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Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism

First Published in December 2015 ISSN 2527-9092

Published by STPBI. First published in 2015. The journal is intended as a medium for scientific study, research, and critical analysis study of the issues surrounding

tourism and hospitality business. Published twice a year in July and December.

Secretariat: JBHOST

(Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism) Litabmas STPBI.

Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Bali Internasional Jalan Tari Kecak, No. 12, Gatot Subroto Timur - Bali Telp : +62 361 - 426699

Fax : +62 361 - 426700 Email : info@jbhost.org

humas@stpbi.ac.id Ejournal: http://jbhost.org

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EDITORIAL BOARD

INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD

Prof. Dr. Enno Schmoll. Jade University, Wilhelmshaven, Germany

EDITOR IN CHIEF

Dr. Denok Lestari. STPBI, Indonesia

JOURNAL MANAGER

Putu Mega Putra, M.Pd. STPBI, Indonesia

EDITORS

Ni Made Ayu Sulasmini, S.Pd.,M.Pd.,CHT.,CHE. STPBI, Indonesia Ni Luh Supartini, S.Pd.,M.Pd. STPBI, Indonesia

Dr. Gede Yoga Kharisma Pradana,S.Sos., M.Si. STPBI, Indonesia

INTERNATIONAL REVIEWER

Prof. Vickneswaran Nair. Taylor's University, Malaysia Prof.Dr. Theodore Benetatos. IMI, Switzerland

Dr. Qu Xiau. Hongkong Polytechnic University, Hongkong Dr. Kim Sam. Hongkong Polytechnic University, Hongkong

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The fifth Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism, JBHOST, is finally published. This year JBHOST is published twice a year in July and December. All of the accepted papers were reviewed by our reviewers in order to be included in this journal.

Papers presented are covering the issues on hospitality and tourism development, attraction and destinations, tourism marketing, Event, and Human resources development, and tourism education.

We thank the contributors, the foundation of Yayasan Dharma Widya Ulangun, the Management of STPBI, and JBHOST committee for enabling this publication, JBHOST, Journal of Business on Hospitality and Tourism, Volume 5 Issue 1, to be successfully produced on time.

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Table of Contents

ANALYSIS OF ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND GLUCOSE LEVEL OF BREADFRUIT LEAVES FUNCTIONAL DRINKS TREATED WITH DIFFERENT RATIO OF SWEETENERS ... 1

Mazarina Devi, Budi Wibowotomo, SoenarSoekopitojo. Department of Industrial Technology, Faculty of Engineering. Universitas Negeri Malang. ... 1 THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN REALIZING SUSTAINABLE MARINE TOURISM IN PEMUTERAN VILLAGE GEROKGAK SUB DISTRICT BULELENG BALI PROVINCE ... 15

Ni Made Gandhi Sanjiwani. Postgraduate School of Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Yogyakarta, Indonesia. ... 15 THE FEASIBILITY OF PUNCAK DAMAR AND TANJUNG DURIAT ECOTOURISM AS TOURIST DESTINATION AREAS. (CASE RESEARCH IN JATIGEDE RESERVOIR AREA, SUMEDANG REGENCY) ... 33

Nadya Nur Aziza, Endah Djuwendah. Universitas Padjadjaran. Indonesia. ... 33 CONSTRUCTION MODEL OF TOURIST VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS SMART ECO-TOURISM VILLAGE DESTINATION IN PAKSEBALI TO BECOME TOURISM ICON IN

KLUNGKUNG REGENCY, BALI ... 44 I Wayan Pantiyasa1, Ni Made Ayu Sulasmini2, Putu Devi Rosalina3. 1,2,3 Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Bali Internasional. Indonesia. ... 44 A REVIEW ON PENTA HELIX ACTORS IN VILLAGE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND

MANAGEMENT... 63 Trisna Putra. Universitas Negeri Padang. Indonesia. ... 63 POVERTY REDUCTION IN COASTAL COMMUNITY AREA THROUGH MARINE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF PEMUTERAN VILLAGE ... 76

Kadek Oka Erapartiwi. Program Studi Kajian Pariwisata. Universitas Udayana ... 76 STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING MANGROVE ECOTOURISM IN RIAU PROVINCE,

INDONESIA ... 86 Musadad1& Mariaty Ibrahim2 1,2Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru. ... 86 IMPACT OF PILGRIMAGE TOURISM TO THE SHEIKH QURO’S TOMB KARAWANG ON THE LOCAL COMMUNITY QUALITY OF LIFE ... 96

Nungky Puspita, I Made Adhi Gunadi, Lita Nuradawiah. Faculty of Tourism Universitas Pancasila. Indonesia. ... 96 VISITOR SATISFACTION ATTENDING FESTIVAL IN BALI: CASE OF SANUR VILLAGE

