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DPPP1 iSTAKAAN UTHIVI

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESTS'

JUDUL : NUMERICAL MODELLING IN INVESTIGATION OF ROAD FAILURE

ON MALAYSIAN PEAT SOIL

S E S I P E N G A J I A N : 2007/2008

Say a ANDI NORASYIKTN BT. BACHOK @ ANDI YUSOFF

(HURUF BESAR)

m e n g a k u m e m b e n a r k a n tesis ( P S M / S a r j a n a /Dolctor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan dengan syarat-syarat kegunaan seperti berikut:

1. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti T u n Hussein Onn Malaysia.

2. Perpustakaan dibenarkan m e m b u a t salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja.

3 . P e r p u s t a k a a n dibenarkan m e m b u a t salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi.

4. **Sila Tandakan ( V )

S U L I T

T E R H A D

(Mengandungi m a k l u m a t yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam A K T A R A H S I A R A S M I 1972)

(Mengandungi m a k l u m a t T E R H A D yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan dimana penyelidikan dijalankan)

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T I D A K T E R H A D

Disahkan oleh,

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AJamat Tetap:

No. 345, Jalan Jaafar, Taman Harta, 82200 Benut Pontian, Johor.

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C A T A T A N * Potong yang tidak berkenaan.

* * Jika tesis ini S U L I T atau T E R H A D , sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai S U L I T atau T E R H A D .

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" I / W e * a c k n o w l e d g e that I h a v e r e a d this dissertation a n d i n m y / o u r * o p i n i o n it has

f u l f i l l e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n scope a n d q u a l i t y f o r the a w a r d o f the

M a s t e r o f E n g i n e e r i n g i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g . "

S i g n a t u r e

N a m e o f S u p e r v i s o r

D a t e

A S S O C . P R O F . I R . A Z I Z A N B I N A B D .

1 6 MAY 2000

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D R . C H A N C H E E M I N G

DR. CHAN CHEE M I N G

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Dept. 01 Geolechnical AndT r -..'istiortation Engineering

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ii

NUMERICAL MODELLING IN INVESTIGATION OF ROAD

FAILURE ON MALAYSIAN PEAT SOIL

ANDI NORASYIKIN BT BACHOK @ ANDI YUSOFF

T h i s dissertation is s u b m i t t e d as a f u l f i l l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e a w a r d o f

T h e M a s t e r D e g r e e o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g

F a c u l t y o f C i v i l A n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l E n g i n e e r i n g

U n i v e r s i t i T u n H u s s e i n O n n M a l a y s i a

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i i i

" I a c k n o w l e d g e that this thesis is m y o w n e x c e p t the extracts a n d s u m m a r i e s i n w h i c h

t h e y h a v e b e e n c i t i e d a c c o r d i n g l y " .

S i g n a t u r e

N a m e o f W r i t e r

D a t e

A N D I N O R A S Y I K I N B T . B A C H O K @ A N D I Y U S O F F

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XIV

Specially dedicated to my beloved mother and father, family and

friends. Thanks for all the patience and love. May The Almighty

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XIV

S y u k u r A l h a m d u l i l l a h , w i t h the blessing o f T h e A l m i g h t y , t h e P r o j e k S a r j a n a

h a v e b e e n successfully c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n the g i v e n t i m e f r a m e . I w o u l d l i k e to t a k e

this o p p e r t u n i t y to t h a n k m y p r o j e c t supervisor, A s s o c . P r o f . I r . A z i z a n b i n A b d . A z i z ,

co-supervisor, D r . C h a n C h e e M i n g , M r s . H a s r u n i z a H a s s a n f r o m P o n t i a n P u b l i c

W o r k D e p a r t m e n t , a l l the lecturers o f F K A A S e s p e c i a l l y M r . F e l i x L i n g N g e e h L e h ,

A s s o c . P r o f . D r . K e m a s A h m a d Z a m h a r i a n d M r . I r A g u s b S u l a e i m a n , a n d the lab

technicians, M r . A m i r Z a k i , M r . R a h i m a n d M r s . H a z l i y a n a . O n l y w i t h t h e i r support

a n d g u i d a n c e I m a n a g e d to f i n i s h this p r o j e c t a n d m y studies i n U n i v e r s i t i T u n

H u s s e i n O n n M a l a y s i a .

