University Teaching and Learning

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University Teaching and Learning

24 0 mm 100 mm 170+3 mm 29,9 mm 170+3 mm 100 mm

EDITED BY

Lotte Rienecker

Peter Stray Jørgensen

Jens Dolin

Gitte Holten Ingerslev

samfundslitteratur.dk/utl

UNIVERSITY

TEACHING AND

LEARNING

ISBN 978-87-593-1960-4

University tea

ching and learning

THE BOOK’S MAIN SECTIONS

• The university as the framework • Learning and research-based teaching • Course and session planning

• Carrying out teaching • Supervision

• Assessment, exams and evaluations • Developing your university teaching

CONTENTS

Foreword

1.1 Development trends within the role of the university · x 1.2 Research-based teaching · x

2.1 Teaching for learning · x

2.2 Principles and models of university teaching and learning · x 2.3 Teaching environment · x

3.1 Who are the students? · x 3.2 Course descriptions · x 3.3 Session planning · x 3.4 Course planning · x

3.5 Tutoring/supervising written papers · x 4.1 Lectures · x

4.2 Group work · x 4.3 Case-based teaching · x

4.4 Problem-oriented and project-organised teaching · x 4.5.1 Activities in and between sessions · x

4.5.2 Activities in the disciplines · x 4.6.1 Feedback · x

4.6.2 Clickers · x

4.7 Discussion and argumentation in teaching · x 4.8. E-learning · x

5.1 Supervision: Process management and communication · x 5.2 Supervision on text · x

6.1 Assessment and exams · x 6.2 Teaching evaluation · x

7.1 Developing your own teaching · x 7.2 Collegial/Peer supervision · x 7.3 Teaching portfolio · x

7.4 Information search about university teaching and learning · x 7.5 Teacher roles · x

Author profi les · x Index · x

University Teaching and Learning is based on the idea that good teaching at university is aimed towards student learning. Therefore, learning activities in teaching and in lectures play a big role in this book.

The book contains experience-based and research-related suggestions as to how to plan, carry out, evaluate and develop your own teaching within the framework provided by the university and research whether this be traditional lectures and supervision-tasks; case and project work or e-learning. The book furthermore equips the individual teacher with tools to refl ect on his or her learning theoretical foundation.

University Teaching and Learning is written with university teacher training and other introductions to university teaching and learning in mind. In addition to new lectu-rers, the book is also aimed at the seasoned lecturer looking for inspiration for his or her own, the team s or department s teaching. University Teaching and Learning is authored by a number of lecturers, developers and researchers affi liated with Danish Network for Educational Development in Higher Education.

CHAPTER 6.1.

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University Teaching and Learning

Samfundslitteratur

Edited by

Lotte Rienecker,

Peter Stray Jørgensen,

Jens Dolin and

Gitte Holten Ingerslev

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Lotte Rienecker, Peter Stray Jørgensen, Jens Dolin and Gitte Holten Ingerslev (eds.)

University Teaching and Learning

1. edition 2015

© Samfundslitteratur 2015

Original edition in Danish with the title Universitetspædagogik published by Samfundslitteratur 2013.

The translation of this work was made possible by a grant from Lundbeck Foundation

Translation: Elisabeth Li

Translation revised by: Nicolai Paulsen Cover: Imperiet

Cover illustration: Gitte Holten Ingerslev Typeset: SL grafik (slgrafik.dk)

Print: Specialtrykkeriet Viborg A/S ISBN: 978-87-593-1960-4

E-book ISBN: 978-87-593-2252-9 E-chapter 6.1. ISBN 978-87-593-2309-0 Resources at: samfundslitteratur.dk/utl

Samfundslitteratur Rosenørns Allé 9

DK-1970 Frederiksberg C

slforlagene@samfundslitteratur.dk samfundslitteratur.dk

All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic or mechanical including photocopying, recording, taping or in-formation storage or retrieval systems – without permission in writing from Sam-fundslitteratur.

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Table of Contents

Foreword to the English edition · 15

1.1 Trends in the development of the Danish universities · 17

FREDERIK VOETMANN CHRISTIANSEN, THOMAS HARBOE, SEBASTIAN HORST, LONE KROGH AND LAURA LOUISE SARAUW

Humboldt and the research-based university · 17 From elite university to mass university · 20

New governance structures and management styles · 23

Learning outcome and competence-oriented university education · 33 Concluding remarks · 37

Resources · 38 Literature · 40

1.2 Research-based teaching · 43

NINA BONDERUP DOHN AND JENS DOLIN Research-teaching nexus · 44

Different approaches to research-based teaching · 47

Different disciplines’ different approaches to research-based teaching · 51 Examples of research-based teaching · 54

Literature · 62

2.1 Teaching for learning · 65

JENS DOLIN

Explicit, implicit and behaviourist learning · 65 Three approaches to teaching · 68

Constructivism · 70

Situated learning, apprenticeship, practice communities · 78 Psychodynamic learning approaches · 82

Progression · 83

Is there a “best practice”? (Or: Can you base teaching on evidence?) · 85 Ideas and practice · 87

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2.2 University teaching and learning – models and concepts · 93