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INVENTORY CONTROL OF PRODUCT SUPPLY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT FOR ONLINE SALES (CASE STUDY IN PT INSAN AGRITAMA TEKNOLOGI) ... 125

Evi Faridah Rostanti Meliyani, Pandi Pardian. Universitas Padjadjaran. Indonesia. .. 125 THE EFFECT OF PRICE ON THE WATERPARK VISITORS’ SATISFACTION ... 133

Mariaty Ibrahim1 & Musadad2* 1,2Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Riau. ... 133 TOURISTS PERCEPTION OF “MEPANTIGAN,” BALINESE TRADITIONAL MARTIAL ART AS ALTERNATIVE TOURISM ATTRACTION IN GIANYAR, BALI ... 142

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ANALYSIS OF ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND

GLUCOSE LEVEL OF BREADFRUIT LEAVES

FUNCTIONAL DRINKS TREATED WITH

DIFFERENT RATIO OF SWEETENERS

Mazarina Devi, Budi Wibowotomo, SoenarSoekopitojo. Department of Industrial Technology, Faculty of Engineering.

Universitas Negeri Malang.

mazarina.devi.ft@um.ac.id, budi.wibowotomo.ft@um.ac.id, soenar.soekopitojo.ft@um.ac.id

ABSTRACT

Efforts to lower blood sugar levels for diabetes mellitus patients can take by consuming popular functional drinks which have been added by herbal ingredients such as breadfruit leaves. The aim of this research is to observe the effect of addition three-thaves of sweetener (aspartame, acesulfame k, and sorbitol) in different ratio (50%: 25%: 25%, 25%: 50%: 25%, 25%: 25%: 50%) to the antioxidant capacity and glucose level of functional drinks made from breadfruit leaves, as well as its number of calories and variety sensory tests (sour taste, sweetness and texture). The experimental design used a Completely Randomized Design with three replications. This study also employs sweetness to produce organoleptic quality data in two repetitions. All collected data were then analyzed using the ANOVA test followed by DMRT test.

Results showed that the highest antioxidant capacity was obtained by the ratio 25%: 25%: 50% of aspartame, acesulfame k, and sorbitol with an IC50 value

of 64,717 ppm. Meanwhile the lowest glucose level was resulted by ratio 50%: 25%: 25% of aspartame, acesulfame k, and sorbitol in value of 25.53 g/100g. The highest number of calorie was produced by ratio 25%: 25%: 50% of aspartame, acesulfame k, and sorbitol with a value of 126.44 cal. / 100gr. Whereas, the most preferred formulas of breadfruit drink formulas are found in ratio 25%: 25%: 50% of aspartame, acesulfame k, and sorbitol.

KEYWORDS: breadfruit leaves, functional drinks, antioxidant capacity, glucose levels.

INTRODUCTION

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foods, lack of physical activity, and stress become the main cause of this disease. Diabetes mellitus can also appear due to heredity (Kaczmarczyk et al., 2012).

Food nutrition intake becomes an important factor in the immunity system and also essentially needed in preventing various diseases including diabetes mellitus. People with diabetes mellitus often requires special food arrangements to avoid increasing blood glucose levels. High-fibre foods such as fruits and vegetables are preferred as a source of carbohydrates because of their ability to lower blood glucose levels.

Nowadays the functional drink products such as sinom are widely consumed by Indonesian. It is much said not too safe for diabetics, due to its higher contain sugar and calories. The purpose of this study is to formulate a functional drink product made of breadfruit leaves and treated with low-calorie sweeteners such as aspartame acesulfame-k, and sorbitol. The usage of those low-calorie sweeteners in breadfruit leaves functional drink aims to reduce sugar content to be consumed safely by diabetic people.

Breadfruit plants (Artocarpusaltilis) are known in Indonesia as Suune, Amo, Hatopul, while in US popular as Breadfruit (Wardany, 2012). Several studies on the phytochemical test showed that the breadfruit leaves contain flavonoids, phenols, saponins and tannins (Baba et al., 2016). Its flavonoid compounds were also noted as strong anti-diabetes (Amarasinghe et al., 2008). Gustina and Anica (2012) reported the extract of ethanol, ethyl acetate, and butanol obtained from breadfruit leaves extract has the ability to inhibit the enzyme a-glucosidase.

In lowering the blood glucose level, people with diabetes mellitus should restrict their excessive caloric intake. Low-caloric sweeteners are medically proven safe for diabetics so that it can be used as alternative sugar-replacing. Some of such sweeteners are aspartame, acesulfame-K, and sorbitol. Aspartame is a non-calorie sweetener composed by amino acids which have purely no calorie contain.It is widely applied for low-calorie beverages/foods (Chackrewarthy et al., 2010). Acesulfame-K is a non-caloric artificial sweetener with a sweetness level of 200 times of sucrose (BPOM RI, 2014). The maximum usage of acesulfame-K in respective foods is 600 mg/kg, while aspartame is 1000 mg/kg (Chelzea, 2011). Sorbitol is an alcoholic sugar commonly used as a substitute for sucrose for people with diabetes Mellitus has 60% sweetness level of sucrose(Flier et al., 1987).