I w o u l d also l i k e to c o n v e y m y t h a n k s to m y b e l o v e d parents, M r . A n d i Y u s o f f

b i n A n d i A c h o k a n d M r s J u n a i d a h b t D a s u k i , a n d m y f a m i l y m e m b e r s f o r t h e i r

g u i d a n c e a n d supports t h r o u g h o u t m y studies. O n l y w i t h t h e i r support a n d blessings I

h a v e m a n a g e d to c o n t i n u e m y study this far.

I also w o u l d l i k e to t h a n k a l l m y f r i e n d s e s p e c i a l l y W a n A i s h a h , H a k i m i ,

Z a f r a h a n d A m i r u l B a l k i s f o r t h e i r h e l p a n d support t h r o u g h o u t this study.

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vi

ABSTRACT

R o a d failures are p r e v a l e n t to c o m m o n p a v e m e n t distress, i n v o l v i n g cracks a n d

surface d e f o r m a t i o n , p r i n c i p a l l y w h e n it is constructed o n o r g a n i c soil t y p e . C u r r e n t l y ,

there is no g u i d e l i n e a n d s p e c i f i c a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n d e s i g n i n g a p r o p e r r o a d m o d e l

associated w i t h this p r o b l e m . T h u s , this m a t t e r has l e a d to get a c o n c e r n e d f r o m

P o n t i a n P u b l i c W o r k D e p a r t m e n t i n order to f i n d a s o l u t i o n o f the p r o b l e m s . T h i s

p r o j e c t w i l l focus i n a n u m e r i c a l m o d e l l i n g o n a p r o b l e m a t i c r o a d at P e n g k a l a n R a j a

P o n t i a n , S e c t i o n 4 1 , a n d K M 4 8 c o n s i d e r i n g cracks a n d settlement p r o b l e m s o f the

p a v e m e n t . I t deals w i t h c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n m o d e l l i n g result a n d r e m e d i a l

m e a s u r e m e n t f o r g e o t e c h n i c a l structures. A w i d e - r a n g i n g o f f i e l d a n d l a b o r a t o r y

testing w e r e c o n d u c t e d to get a n i n p u t data i n t o the m o d e l l i n g analysis. A t s u r v e y

o b s e r v a t i o n , a f u l l scale o f cross section p a t t e r n w i l l be r e v i e w e d to f a i l u r e

r e c o g n i z i n g w i t h the m o d e l i n g a n d actual onsite testing. I n c o n j u n c t i o n to this m a t t e r ,

the series o f several trials m o d e l l i n g d e t e r m i n i n g the root cause o f the f a i l u r e s a n d its

r e m e d i e s h a v e b e e n successfully c o n d u c t e d to v e r i f y the results. P L A X I S V 8 . 1

s o f t w a r e p r o g r a m h a v e b e e n chosen f o r this analysis r e l a t e d to f i n i t e e l e m e n t m e t h o d .

T h e m o d e l c o m p l i e d w i t h actual patterns o f the p a v e m e n t d u e to f a i l u r e m e c h a n i s m ,

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vii

ABSTRAK

K e g a g a l a n t a n a h l a z i m n y a b e r l a k u t e r h a d a p t u r a p a n j a l a n r a y a y a n g m e l i b a t k a n

r e t a k a n / r e k a h a n d a n u b a h b e n t u k p a d a p e r m u k a a n j a l a n t e r u t a m a n y a a p a b i l a d i b i n a d i

atas t a n a h g a m b u t . P a d a m a s a i n i , m a s i h t i a d a l a g i garis p a n d u a n a t a u p u n spesifikasi

y a n g d i s e d i a k a n d a l a m r e k a b e n t u k u n t u k m e n d a p a t k a n m o d e l j a l a n r a y a y a n g sesuai

d e n g a n k e a d a a n t a n a h y a n g b e r m a s a l a h seperti i n i . O l e h sebab y a n g d e m i k i a n , atas

p e r h a t i a n d a r i p a d a Jabatan K e r j a R a y a d a e r a h P o n t i a n , m e r e k a t e l a h m e n j a l a n k a n

usaha u n t u k m e n g e n a l p a s t i p e n y e l e s a i a n m a s a l a h tersebut. P r o j e k i n i a k a n d i f o k u s k a n

secara p e r m o d e l a n m e n g g u n a k a n n o m b o r m e r u j u k k e p a d a j a l a n y a n g b e r m a s a l a h

