsis healianthoides    False Sunflower 


Aster sp.        Fall Aster 

Chrysanthemum sp.      Chrysanthemums 

Eupatorium coelestinum    Hardy Ageratum 

Physostegia virginiana    Obedient Plant 

Salvia leucantha      Mexican Bush Sage 

Salvia sp.        Salvia 

Sedum spectabile      Showy Sedum 

Solidago sphacelata      Goldenrod 

Verbesina virginiana      Frostweed 

Zephyranthes robusta     Pink Rain Lily 

Zephyranthes sulphurea    Yellow Rain Lily 


Buddleia lindleyana      Butterfly Bush 

Eupatorium havanense    Thoroughwort 

Eupatorium odoratum    Fragrant Eupatorium 


Clematis paniculata      Sweet Autumn Clematis 

Passiflora sp.        Passionvine 




Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. 214-428-7476 • www.TexasDiscoveryGardens.org

Many summer blooming annuals and perennials will remain in flower until the first  hard frost, including the following: 

Asclepias sp.        Butterfly Weed 

Buddleia sp.        Butterfly Bush 

Cosmos sp.        Cosmos 

Cuphea sp.        Cuphea 

Echinacea purpurea      Coneflower 

Eupatorium fistulosum    Joe Pye‐weed 

Gomphrena globosa      Globe Amaranth 

Helianthus sp.       Sunflowers 

Lantana sp.        Lantana 

Liatris sp.        Gayfeather 

Malvaviscus arboreus     Turks Cap, Drummond Wax‐mallow 

Melampodium leucanthum    Blackfoot Daisy 

Pavonia lasiopetala      Rose Pavonia 

Pentas lanceolata      Pentas 

Polygonum aubertii      Silver Lace Vine 

Tagetes hydrids      Marigold 

Verbena sp.        Verbena 


This page contains excerpts from Milkweed, Monarchs and More, by Ba Rea, Karen Oberhauser, and Michael Quinn Texas Discovery Gardens, POB 152537, Dallas, TX 75315 214-428-7476 www.texasdiscoverygardens.org

The Milkweed Community

Careful observation of the milkweed community and the interactions of its diverse members provide a fascinating glimpse into the complex interdependence of living organisms. There are about 110 species of milkweed in North America and 36 species native to Texas. At Texas Discovery Gardens, Asclepias curassavica, or Mexican milkweed is planted throughout the gardens and is available for sale most of the year.

Many insects are attracted to the nectar and pollen of milkweed flowers. Other insects may feed on milkweed leaves, seeds, stems or roots. Predatory insects and arachnids are attracted to the plentiful prey population. Many more species may be found resting temporarily on the plants. You must look carefully on top and under flowers and leaves.

Stay on the path, and walk quietly up to a plant. Insects scared off may return if you remain still. Scan the leaves, flowers, seedpods, and stems for unusual shapes, color, or activity. Watch for signs like chewed leaves and frass (caterpillar droppings). Once you have found a milkweed community member, watch for it again. Note the effects of time, season, temperature, and weather condition, as well as age and condition of the milkweed plant, have on the activity seen. Milkweeds are perennial plants, meaning an individual plant lives for more than one year, growing each spring from rootstock and seeds, rather than seeds alone. Our native milkweeds were historically common and widespread on prairies, but habitat destruction has reduced their range and numbers. Plant milkweed to encourage the return of its inhabitants!

The name “milkweed” comes from the plant’s milky sap that contains latex and a toxic alkaloid which adversely affects birds and mammals. Many insects avoid milkweed, but some insects, most famously the Monarch butterfly caterpillar, have adapted to feeding on milkweed. Tropical milkweed sap is more toxic than our local milkweed species. Avoid contact between yourself and the plant sap.

Unlike many flowers whose pollen is a powder, milkweed flowers transfer their pollen in a pair of waxy packets. This packet attaches to the legs, proboscis or bristly hairs of insects sipping nectar from the flowers.