In the manufacture of functional drinks, the use of citric acid can be replaced by bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi) because it contains high natural Vitamin C of 25 mg/100g and citric acid from bilimbi is 92.6-133.8 meq acid/100g total solid (Lima et al., 2001). From the results of phytochemical content test, Bilimbi contains oxalic compounds, saponins, phenols, flavonoids (Agustin and Putri, 2014). Saponins and flavonoids found in bilimbi can stimulate the increasing function of the pancreas in producing and releasing the insulin hormone, and also regenerate the damaged pancreatic beta cells of diabetics(Wina et al., 2005)

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cinnamate, cinnamaldehyde, polyphenols, and flavonoids can increase glucose transport and have a hypoglycemic effect on people with diabetes mellitus.

Hence, the purpose of this study, after the subjects are given herbal drinks, is to observe the effect of addition three-thaves of sweetener (aspartame, acesulfame k, and sorbitol) in different ratio (50%: 25%: 25%, 25%: 50%: 25%, 25%: 25%: 50%) to the antioxidant capacity and glucose level of functional drinks made from breadfruit leaves, as well as its number of calories and variety sensory tests (sour taste, sweetness and texture).

METHODOLOGY

The research is an experimental research using a Complete Randomized Design (RAL) as experimental design. The main treatment was ratio in percentage of aspartame, acesulfame-K, and sorbitol applied in the manufacture of functional drinks. The detailed combination ratios are of 50%:25%:25%, 25%:50%:25%, and 25%:25%:50%, respectively to the aspartame, acesulfame-K, and sorbitol. Each treatment was repeated twice.

The raw materials used in the manufacturing process are breadfruit leaves, carrageenan, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sorbitol, bilimbi, and cinnamon.

Table1. Experimental Design

Treatment

Replication S1 S2 S3

R1 R2

S1R1 S1R2

S2R1 S2R2

S3P1 S3P2 Description:

Treatment: Ratio of aspartame, acesulfame k, dan sorbitol (S) 1 :functional drink with ratio 50%:25%:25%

2 :functional drink with ratio 25%:50%:25% 3 :functional drink with ratio 25%:25%:50%

Replication(R) 1 :first replication 2 :second replication

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Observation was carried out on breadfruit leaves functional drink products by analyzing the glucose content, antioxidant capacity, and calories content.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Glucose Content

The average glucose content of the breadfruit leaves functional drink can be seen in Table 2.

Table 2. The average of glucose content on breadfruit leaves functional drink (g/100g)

Sweetener ratios

(aspartame, acesulfam-K and sorbitol)

Replication

Average

1 2

50%:25%:25% 25,23 25,83 25,53

25%:50%:25% 29,21 29,66 29,43

25%:25%:50% 31,42 31,79 31,60

Table 3. ANOVA Test Result of Glucose content on breadfruit leaves functional drink.

Sum square Df Mean squares F Sig.

Inter-group 37,909 2 18,955 162,607 ,001

Intra-group ,350 3 ,117

Total 38,259 5

The results of ANOVA testing glucose content showed that ratio of 50%:25%:25% was significantly different with the ratio of 25%:50%:25%, the ratio of 25%:50%:25% was significantly different with the 25%:25% %:50%, and ratio of 25%:25%:50% differed significantly with the ratio of 50%:25%:25%.

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The average antioxidant capacity of the breadfruit leaves functional drink can be seen in Table 4.

Table 4. Average antioxidant capacity on breadfruit leaves functional drink (IC50 , ppm)

Sweetener ratio

(aspartame, acesulfame-K and sorbitol)

Repetition

Average

1 2

50%:25%:25% 92,625 91,328 91,976

25%:50%:25% 72,446 71,434 71,94

25%:25%:50% 64,919 64,515 64,717

Table 5. ANOVA test results of antioxidant capacity on breadfruit leaves functional drink.

Sum

squares Df Mean squares F Sig.

Inter-group 797,806 2 398,903 833,915 ,000 Intra-group 1,435 3 ,478

Total 799,241 5

The results of ANOVA test in antioxidant capacity showed that ratio of 50%:25%:25% was significantly different with 25%:50%:25%, ratio of 25%:50%:25% was significantly different with 25%:25%:50%, and ratio of 25%:25%:50% differed significantly with 50%:25%:25%.

3.3 Calorie Content

The average calorie content of breadfruit leaves functional drinks can be seen in Table 6.

Table 6. Average calorie content of breadfruit leaves functional drink (cal/100g)

Sweetener ratio

(aspartame, acesulfame-K and sorbitol)

Repetition

Average

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50%:25%:25% 100,94 103,32 102,13 25%:50%:25% 116,86 118,67 117,76 25%:25%:50% 125,70 127,19 126,44

Table 7. ANOVA test result of Energy amount on breadfruit leaves functional drink

Sum squares

Df Mean squares F Sig.