y a n g d i k e n a l p a s t i p a d a j a l a n P e n g k a l a n R a j a , S e k s y e n 4 1 , K M 4 8 m e l i b a t k a n m a s a l a h

k e r e t a k a n d a n p e m e n d a p a n t e r h a d a p struktur t u r a p a n j a l a n . I a m e l i b a t k a n

p e r b a n d i n g a n antara k e p u t u s a n p e r m o d e l a n d a n p e m u l i h a n p a d a struktur g e o t e k n i k

sendiri. K a j i a n m e n y e l u r u h d i t a p a k d a n m a k m a l t e l a h d i j a l a n k a n b a g i m e n d a p a t k a n

data-data y a n g d i p e r l u k a n u n t u k m e n g a n a l i s a m o d e l tersebut. Secara a m n y a , t i n j a u a n

y a n g d i j a l a n k a n a d a l a h p a d a skala p e n u h u n t u k k e r a t a n rentas y a n g m a n a i a

d i l a k a r k a n b a g i m e n d a p a t k a n l a k a r a n k e g a g a l a n j a l a n y a n g bersesuaian d e n g a n m o d e l

d a n k a j i a n y a n g d i l a k u k a n d i t a p a k . S e h u b u n g a n d e n g a n itu, b e b e r a p a c u b a a n m o d e l

b a g i m e n e n t u k a n p u n c a k e g a g a l a n d a n cara m e n g a t a s i n y a t e l a h b e r j a y a d i l a k u k a n

sekaligus m e n g e s a h k a n k e p u t u s a n y a n g d i p e r o l e h i . P r o g r a m P L A X I S v e r s i 8 . 1 t e l a h

d i p i l i h d a l a m analisis i n i y a n g b e r k a i t a n d e n g a n k a e d a h p e n g i r a a n e l e m e n secara

terbatas. M o d e l y a n g d i h a s i l k a n a d a l a h bersesuaian d e n g a n p o l a sebenar t u r a p a n y a n g

b e r h u b u n g d e n g a n m e k a n i s m a k e g a g a l a n , p u n c a m a s a l a h d a n r a w a t a n b a g i k e g a g a l a n

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VI11

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

SUPERVISOR'S CONFIRMATION i

DECLARATION ii

CONFESSION iii

DEDICATION iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v

ABSTRACT vi

ABSTRAK vii

TABLE OF CONTENT viii

LIST OF TABLES xiv

LIST OF FIGURES xv

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xix

LIST OF SYMBOLS xx

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 P r o b l e m statement 1

1.2 O b j e c t i v e s o f S t u d y 2

1.3 H i s t o r y and Site S e l e c t i o n o f the R o a d 3

1.4 Scope o f W o r k 5

1.5 H y p o t h e s i s 6

1.6 M e t h o d o l o g y 6

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1.8 O r g a n i s a t i o n o f D i s s e r t a t i o n

ix

9

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

2 . 1 G e o t e c h n i c a l m o d e l l i n g 10

2 . 2 N u m e r i c a l m o d e l l i n g 11

2 . 2 . 1 A d v a n t a g e s o f a n u m e r i c a l m o d e l l i n g 11

2 . 2 . 2 A d v a n c e d n u m e r i c a l m e t h o d s 12

2.3 F l e x i b l e p a v e m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t 14

2 . 3 . 1 R o a d categories i n M a l a y s i a 14

2 . 3 . 2 R o a d s i n P o n t i a n D i s t r i c t 15

2 . 4 P a v e m e n t F a i l u r e 17

2 . 4 . 1 D e f i n i t i o n 17

2 . 5 F l e x i b l e P a v e m e n t Distress 18

2 . 5 . 1 Causes a n d types o f r o a d p a v e m e n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n 18

2 . 5 . 2 Distress d u e to S t r u c t u r a l F a i l u r e 2 0

2 . 6 P a v e m e n t testing p r o c e d u r e s 2 2

2 . 7 Peat S o i l 2 3

2 . 7 . 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Peat 2 4

2 . 7 . 2 E x t e n t o f Peat 2 4

2 . 7 . 3 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f P e a t S o i l 2 6

2 . 7 . 4 B e h a v i o u r o f P e a t S o i l 2 8

CHAPTER III CASE STUDIES REVIEWS

3 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 9

3 . 2 N u m e r i c a l M o d e l l i n g o f E m b a n k m e n t s a n d U n d e r g r o u n d W o r k s 2 9