Flying above the milkweed are bees and wasps. Bumblebees, carpenter bees, honeybees and wasps drink nectar, but several kinds of wasps catch caterpillars for their young. The black-and-orange queen or monarch butterflies feed and lay eggs, but other butterflies will drink milkweed’s nectar. Look for a metallic insect- a predatory long-legged fly. Dragonflies search for insects, too. Nursery web spiders hunt from leaves or stems, and crab spiders crouch on flowers. On the new growth are yellow aphids, food for several species of ladybird beetles. Ants and other insects eat the aphid’s honeydew. Plant bugs with long antennae crawl slowly on the leaves. Bigger assassin bugs look for prey. The black bug with the red Xon back is the small milkweed bug. The large milkweed bug is mostly red with a black band. The five-sided stinkbugs can be predatory or plant-sucking. The praying mantis will catch and eat all insects! Monarchs lay cream-colored eggs on the underside of leaves. Caterpillars feed there also. Caterpillars are identified in one of five instars, or sizes, from 2mm to 45mm. Also, look for arc-shaped holes, or irregular leaf edges where caterpillars have been feeding. Disturbed caterpillars may drop off the leaf for protection. You may see a large caterpillar wandering along the ground- they pupate on plants in other locations, and it is searching for a protected site to prepare its chrysalis.


Host and Nectar Plants for Butterflies

Latin Name Common Name Type Height Light Origin Bloom Nectar Host Plant for

Abelia grandiflora Glossy Abelia shrub 8' sun/pt shade non-native Jun-Oct Yes

Acacia wrightii Wright Acacia tree 6'-10' sun/pt shade native Apr-May Yes Silver-Spotted Skipper

Allium spp. Chives perennial 8"+ sun/pt shade non-native May-Jun Yes

Althaea zebrina French Hollyhock perennial 3' sun/pt shade non-native Spr-Fall Painted Lady

Amorpha fruticosa False Indigo shrub 2'-15' sun/pt shade native Apr-June

Gray Hairstreak, Silver-Spotted Skipper, Hoary Edge, Cloudy Wing, Dogface

Anisacanthus quadrifidus Flame Acanthus perennial 2'-4' sun/pt shade native June-Fall Yes Janais Patch, Texas Crescentspot

Anethum graveolens Dill annual 18" sun/pt shade non-native May-July Yes Black Swallowtail

Aristolochia fimbriata Pipevine vine 3'-6' sun/pt shade non-native Jun-Sep Pipevine Swallowtail

Aristolochia tomentosa Woolly Pipevine vine to 50' sun/pt shade native Mar-May Pipevine Swallowtail

Asclepias asperula Antelope-Horns perennial 8"-2' sun native Mar-Nov Yes Monarch,Queen

Ascelepias curassavica Mexican Milkweed annual 3' sun native May-Oct Yes Monarch, Queen

Aslepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed perennial 5' sun non-native May-Jun Yes Monarch, Queen

Asclepias viridis Green Milkweed perennial 2' sun/pt shade native Mar-Sep Yes Monarch, Queen

Berberis trifoliata Agarito shrub 3'-6' sun/pt shade native Mar-Apr Yes

Buddleia davidii Butterfly Bush shrub 3'-12' sun/pt shade non-native May-Frost Yes

Caesalpinia gillesii Bird of Paradise shrub 8'-10' sun native Spr-Fall Yes

Cephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush shrub 3'-15' sun native Jun-Sep Yes

Cercis canadensis Redbud tree 10'-20' sun/pt shade native March Yes Henry's Elfin

Chasmanthium latifolium Inland Sea Oats perennial 2'-4' shade/pt shade native Summer

Celia's Roadside Skipper, Common Roadside Skipper

Clerodendrum bungei Cashmere Bouquet perennial 5'x4' pt/shade-shade non-native May,Oct Yes

Coreopsis sp. Tickseed perennial 1'-2' sun/pt shade native/hybrids Apr-June Yes

Dalea greggii Dalea perennial 4"-9" sun native May-Sep Yes Dog Face

Dalea frutescens Black Dalea perennial 3'-4' sun native June-Oct Yes Dog Face

Dicliptera bracheata Perennial Dicliptera perennial 14"-28" pt/shade-shade native July-Frost Texas Crescentspot