Inter-group

607,343 2 303,672 163,256 ,001

Intra-group

5,580 3 1,860

Total 612,924 5

The results of ANOVA test in calorie content showed that ratio of 50%:25%:25% was significantly different with the ratio 25%:50%:25%, the ratio of 25%:50%:25% was significantly different with the 25%:25% %:50%, and the ratio of 25%:25%:50% was significantly different with of 50%:25%:25%.

3.4 Sensory Test of Taste

The average result of the sensory test of taste on breadfruit leaves functional drink can be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Average Scores of Sensory test of taste on breadfruit leaves the functional drink

4,15

3,87

4,3

3,5 3,7 3,9 4,1 4,3 4,5

50%:25%:25% 25%:50%:25% 25%:25%:50%

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The Figure 1showed that ratio of 50%:25%:25% has 4,15 score of sensory taste, ratio of 25%:50%:25% has 3,87 score of sensory taste, mean while ratio of 25%:25%:50% has 4,33 score of sensory taste ratio which was no different significantly with ratio of 50%:25%:25%.

3.5 Sensory Test of Aroma

The average of sensory test result of aroma on breadfruit leaves functional drink can be seen in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Average score of sensory test of aroma on breadfruit leaves functional drink

The Figure 2 above showed that score of sensory aroma of 4,45 resulted from both ratio of 50%:25%:25% and 25%:50%:25%, whereas the ratio of 25%:25%:50% has 4,55 score of sensory aroma. There was no significant difference in sensory of aroma on breadfruit leaves functional drink with different ratio of aspartame, acesulfame-K and sorbitol.

3.6 Sensory Test of Color

The average of sensory test results of colour on breadfruit leaves functional drink can be seen in Figure 3.

4,45 4,45 4,55 4,00 4,20 4,40 4,60 4,80

50%:25%:25% 25%:50%:25% 25%:25%:50%

Rasio Aspartam, Asesulfam K, and Sorbitol

S co re o f se n so ry a ro m a 4,4 4,4 4,38 4,35 4,37 4,39 4,41 4,43 4,45

50%:25%:25% 25%:50%:25% 25%:25%:50%

Rasio Aspartam, Asesulfam K, and Sorbitol

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Figure 3: Average score of sensory test of colour on breadfruit leaves functional drink

The Figure 3 above showed that score of sensory colour of 4,4 resulted from both ratio of 50%:25%:25% and 25%:50%:25%, whereas the ratio of 25%:25%:50% has 4,38 score of sensory colour. There was no significant difference in sensory of colour on breadfruit leaves functional drink with different ratio of aspartame, acesulfame-K and sorbitol.

3.7 Sensory Test of Texture

The average of sensory test results of texture on breadfruit leaves functional drink can be seen in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Average score of sensory test of texture on breadfruit leaves functional drink

The Figure 4 above showed that score of sensory texture of 4,45 resulted from both ratio of 50%:25%:25% and 25%:50%:25%, whereas the ratio of 25%:25%:50% has 4,55 score of sensory texture. There was no significant difference in sensory of texture on breadfruit leaves functional drink with different ratio of aspartame, acesulfame-K and sorbitol.

3.8 Sensory Quality Test of Sour Taste

The average result of sensory quality test of sour taste on breadfruit leaves functional drink can be seen in Figure 5

4,45 4,45

4,55

4,00 4,20 4,40 4,60 4,80

50%:25%:25% 25%:50%:25% 25%:25%:50%

Rasio Aspartam, Asesulfam K, dan Sorbitol

S

k

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S

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Figure 5: Average result of sensory quality test of sour taste on breadfruit leaves functional drink

The Figure 5 above showed that sensory quality score of sour taste of 3,27 resulted from both ratio of 50%:25%:25% and 25%:50%:25%, whereas the ratio of 25%:25%:50% has 3,25 sensory quality score of sour taste. There was no significant difference in sensory quality of sour taste on breadfruit leaves functional drink with different ratio of aspartame, acesulfame-K and sorbitol.

3.9 Sensory Quality Test of Sweet Taste

The average result of sensory quality test of sweet taste on breadfruit leaves functional drink can be seen in Figure 6.

Figure 6: Average result of sensory quality test of sweet taste on breadfruit leaves functional drink

The Figure 6 showed that ratio of 50%:25%:25% has 3,27 sensory quality score of sweet taste, ratio of 25%:50%:25% has 3,22 sensory quality score of sweet

3,27 3,27 3,25 3,15 3,20 3,25 3,30 3,35

50%:25%:25% 25%:50%:25% 25%:25%:50%

re su lt o f se n so ry q u a li ty t e st o f so u r ta st e

Rasio Aspartam, Asesulfam K, and Sorbitol

3,27 3,22 3,34 3,15 3,20 3,25 3,30 3,35 3,40

50%:25%:25% 25%:50%:25% 25%:25%:50%

se n so ry te st o f sw e e t ta st e

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taste, meanwhileratio of 25%:25%:50% has 3,34 sensory quality score of sweet taste.