3 . 2 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 9

3 . 2 . 2 O b j e c t i v e s 3 0

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X

3 . 2 . 4 Results 3 2

3 . 2 . 5 C o n c l u s i o n s 3 5

3.3 T h e B e r e n g B e n g k e l T r i a l E m b a n k m e n t 3 5

3 . 3 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 3 5

3 . 3 . 2 O b j e c t i v e s 3 6

3 . 3 . 3 M e t h o d o l o g y 3 6

3 . 3 . 3 . 1 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s 3 7

3 . 3 . 4 R e s u l t s 3 8

3 . 3 . 5 C o n c l u s i o n s 3 9

3 . 4 P e r f o r m a n c e o f a test e m b a n k m e n t constructed o n a n o r g a n i c c l a y e y

silt deposit 4 0

3 . 4 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 0

3 . 4 . 2 O b j e c t i v e s 4 0

3 . 4 . 3 M e t h o d o l o g y 4 1

3 . 4 . 3 . 1 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s 4 1

3 . 4 . 4 R e s u l t s 4 2

3 . 4 . 5 C o n c l u s i o n s 4 3

CHAPTER IV INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY

4 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 5

4 . 2 G a t h e r i n g I n f o r m a t i o n 4 5

4 . 2 . 1 R e v i e w D o c u m e n t s a n d L i t e r a t u r e 4 5

4 . 2 . 2 P e r s o n n e l I n t e r v i e w 4 6

4 . 3 F i e l d f a i l u r e survey 4 6

4 . 4 Structural e v a l u a t i o n 4 8

4 . 4 . 1 G e o l o g i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n o f S t u d y A r e a 5 0

4 . 5 F i e l d s a m p l i n g 5 1

4 . 5 . 1 W a t e r T a b l e M e a s u r e m e n t 5 1

4 . 6 L a b testing 5 1

4 . 5 . 1 S o i l a n d A g g r e g a t e Tests 5 2

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XIV

4 . 7 T r a f f i c L o a d i n g 5 5

4 . 8 M o d e l l i n g E v a l u a t i o n P r o g r a m m e 5 6

4 . 8 . 1 G e o m e t r i c a l P a r a m e t e r s 5 7

4 . 8 . 1 . 1 C o n c r e t e T h i c k n e s s 5 7

4 . 8 . 1 . 2 C o n t r o l M o d e l 5 7

4 . 8 . 1 . 3 P h r e a t i c L e v e l 5 8

4 . 8 . 2 M a t e r i a l P a r a m e t e r s 5 8

4 . 8 . 3 P a v e m e n t Properties 5 8

4 . 8 . 4 S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 5 9

4 . 8 . 5 C o n c r e t e Slab P r o p e r t i e s 5 9

4 . 8 . 6 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f B o u n d a r y C o n d i t i o n s 6 0

CHAPTER V METHODOLOGY BY PLAXIS SOFTWARE

5 . 0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 6 1

5 . 1 P L A X I S F i n i t e E l e m e n t M o d e l l i n g 6 1

5 . 1 . 1 M o h r - C o u l o m b M o d e l 6 2

5 . 1 . 2 S o f t - S o i l M o d e l 6 2

5 . 1 . 3 S o f t - S o i l C r e e p M o d e l 63

5 . 2 P L A X I S P r o g r a m m e s 6 4

5 . 2 . 1 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f B o u n d a r y C o n d i t i o n 6 5