Dicliptera suberecta Velvet Honeysuckle perennial 2'-3- sun native June-Sep Yes

Diospyros texana Texas Persimmon tree 10'-15' sun/pt shade native Early Spring Gray Hairstreak

Coneflower perennial 2' sun/pt shade native Apr-May Yes

Eupatorium greggii Gregg's Mist Flower perennial 8" sun/pt shade native May-Oct Yes

Fallugia paradoxa Apache Plume shrub 6' sun/pt shade native May-Dec Yes

Foeniculum vulgare Fennel biennial/pere 2'-5' sun/pt shade non-native May-June Yes Black Swallowtail

Gaillardia grandiflora Blanket Flower per/annual 1' sun/pt shade native Apr-May Yes

Gomphrena globosa Globe Amaranthus annual 18" sun non-native Spr-Frost Yes

Ipomopsis rubra Standing Cypress biennia 5' sun native Apr-May Yes

Lantana spp. Lantana per/annual 3'-5' sun native May-Oct Yes Gray Hairstreak, Painted Lady

Lonicera sempervirens Coral Honeysuckle vine 10'plus sun/pt shade native Spr-Fall Yes Spring Azure


Host and Nectar Plants for Butterflies

Latin Name Common Name Type Height Light Origin Bloom Nectar Host Plant for

Lythrum salicaria Purple Loosestrife perennial 3' sun/pt shade native June-Aug Yes

Medicago sativa Alfalfa perennial 3' sun/pt shade non-native April

Dogface, Orange Sulfur, Gray Hairstreak, Painted Lady

Melampodium leucanthemum Blackfoot Daisy perennial 8"-1' sun native May-Nov Yes

Monarda didyma Beebalm perennial 3'x3' sun non-native Jun-Jul Yes

Passiflora caerulea Blue Crown vine 10'plus sun/pt shade non-native Jun-Sep Gulf Fritillary, Variegated Fritillary

Passiflora incarnata Maypop vine 10'plus sun/pt shade native Jun-Sep Gulf Fritillary, Variegated Fritillary

Passiflora x 'Incense' Passionvine vine 12' sun/pt shade hybrid May-Sep Gulf Fritillary, Variegated Fritillary

Pentas lanceolata Pentas annual 18" sun non-native Sp-Fall Yes Tersa Sphinx Moth

Petroselinum crispum Parsley biennial 1'-3' sun/pt shade non-native Spr-Fall Yes Black Swallowtail

Philadelphus ernestii TX Mock Orange shrub 3' sun/pt shade native April Yes

Phlox paniculata Phlox perennial 3' sun native June-Aug Yes

Phyla nodiflora Frogfruit perennial 3"x1' sun/shade native Spr-Fall Yes Buckeye, Phaon Crescent

Physostegia virginiana Obedient Plant perennial 3'-4' sun/pt shade native Aug-Sep Yes

Polanisia dodecandra Clammyweed annual 2' sun native Mar-Oct Yes Cabbage White, Great Southern White

Prosopis juliflora Mesquite tree 20'-30' sun native Mar-Sept Yes

Longtail Skipper, Reakirt's Blue, Ceraunus Blue

Prunus rivularis Creek Plum tree 12' sun/pt shade native Mar-Apr Yes Tiger Swallowtail, Red Spotted Purple

Prunus serotina Black Cherry tree 60' sun native Mar-Apr Yes Spring Azure, Viceroy, Tiger Swallowtail

Ptelea trifoliata Hop Ash tree 24' sun/pt shade native Mar-June Giant Swallowtail, Tiger Swallowtail

Rhus aromatica Fragrant Sumac shrub 3'-8' sun/pt shade native Feb-Mar Red-banded Hairstreak

Rudbeckia spp. Black-eyed Susan perennial 2'-12' sun native/non-na Jun-Sep Yes Silvery Checkerspot

Ruellia brittoniana Mexican Petunia perennial 3' sun/pt shade native June-Oct Yes Texas Crescentspot