ANNE METTE MØRCKE AND CAMILLA ØSTERBERG RUMP Instructions and options · 93

Models and principles of university teaching and learning · 94 Taxonomies · 100

Resources · 103 Literature · 104

2.3 Teaching environment · 105

SEBASTIAN HORST AND GITTE HOLTEN INGERSLEV

What can the teacher do to create a good teaching environment? · 106 Research-based starting points for planning teaching · 110

Research-based education requires integration with research facilities · 111 Resources · 112

Literature · 113

3.1 Who are the students? · 115

BJØRN FRIIS JOHANNSEN, LARS ULRIKSEN AND HENRIETTE TOLSTRUP HOLMEGAARD

Challenges to teaching: Who are the students? · 118 Options · 124

Conclusion · 132 Resources · 132 Literature · 133

3.2 Course descriptions · 135

FREDERIK VOETMANN CHRISTIANSEN, SEBASTIAN HORST AND CAMILLA ØSTERBERG RUMP

Course descriptions are part of the regulations · 135 What should a course description include? · 136

Goal descriptions and the Danish Qualifications Framework · 137

How do competences, skills and knowledge differ from one another? · 139 Conclusion · 146

Resources · 147 Literature · 147

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3.3 Session planning · 149

PETER STRAY JØRGENSEN The teacher’s challenges · 149 The teacher’s planning · 150 Handouts as learning tools · 159 Reasons · 161

Resources · 162 Literature · 162

3.4 Course planning · 165

PETER STRAY JØRGENSEN Challenges · 165

The course planner’s options · 167 A course’s content · 167

The course’s framework · 169 Rationales · 172

Resources · 173 Literature · 174

3.5 Instructing written assignments · 175

PETER STRAY JØRGENSEN Instructions, options · 175 Rationales · 177

Resources · 177 Literature · 177

4.1 Lecturing · 179

BETTINA DAHL AND RIE TROELSEN Introduction · 179

Pedagogical challenges · 179

Considerations before a lecture · 181 Activities while you lecture · 184 Rationales · 186

The lecturer as a performer · 187 Resources · 188

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4.2 Group work · 189

GERD CHRISTENSEN

Definition and history · 189

Pedagogical challenges in connection with group work · 190 Different forms of group work · 191

Suggestions for practice/action · 192 Structure of the collaboration · 195

Rationales and substantiation from research · 197 Resources · 198

Literature · 199

4.3 Case-based learning · 201

LONE KROGH, DIANA STENTOFT, JEPPE EMMERSEN AND PETER MUSAEUS The case method and its background · 201

Challenges when working with cases · 204 Pedagogical possibilities · 207

Rationales and theoretical foundation for the use of cases in teaching and learning · 211

Resources · 213 Literature · 214

4.4 Problem-based and project-organised teaching · 215

LONE KROGH AND MERETE WIBERG Introduction · 215

Central elements in problem-based project work · 217

Group work, project organisation and student direction? · 218 Problem-based learning, connecting theory and practice,

interdisciplinarity · 220

The principle of exemplarity · 223

Rationales – theoretical foundation for problem-based project work · 225 Literature · 226

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4.5.1 Activities in and between teaching sessions · 229

LOTTE RIENECKER, RIKKE VON MÜLLEN, PETER STRAY JØRGENSEN AND GITTE HOLTEN INGERSLEV

Pedagogical challenges · 230 Activities in teaching · 231 Activities between sessions · 239 Choice and planning of activities · 240 Rationales · 245

Resources · 248 Literature · 248

4.5.2 Disciplinary activities · 251

LOTTE RIENECKER, RIKKE VON MÜLLEN, JENS DOLIN, PETER MUSAEUS AND ANNE METTE MØRCKE

Teaching activities in the Humanities · 251 Teaching activities in the Social Sciences · 253 Teaching activities in the Natural Sciences · 254 Teaching activities in the Medical Sciences · 255 Literature · 257

4.6.1 Feedback · 259

LOTTE RIENECKER AND JESPER BRUUN What is feedback? · 259

Pedagogical challenges · 260 Pedagogical recommendations · 263

Feedback on written and oral student performances · 264

Automated feedback in an online environment – quizzes and academic games · 269

Experiment with feedback · 272 Peer-feedback research · 275 Online feedback research · 277 Resources · 278

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4.6.2 Clickers · 281

HELLE MATHIASEN What is a clicker? · 281 Clickers in teaching · 282

Studies of clickers in teaching · 285 Resources · 286

Literature · 287

4.7 Discussions and argumentation in teaching · 289

MADS THORKILD HAUGSTED AND GITTE HOLTEN INGERSLEV Intro · 289 Challenges · 289 Instructions/options · 289 Rationales · 295 Resources · 296 Literature · 296

4.8 E-learning · 299

NINA BONDERUP DOHN, MARIANNE THORSEN AND SØREN LARSEN Intro: What is e-learning? · 299

Pedagogical challenges · 300 Options · 302

Example: Qualification of preparation for practical exercises through online learning resources · 304

Some advice and suggestions · 308

Example: Creating coherence between students’ learning contexts through the use of blogs and wikis · 310

Some advice and suggestions · 315

Example: Learning through social construction of knowledge. Use of discussion forums in fully online teaching · 317

Some advice and suggestions · 323 Research-based evidence · 324 Resources · 325

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