3.10 Sensory Quality Test of Texture

The average result of sensory quality test of texture on breadfruit leaves functional drink can be seen in Figure 7.

Figure 7. Average result of sensory quality test of texture on breadfruit leaves functional drink

The Figure 7 showed that ratio of 50%:25%:25% has 3,30 sensory quality score of texture, whereas ratio of 25%:50%:25% and 25%:25%:50% has similar 3,37 sensory quality score of texture.

The observation showed that glucose content in breadfruit leaves functional drink was affected significantly by different treatment of aspartame, acesulfame-K and sorbitol ratio. The highest glucose content in ratio of 25%:25%:50% was probably caused by the high percentage of sorbitol compared with aspartame and acesulfame-K. Caballero (2003)said that sorbitol is a natural sweetener which is not classified as reducing sugar because it is made of glucose from the breakdown of tuber starch through high-pressure hydrogenation which produces alcoholic sugar.

Sorbitol production using high-pressure hydrogenation process aims to convert aldehyde groups of glucose into hydroxyl groups that turn glucose into sorbitol or glucitol which is an alcoholic sugar (Sigman-Grant and Morita, 2003). Bauditz et al., (2008) reported that the absorption of alcoholic sugars by the body has slower rate. Hence, it will reduce the glucose incremental and insulin response which related to glucose digestion process. Therefore, sorbitol becomes an alternative sweetener for people with diabetes mellitus.

3,3

3,37 3,37

3,00 3,10 3,20 3,30 3,40 3,50

50%:25%:25% 25%:50%:25% 25%:25%:50%

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The antioxidant capacity of the breadfruit leaves functional drink is also affected significantly by different treatment of aspartame, acesulfame-K, and sorbitol ratios. The highest antioxidant capacity resulted by ratio of 25%:25%:50% was more probably obtained by the use of more sorbitol percentage than aspartame and acesulfame-K. Sorbitol is a raw material of synthetic Vitamin C. Vitamin C can be synthesized from sorbitol because it has a similar molecular chain link. Sorbitol molecular has chain link of C6H1406 while vitamin C is structured of C6H806. Vitamin C is derived from sorbitol by oxidization process into sorbose and then commercially synthesized with the catalyst of acetobacter bacteria to produce synthetic vitamin C (Sayuti and Yenrina, 2015).

Beside of sorbitol effect, the antioxidant capacity of breadfruit leaves functional drink was also influenced by the use of several additional ingredients such as breadfruit leaves material, carageenan and bilimbi fruit extract. Breadfruit leaves contain saponins, flavonoids and tannins, in which the highest content of flavonoids found in old breadfruit leaves, which is equal to 100.68 mg/g, while young breadfruit leaves contain 87.03 mg/g, and fallen old leaves of breadfruit is 42.89 mg/g (Fajaryanti et. Al., 2016).

The higher percentage of sorbitol compared than aspartame and acesulfame-K results in higher calories of 25%:25%:50% ratio. Sorbitol has 2.6 cal/gr while sucrose contains 4 cal/gr (Peters and Lock, 1958). Aspartame and acesulfame-K have no calories content. This ratio produces breadfruit leaves functional drink with a fresh sweet and sour taste. Sweet taste may come from the combination of aspartame, acesulfame-K, and sorbitol while the sour taste was derived from the use of bilimbi fruit extract.

By overall sensory test, breadfruit leaves functional drink can be accepted by panellists. The highest average value of sweet taste was obtained from 25%:25%:50% ratio. All panellists were perceived by a similar sweet taste like sugar. This is due to higher percentage of sorbitol than aspartame and acesulfame-K, resulted the relatively similar sweetness level as sugar. Whereas the breadfruit leaves functional drink with 25%:50%:25% ratio has slightly sour sweet taste.By the sensory test of taste, breadfruit leaves functional drink with 25%:25%:50% ratio was most preferred, which has sugar-like sweet taste. Its average score was 4.3.

Breadfruit leaves functional drink has a distinctive aroma produced by the addition of bilimbi extract and cinnamon. This addition is intended to reduce the unpleasant aroma produced by the leaves of breadfruit. Based on the preference data resulted by 35 panellists through 2 repetitions, it was found that the aroma of the breadfruit leaves functional drink can be accepted by the panellist with its preference level is preferred.

The result of preference test of aroma on breadfruit leaves functional drink with different aspartame, acesulfame-K, and sorbitol ratios have average value of 4.45-4.55. The highest value of 4.55 was obtained from 25%:25%:50% ratio while 50%:25%:25% and 25%:50%:25% ratio has average value of 4.45.