Ruta graveolens Rue perennial 3'x2' sun/pt shade non-native Sep-Oct Giant Swallowtail, Black Swallowtail

Salvia greggii Autumn Sage perennial 2'-3' sun native Apr-Nov Yes

Sedum spectabile Sedum perennial 1'-2' sun non-native July-Nov Yes Gray Hairstreak

Senna alata Emperor's Candlestick annual 10' sun non-native Aug-Oct Cloudless Sulfur, Gray Hairstreak

Senna corymbosa Argentine Senna perennial 10' sun/pt shade non-native Sep-Nov

, g p , Sleepy Orange

Thymus spp. Thyme perennial 2"-4" sun/pt shade non-native Mar-May Yes

Tithonia rotundifolia Mexican Sunflower annual 3' sun non-native June-Oct Yes

Ungnadia speciosa Mexican Buckeye tree 8'-12' sun/pt shade native Mar-Apr Yes

Verbena spp. Verbena perennial 6"-1' sun both May-Nov Yes

Verbesina virginica Frostweed perennial 3'-7' sun native Oct-Nov Yes

Viola spp. Violet perennial 6"-12" sun/pt shade both April Variegated Fritillary

Zanthoxylum clava-herculis Hercule's Club tree 15' sun native Apr-May Giant Swallowtail

Zinnia spp. Zinnia annual 8"-12" sun non-native May-Oct Yes


Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park • 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. 214-428-7476 • www.texasdiscoverygardens.org













Eden’s Organic Garden 

4710 Pioneer Rd, Balch Springs 




Nicholson Hardie 

5725 West Lovers Lane 

Dallas, TX 75209 



North Haven Gardens Inc. 

7700 Northaven Road  Dallas, Texas  75230  214‐363‐5316    Organic Dynamics  1515 US Highway 80 E  Mesquite, TX 75150‐5621  (972) 216‐5296    Redenta’s  2001 Skillman St.  Dallas, Texas 75206  214‐823‐9421  www.redentas.com   

Rohde's Nursery & Nature Store  

1651 Wall St.,   Garland  Texas   972‐864‐1934  www.beorganic.com    Shades of Green   8801 Coit Road,   Frisco, Texas  972‐335‐9095    Weston Gardens  8101 Anglin Drive 

Fort Worth, Texas  76410 

817‐572‐0549  MAIL ORDER  Forest Farm  990 Tetherow Road  Williams, Oregon 97544‐9599  503‐846‐6963  (11:00 AM & 5:00 PM)   

Native American Seed 

3400 Long Prairie Road 

Flower Mound, Texas   75028 



Wildseed, Incorporated 

1101 Campo Rosa Road 

P.Ol Box 308 

Eagle Lake, Texas   77434 



Park Seed Co. 

Cokesbury Road 

Greenwood, SC 29647‐0001 


Plant Delights Nursery Inc. 

9241 Sauls Rd. 

Raleigh, NC 27603 




Thompson & Morgan 

P.O. Box 1308 

Jackson, NJ   08527‐0308 


Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.

214-428-7476 www.TexasDiscoveryGardens.org


Butterfly Gardening

Ajilvsgi, Geyata. 1990. Butterfly Gardening for the South. Texas: Taylor Publishing Company.

Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 1995. Butterfly Gardens, Luring Nature’s Loveliest Pollinators to Your Yard. BBG Publication, Handbook #143. ISBN 0-945352-88-3

Grissell, Eric, & Goodpasture, Carll. 2001. Insects and Gardens: In Pursuit of a Garden Ecology. Timber Press, ISBN 0881925047

Rothschild, M., & C. Farrell. 1983. The Butterfly Gardener. London: Michael Joseph Ltd/Rainbow. Schneck, Marcus. 1994. Creating a Butterfly Garden. Fireside, ISBN: 0671892460

Sedenko, Jerry. 1991. The Butterfly Garden: Creating Beautiful Gardens to Attract Butterflies. New York: Villard Books.