5 . 2 . 2 I n p u t P a r a m e t e r 65

5 . 2 . 2 . 1 G e o m e t r i c a l I n p u t 6 6

5 . 2 . 2 . 2 L o a d s T y p e s 6 7

5 . 2 . 2 . 3 M a t e r i a l I n p u t 6 8

5 . 2 . 2 . 4 M e s h G e n e r a t i o n 6 9

5 . 5 . 2 . 5 I n i t i a l C o n d i t i o n 6 9

5 . 2 . 3 C a l c u l a t i o n P r o g r a m m e 6 9

5 . 2 . 3 . 1 C a l c u l a t i o n T y p e s 7 0

5 . 2 . 3 . 2 L o a d i n g I n p u t 7 0

5 . 2 . 3 . 3 C a l c u l a t i o n Phases 7 0

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xii

5 . 2 . 4 O u t p u t D a t a 7 2

5 . 2 . 4 . 1 G r a p h i c a l O u t p u t 7 2

5 . 2 . 4 . 2 C r o s s - S e c t i o n O u t p u t 73

5 . 2 . 4 . 3 T a b l e O u t p u t 7 4

5 . 2 . 5 C u r v e G e n e r a t i o n 7 4

5.3 F a i l u r e M o d e l l i n g A n a l y s i s 7 6

5 . 4 L i m i t a t i o n o f P L A X I S S o f t w a r e 7 7

CHAPTER VI DATA OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS

6 . 1 G e n e r a l 7 8

6 . 2 L a b o r a t o r y T e s t Results 7 8

6.3 P L A X I S S i m u l a t i o n 7 9

6 . 3 . 1 C o n s o l i d a t i o n R e s u l t s 7 9

6 . 3 . 2 S a f e t y A n a l y s i s 85

6 . 4 R e m e d i a l M e a s u r e s 8 6

6 . 4 . 1 P i l e A p p l i c a t i o n A p p r o a c h e d 8 6

6 . 4 . 2 S u r c h a r g e A p p l i c a t i o n A p p r o a c h e d 8 7

6.5 E v a l u a t i o n s o f P r o j e c t a n d D i s c u s s i o n 88

CHAPTER VII CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

7 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 8 9

7 . 2 C o n c l u s i o n 8 9

7.3 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 9 0

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A P P E N D I C E S

A T a b l e s

B F i g u r e s

C L a b o r a t o r y T e s t i n g D a t a

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X I V

LIST OF TABLES

TABLES NO. TITLE PAGE

2 . 1 C o m p a r i s o n o f roads categories i n M a l a y s i a ( M e o r , 2 0 0 1 ) 14

2 . 2 F e d e r a l roads i n P o n t i a n district 16

2.3 State roads i n P o n t i a n district 16

2 . 4 P a v e m e n t failures a c c o r d i n g to several researchers (Jelani,

2 0 0 6 ) . 17

2 . 5 E x t e n t a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p e a t a n d o r g a n i c soils i n

M a l a y s i a ( M A R D I , 2 0 0 8 ) 2 5

3 . 1 N u m b e r o f c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h 2 D F E analysis ( M I M O S ,

2 0 0 4 ) 3 0

3 . 2 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n f o r t r i a l e m b a n k m e n t s 3 7

6 . 1 S u m m a r i z e d o f l a b o r a t o r y testing o n subgrade soil at

b o t h selected locations 7 9

6 . 2 T o t a l D i s p l a c e m e n t A c c o r d i n g to the Phase o f

C o n s o l i d a t i o n 8 2

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XIV

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE

1.1 Site L o c a t i o n o f S t u d y A r e a 4

1.2 F a i l u r e D u e to L o n g i t u d i n a l C r a c k i n g a n d S u r f a c e

D e f o r m a t i o n at P e n g k a l a n R a j a R o a d . 5

1.3 F l o w o f S t u d y M e t h o d o l o g y 8

2 . 1 R o a d s i n P o n t i a n D i s t r i c t ( P P W D , 2 0 0 7 ) 15

2 . 2 Factors a f f e c t i n g p a v e m e n t distress a n d p e r f o r m a n c e ,

Stidger ( 2 0 0 2 ) 19

2 . 3 T y p e s o f p a v e m e n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n , ( M i k e et al., 2 0 0 4 ) 2 0

2 . 4 T y p i c a l roads d e t e r i o r a t i o n (Jelani, 2 0 0 6 ) 2 1

3 . 1 Characteristic d i m e n s i o n s o f a transverse section

e m b a n k m e n t m o d e l . 3 1

3 . 2 h = H R a t i o as a f u n c t i o n o f e m b a n k m e n t h e i g h t ( e x t r a c t e d

f r o m M O M I S database) 3 2

3.3 L m = L b ratio as a f u n c t i o n o f the h a l f - w i d t h o f the

e m b a n k m e n t base ( e x t r a c t e d f r o m M O M I S database) 3 2

3 . 4 C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n the c o m p u t e d settlement a n d m e a s u r e d

s e t t l e m e n t a l o n g the e m b a n k m e n t axis: (a) at the e n d o f

(19)

xvi

represents the bisector 3 4

3 . 5 C o m p a r i s o n i n the m a x i m u m excess p o r e pressure b e t w e e n

c o m p u t e d v a l u e s a n d m e a s u r e d v a l u e s a l o n g the e m b a n k m e n t

axis at the e n d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ( e x t r a c t e d from M O M I S

database) 3 4

3 . 6 C o m p a r i s o n i n m a x i m u m lateral d i s p l a c e m e n t s b e t w e e n

c o m p u t e d v a l u e s a n d m e a s u r e d v a l u e s at the toe o f the

e m b a n k m e n t : (a) at the e n d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ( e x t r a c t e d from