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received by the panellists with preference level of preferred and average preference value between 4.38-4.4. Breadfruit leaves functional drink with different ratios has the same preference level because of the same breadfruit leaves extract composition. The composition of breadfruit leaves extract used on each ratio is 100 ml.

Overall, the taste of breadfruit leaves functional drink is acceptable by all panellists. The highest average taste value of 3.27 was obtained from 50%:25%:25% and 25%:50%:25% ratios which have a sour taste while the lowest average taste value of 3.25 was obtained from 25%:25%:50% ratio which has a fairly sour taste. This such taste is probably due to higher percentage of sorbitol than aspartame and acesulfame-K. The relatively higher amount of sorbitol used in functional drink will produce a functional drink with lower sour taste (Sari et al., 2016). Sorbitol has similar characteristics as fructose that binds H+ ion which will reduce the total amount of acid on the ingredients.

CONCLUSION

The difference of aspartame ratio, acesulfame-K, and sorbitol in breadfruit leaves functional drink has significant effect on glucose level, dietary fibre, antioxidant capacity, amount of energy, physical properties of colour, and sensory properties of taste. The lowest glucose level of 25.53g/100g obtained from 50%:25%:25% ratio. The highest antioxidant capacity of 64.717 ppm obtained from 25%:25%:50% ratio. The highest energy amount of 126.44 cal/100g obtained from 25%:25%:50% ratio. The highest sensory properties of taste obtained from 25%:25%:50% ratio with a score of 4.3 (like). The highest sensory properties of aroma obtained from 25%:25%:50% ratio with a score of 4.55 (like). The highest sensory properties of colour obtained from 50%:25%:25% and 25%:50%:25% ratio with a score of 4.4 (like). The highest sensory properties of texture obtained from 25%:25%:50% ratio with a score of 4.55 (like). The highest sensory quality of sour taste obtained from 50%:25%:25% and 25%:50%:25% with a score of 3.27 (acid). The highest sensory quality of sweet taste obtained from 25%:25%:50% ratio with a score of 3.34 (sweet). The highest sensory quality texture obtained from 25%:25%:50% and 25%:50%:25% ratio with a score of 3.37 (crushed).

Based on the results of research on glucose level, total dietary fibre, antioxidant capacity, calorie count, physical properties of colour, and organoleptic properties of breadfruit leaves functional drink, can be suggested as follows, It is necessary to conduct some research in the difference of phytochemical content between the young and old breadfruit leaves, the use of stabilizers on breadfruit leaves functional drink product, and preservation level of breadfruit leaves functional drink.

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Authors thank Universitas Negeri Malang for funding this research by PNBP Scheme.

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THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN

REALIZING SUSTAINABLE MARINE TOURISM IN

PEMUTERAN VILLAGE GEROKGAK SUB DISTRICT

BULELENG BALI PROVINCE

Ni Made Gandhi Sanjiwani.

Postgraduate School of Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

md.gandhi.s@mail.ugm.ac.id

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to study the role of local government in realizing sustainable marine tourism. Pemuteran Village is one of the best practices of sustainable marine tourism in the developing world. Three types of government roles were studied, namely: regulator, facilitator, and executor. These roles were positioned as exogenous latent variables in a causal relationship with sustainable marine tourism in the village. Sustainability is measured through reflective constructs, i.e., economic benefit, socio-cultural benefit, and environmental benefit felt by the local community of Pemuteran Village. The data were collected from 60 respondents, consisting of community leaders, non-governmental organizations, and tourism industry stakeholders in Pemuteran Village. Then, questionnaires were analyzed by structural equation modelling—partial least square (path modelling). The results show that government roles did not have a significant effect on marine tourism sustainability. However, the role of local government and the existence of marine tourism sustainability were reflected significantly in its three constructs where the most represented construct in this relationship respectively are the role of facilitator and the environmental benefit. The most important finding in this research is that the role of local government was not only measured by regulator and facilitator roles, as in previous research, but includes analysis of the executor role which proved significant in structural model evaluation.

KEYWORDS: The Role of Local Government, Sustainable Marine Tourism, Partial Least Square (Path Modelling), Pemuteran Village.

INTRODUCTION

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areas, within the world’s largest industry (Hall, 2001). In Indonesia, the growth of marine tourism has been rapid, as indicated by the high demand for related products. In 2013, up to 12.25% of total travel to Indonesia was directly related to marine tourism (Destination Field Research, 2015) In Bali, the growth of the marine tourism industry has spread to almost all regions. This is because Bali has a part of the world's largest reef triangle, containing the richest coral species, where Buleleng region has the longest coastal area. This means Buleleng region has a very diverse marine tourism potential among other regions. In Buleleng, Pemuteran is a village with high potential to become a marine tourism-based village (disbudpar.bulelengkab.go.id).