Tekulsky, Mathew. 1985. The Butterfly Garden. Boston: The Harvard Common Press. ISBN: 0916782697

Warren, E. J. M. 1988. The Country Diary Book of Creating a Butterfly Garden. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Xerces Society 1998. Butterfly Gardening: Creating Summer Magic in Your Garden. Sierra Club Books, ISBN: 0871569752

Butterfly Identification Guides

Brock, Jim & Kaufman, Kenn. 2003. Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0-618-25400-5 Carter, David J. 1992. The Eyewitness Handbook of Butterflies and Moths. London: Dorling Kindersley Ltd. Howe, W.H. (ed.) 1975. The Butterflies of North America. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday Press.

Neck, Raymond W. 1996. A Field Guide to Texas Butterflies. Houston Texas Gulf Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87719-243-X

Opler, Paul A. 1992. A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Scott, J.A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and FieldGuide. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Tilden, J.W. and A.C. Smith. 1986. A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Tveten, John and Gloria, 1996. Butterflies of Houston and Southeast Texas. Austin Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-78142-3

Walton, Richard and Paul Opler. 1990. Familiar Butterflies of North America. Alfred Knopf. ISBN Q679-72981-X

Wright, Amy Bartlett. 1993. Peterson First Guides to Caterpillars of North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Visit the Dallas County Lepidopterists Society webpage for more reference books on moths and butterflies! www.dallasbutterflies.com


Texas Discovery Gardens at Fair Park. 3601 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. 214-428-7476. www.texasdiscoverygardens.org

Native Butterfly Checklist

Date Time/Location Butterfly (egg/larvae/pupa) Activity/Plant

Month-Day-Year _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________





Application for Certification

Name:__________________________________________________________________________________ Address:_________________________________________________________________________________ City:_________________________________________State:______________Zip:_____________________ Daytime Phone Number: _____________________________ Home Phone ___________________________ E-mail: _____________________________________

Did you take our butterfly gardening workshop? Yes No

I. Caterpillar Food Plants (Larval Food Plants)-- List the Trees, Shrubs, Annuals and Perennials that feed

butterfly larvae: Continue on a separate page if needed.

Trees & Shrubs Qty. Annuals & Perennials Qty.

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ II. Butterfly Nectar Plants - List the Trees, Shrubs, Annuals and Perennials that provide sugar and pollen for Butterfly Adults. Continue on a separate page if needed.

Trees & Shrubs Qty. Annuals & Perennials Qty.

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________



III. Water / Mud for Puddling -- Describe your method for providing a water source for butterflies and/or a

mud source for extra water and minerals.

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ IV. Feeders (Optional) - Describe any butterfly feeders and the number used. If you are providing rotted fruit for the sap feeding species, please describe your feeder and food source. Note: trees such as a mulberry

or plum will provide sap if the fruit is left to ripen and ferment on the ground.

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ V. Habitat Design

How many hours of sun does the area receive daily during the summer?

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Which direction does it face? (North, South, East, West)

___________________________________________________________________________________________ Is there a windbreak? Please describe.

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ What is the approximate size of the habitat? (Square Feet or Acres) ___________________________________



List any large trees or shrubs that could provide roosting and shelter.

Tree or Shrub Number Size

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

VI. Pest Control - Please describe any methods or substances used in the habitat for pest control.

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ VII. Is there additional information you wish to add regarding your butterfly habitat?

___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ OPTIONAL: You may include a sketch of your habitat design or non-returnable photos.

Certification is $35 and includes a complimentary sign for your garden. Please mail or fax the completed application to:

Texas Discovery Gardens Butterfly Habitat Program

P.O. Box 152537 Dallas, Texas 75315

Fax (214) 428-5338 www.TexasDiscoveryGardens.org

Applications will be reviewed for diversity of plant material & general landscape conditions that provide a healthy environment for the entire life cycle of a diversity of butterfly species. Signs will be mailed out within three weeks of application and payment ($35).

The mission of Texas Discovery Gardens is to teach effective ways to restore, conserve and preserve nature in an urban setting, with a focus on gardening organically and sustainably. Texas Discovery Gardens is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization supported in part by funds from the Dallas Park and Recreation Department.





Related subjects :