M O M I S database) a n d ( b ) o v e r the l o n g t e r m ( e x t r a c t e d

from M O M I S database). T h e straight l i n e represents the

bisector 3 4

3 . 7 T r i a l E m b a n k m e n t R e s u l t : F i l l rate, g r o u n d w a t e r l e v e l ,

m e a s u r e d a n d c a l c u l a t e d settlements 3 8

3 . 8 T r i a l E m b a n k m e n t R e s u l t : D e f o r m e d M e s h 3 8

3 . 9 T r i a l E m b a n k m e n t R e s u l t : E x c e s s p o r e pressure 3 9

3 . 1 0 S o i l F o u n d a t i o n P r o f i l e 4 1

3 . 1 1 Shear S t r e n g t h C o m p a r i s o n s 4 2

3 . 1 2 T y p i c a l C o m p a r i s o n f o r d i f f e r e n t p i e z o m e t e r i n s t a l l e d 4 2

3 . 1 3 I n f e r r e d o f F a i l u r e Surfaces 4 3

4 . 1 P a t t e r n o f cracks a n d d e f o r m a t i o n l o c a t e d at P e n g k a l a n

R a j a r o a d 4 7

4 . 2 A n a s s u m p t i o n o f subgrade d e f o r m a t i o n 4 8

4 . 3 ( a ) & T h e cross section o f t r e n c h a n d details o f structural layers

4.3 ( b ) o f p a v e m e n t . ( A f t e r P P W D , 2 0 0 6 ) 4 9

4 . 4 S o i l m a p o f P o n t i a n , Johor ( a d a p t e d from the R e c o n n a i s s a n c e

S o i l M a p o f P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a , 1 9 6 8 ) 5 0

4 . 5 M o i s t u r e content a n d A t t e r b e r g l i m i t test e q u i p m e n t s 53

4 . 6 S p e c i f i c g r a v i t y test 5 4

4 . 7 C o n s o l i d a t i o n test 5 4

4 . 8 Shear b o x test 5 4

(20)

X V I I

5 . 1 P L A X I S S o f t w a r e Process 6 4

5 . 2 G e o m e t r y m o d e l i n P L A X I S I n p u t P r o g r a m m e ( P L A X I S

T u t o r i a l M a n u a l , 2 0 0 2 ) 6 7

5.3 G e o m e t r y m o d e l i n P L A X I S I n p u t P r o g r a m m e ( P L A X I S

T u t o r i a l M a n u a l , 2 0 0 2 ) 6 8

5 . 4 C a l c u l a t i o n p h a s e ' s w i n d o w i n P L A X I S C a l c u l a t i o n

P r o g r a m m e ( P L A X I S T u t o r i a l M a n u a l , 2 0 0 2 ) 7 1

5 . 5 D e f o r m e d M e s h V i s u a l i z e d G r a p h i c a l l y i n P L A X I S

C a l c u l a t i o n P r o g r a m m e ( P L A X I S T u t o r i a l M a n u a l , 2 0 0 2 ) 7 3

5 . 6 C u r v e G e n e r a t i o n W i n d o w i n P L A X I S C u r v e s P r o g r a m m e

( P L A X I S T u t o r i a l M a n u a l , 2 0 0 2 ) 7 5

5 . 7 L o a d - D i s p l a c e m e n t C u r v e G e n e r a t e d i n P L A X I S C u r v e s

P r o g r a m m e ( P L A X I S T u t o r i a l M a n u a l , 2 0 0 2 ) 7 6

6 . 1 D e f o r m a t i o n o f m e s h at the i n i t i a l phase o f c o n s o l i d a t i o n 8 0