The importance of the marine tourism potential in Pemuteran Village has made it a National Tourism Strategic Destination or “Kawasan Strategies Pariwisata Nasional (KSPN),” becoming the focus and development priorities in 2016(www.kemenpar.go.id). Today, the success of the artificial reef program in Pemuteran has become a shining example of sustainable marine tourism development throughout the world (Destination Field Research 2015; Indonesia Tourism Ministry, 2017).

Destination Field Research (2015) found that the development of marine tourism in Pemuteran Village applied the principle of sustainability, but there are still social-cultural and environmental costs borne by the local community. Other problems are faced by society, such as the lack of public facilities and infrastructure, waste problems due to poor management, and the lack of operational funds in regards to coral reef security in Pemuteran Village.

In an attempt to achieve sustainable tourism in Bali, including Pemuteran Village, government roles become very important. The central and local governments have a strategic function to frame policies that that direct industry and local communities to develop tourism in Bali. Those roles can be implemented by incentivizing the tourism industry, motivating the development of business in a healthy and competitive atmosphere. Moreover, the government also has an important role in building infrastructure for the region, ensuring the quality of tourist attractions. The role of improving Bali’s human resources in tourism development is also the responsibility of local and central governments through preparing the human resource developing program and also by providing the budget (Mertha., et al., 2015).

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government as a regulator, facilitator, and executor are needed. For now, research that focuses on the role of local government in sustaining tourism development in Bali has not been conducted in a comprehensive manner (Mertha., et al., 2015). The purpose of the present study are as follows:

1. How do people in Pemuteran perceive the role of local government in the development of marine tourism in that region?

2. How does the role of local government influence the sustainability of marine tourism in Pemuteran Village?

METHODOLOGY

2.1 Population, Sample, and Research Instrument

The role of local government in the realization of sustainable marine tourism is assessed by public perception. Therefore, the population of this research was local people in Pemuteran Village of Buleleng, Bali, which is spread over nine Banjars

or small parts of the village. The sample was selected by a quota sampling method, with 60 established respondents, consisting of community leaders (formal and non-formal positions), non-government organization members, and tourism industry stakeholders in Pemuteran Village. To measure the local people’s perception of the role of local government in realizing sustainable marine tourism in their village, every respondent was given a closed statement questionnaire.

The collected data were analyzed quantitatively. A pilot test was conducted with 30 respondents to test the validity and reliability of the data. Validity and reliability are two components related to the precision of measurement tools. First, reliability is a measure of internal consistency, an indicator of explaining variables. A set of indicators have an internal consistency when Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient (α) is greater than or equal to 0.7. If research used the exploratory method the value of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient can be less than 0.7 but greater than or equal to 0.6 d. The second criteria is validity, which refers to the ability of an indicator to explain a concept. The item is valid as an indicator if it has a correlation coefficient of at least 0.3 and a sign that is equal to the value of the other correlation coefficient (Mertha, 2015; Heale & Twycross, 2015; Drost, 2011).

2.2 Data Analysis

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constructs in the model and aims at maximizing their explained variance (i.e., their R2 value) (Hair, Ringle, Sarstedt, 2012). Conceptually, this study is depicted in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Research Conceptual Model

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Respondents Description

.The individual is the unit of analysis in this study; they are members of the local community in the village Pemuteran and across nine Banjars. Sixty questionnaires were distributed to respondents. All respondents are indigenous people from Pemuteran Village. Eighty-five percent of respondents have been living since birth in Pemuteran Village. These conditions provide an understanding that respondents are familiar with both the village and the community, qualifying them as able to explain about the condition of the region, government activities, as well as tourism development activities in their area.

Descriptively, 73.3 percent of respondents have completed high school; even 1.7 percent of them had a graduate degree. Most of the respondents were older (85 percent) than 24 years. Based on these characteristics (education level completed and ages) we concluded that their perception regarding local government roles toward the sustainability of marine tourism at their village could be trusted.

3.2 Quality of Questionnaires

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Table 1 Validity and Reliability Values of Indicators for Government Roles

Indicators for Regulator Role

Code Statements Corr α if item

deleted

X11 Effective regulation has been made to protect the local business from unfair business competition

0.479 0.699

X12 The regulation has been made to facilitate business license

0.694 0.399

X13 Effective regulation has been made to create a conducive business climate

0.446 0.715

Alpha Cronbach 0.710

Indicators for Facilitator Role

Code Statements Corr α if item

deleted

X21 Local Government has helped local communities in building infrastructure

0.745 0.800

X22 Local Government has helped the community in the development programs of human resources

0.752 0.801

X23 Local Government has helped the community in the form of mentoring program

0.462 0.839

X24 Local Government has helped the community in maintaining the damaged infrastructure

0.680 0.811

X25 Local Government has helped the community in obtaining education and health services

0.548 0.828

X26 Local Government has helped the community in providing financial assistance to support tourism activities