6 . 2 D i s p l a c e m e n t i n c r e m e n t a f t e r first c o n s o l i d a t i o n phase o f

e m b a n k m e n t 8 1

6.3 D i s p l a c e m e n t i n c r e m e n t s after second c o n s o l i d a t i o n phase

o f e m b a n k m e n t 81

6 . 4 E x c e s s p o r e pressures d u r i n g c o n s o l i d a t i o n phase o f

e m b a n k m e n t 8 2

6 . 5 E x c e s s e f f e c t i v e stresses d u r i n g c o n s o l i d a t i o n phase o f

e m b a n k m e n t 8 2

6 . 6 E x c e s s p o r e pressures after c o n s o l i d a t i o n phase o f

e m b a n k m e n t 83

6 . 7 D i s p l a c e m e n t i n c r e m e n t after c o n s o l i d a t i o n phase o f

e m b a n k m e n t 8 4

6.8 E x c e s s p o r e pressures after c o n s o l i d a t i o n phase o f

e m b a n k m e n t 8 4

6 . 9 E v a l u a t i o n o f safety factor f o r the e n d o f c o n s o l i d a t i o n

process 85

6 . 1 0 D e f o r m a t i o n m e s h after soil collapse f o r the p i l e

(21)

XV111

D e f o r m a t i o n m e s h after soil collapse for the surcharge

(22)

xix

LIST O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S

A A S T H O A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f State H i g h w a y a n d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n

O f f i c i a l s

B R I S B e a c h R i d g e s Interspersed w i t h S w a l e s

D C P D y n a m i c C o n e P e n e t r a t i o n Tests

E P S E x p a n d e d P o l y s t y r e n e

F E F i n i t e E l e m e n t

F W D F a l l i n g W e i g h t D e f l e c t o m o t e r

G P R G r o u n d P e n e t r a t i n g R a d a r

I R E Institute o f R o a d E n g i n e e r i n g

M A R D I M a l a y s i a n A g r i c u l t u r e R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Institute

M I M O S Structures M o d e l l i n g a n d I n S i t u M e a s u r e m e n t s

P P W D P o n t i a n P u b l i c W o r k D e p a r t m e n t

(23)

LIST O F S Y M B O L S

c

c o h e s i o n

C

c c o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x

c

a c o e f f i c i e n t o f s e c o n d a r y c o n s o l i d a t i o n

f

f u n c t i o n o f stress state

0

friction a n g l e

PP p r e - c o n s o l i d a t i o n stress

V p o i s s o n ' s r a t i o

K* m o d i f i e d s w e l l i n g i n d e x

r

m o d i f i e d c o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x

[i*

m o d i f i e d creep i n d e x

a

stress

T shear stress

(24)

1

C H A P T E R I

I N T R O D U C T I O N

1.1 Problem statement

Since 1 9 8 0 ' s , l o c a l authorities i n Johore e s p e c i a l l y P o n t i a n P u b l i c W o r k

D e p a r t m e n t ( P P W D ) r e c e i v e d m a n y reports t o w a r d d a m a g e r o a d at P e n g k a l a n R a j a

area. A b o u t 3 0 % - 4 0 % o f t o t a l roads i n P o n t i a n district e x p e r i e n c e d v a r i e t i e s i n r o a d

p a v e m e n t f a i l u r e . Y e a r s after years, t e r m i n a l s e r v i c e a b i l i t y m a y occur sooner, t h a n

m o r e roads defect w i l l r e v e a l . M a i n t e n a n c e a n d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n cost i m p o s e d h i g h

f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n to r o a d agencies p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n f e d e r a l roads are t a k i n g i n t o the

consideration. I f the cause o f f a i l u r e is c o n f i n e d to the u p p e r layers, t h e n the r e p a i r

can be r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e ; h o w e v e r , i f the p r o b l e m s are r e l a t e d to structural

deficiencies i n the base or subgrade, t h e n m u c h m o r e e x t e n s i v e a n d e x p e n s i v e repairs

w i l l b e r e q u i r e d .

I n c o n j u n c t i o n t o w a r d P P W D study, a s u r v e y has b e e n c o n d u c t e d at P e n g k a l a n

R a j a area f o r a f e w m o n t h s since S e p t e m b e r 2 0 0 7 . F r o m the o b s e r v a t i o n , it s h o u l d

h i g h l i g h t that c r a c k i n g a n d d e f o r m a t i o n s w e r e m a j o r distress f o u n d i n P e n g k a l a n R a j a

f e d e r a l r o a d a c c o r d i n g to the t y p e o f soil l a i d there. Peat soil c o m m o n l y i n f l u e n c e s the

r o a d p r o b l e m s w h e r e the failures apparent to h a p p e n at m o s t areas. W i t h a c o n c e r n e d

References

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