0.613 0.820

X27 Local Government has conducted consultations regularly in decision making with the community related to marine tourism

0.314 0.853

X28 Local Government has helped the community in promoting and marketing for marine tourism

0.500 0.833

Alpha Cronbach 0.843

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Code Statements Corr α if item

deleted

X31 Local Government has ensured the regulation has worked as it should

0.634 0.877

X32 Local Government has given warning to the community who do not obey the regulation

0.852 0.672

X33 Local Government has given sanctions on any violations of regulations related to marine tourism

0.708 0.817

Alpha Cronbach 0,854

Source: Primary Data, 2016

Table 1 shows that all three reflective constructs of local government roles examined are indicators, valid and reliable. This is shown by the average correlation coefficient value being above 0.3 with the value of Cronbach Alpha being, respectively 0.710; 0.843; and 0.854, which exceeds the required threshold value. From these values, we can conclude that government roles as a main latent variable in the model had sufficient alpha value and its indicators were valid reflections of the concept

Table 2. Validity and Reliability Values of Indicators for Sustainability Of Marine Tourism

Indicators for Economic Benefits

Code Statements Corr α if item

deleted

Y11 Marine tourism activities positively increase the

household income of local community

0.811 0.718

Y12 Marine tourism activities positively increase employment

opportunities for the local community

0.851 0.720

Y13 Marine tourism activities positively increase local

business opportunities for the local community

0.851 0.720

Y14 Marine tourism activities positively make communities

more easily meet the needs of life

0.551 0.764

Y15 Marine tourism activities positively increase local

employment

0.556 0.770

Y16 Marine tourism activities positively increase the quantity

and quality of health facilities

0.299 0.903

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Indicators for Socio-Cultural Benefit

Code Statements Corr α if item

deleted

Y21 Marine tourism activities positively increase efforts to

preserve local culture

0.440 0.632

Y22 Marine tourism activities positively increase the quality

of education

0.711 0.470

Y23 Marine tourism activities positively increase

appreciation and mutual respect for the existence of cultural differences

0.324 0.726

Y24 Marine tourism activities positively increase local

community’s awareness to more protected and preserved places purified according to Hindu religion

0.451 0.625

Alpha Cronbach 0.682

Indicators for Environmental Benefit

Code Statements Corr α if item

deleted

Y31 Marine tourism activities positively increase

maintenance and conservation of coral reefs

0.376 0.714

Y32 Marine tourism activities positively increase

conservation of physical beach and sea

0.646 0.623

Y33 Marine tourism activities positively increase the

cleanliness of the surrounding environment

0.472 0.682

Y34 Marine tourism activities positively increase

maintenance of public facilities

0.387 0.748

Y35 Marine tourism activities positively increase

awareness on environmental sustainability

0.686 0.616

Alpha Cronbach 0.723

Source: Primary Data, 2016

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the required threshold limit of 0.3, as specified by Churchill, Jr., (1979) in Merth (2015). This item was excluded, based on consideration of significant increment in latent’s reliability (from 0.795 increase to 0.903) if this item was removed, so it was decided to excluded item Y16. By eliminating this indicator, a final operational model of our research is illustrated in Figure 2:

Figure 2: Final Operational Model

In structural equation model (SEM), according to Sarstedt et al. (2016) and Hair et al. (2012) two sub-analyses—outer or measurement models, and inner or structural models—must be conducted. The outer model focuses on the relationship that occurred between the latent and its indicator, while the inner model focuses on the causal relationships between the latent variables.

3.3 Outer Model Analysis

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Average Variance Extracted (AVE) value and Composite Reliability (CR) value for all of latent with it’s the reflective indicator.

Table 3. Outer Model Evaluation for Main Latent with Its Reflective Indicator

No Latent Variables Item

Total

Criteria for Convergent Validity

AVE CR

Value

Information

1. Economic Benefit 5 0.748 0.936 Very Good 2. Socio – Cultural Benefit 4 0.585 0.848 Good 3. Environmental Benefit 5 0.576 0.870 Good

4. Regulator Role 3 0.675 0.862 Very Good 5. Facilitator Role 8 0.532 0.899 Good 6. Executor Role 3 0.751 0.900 Very Good

Source: Primary Data, 2016

Table 3. shows that all Composite Reliability (CR) values exceed the critical value of 0.70 as required by Sarstedt et al., in Sutton (2017).ThisIt means the measurement model is reliable. As well as the AVE values of these six sub-latent variables, all AVE values exceed the 0.50 as required by Hair et al., in Sutton (2017). The higher the value of the AVE owned by a latent means a higher correlation between the indicators that make up a construct. It can be concluded that, in general, the measurement model developed in this study has good convergence validity. After examining the value of the AVE and CR, next is the Discriminant Validity value, Table 4 shows discriminant validity value every sub-latent.

Table 4. Discriminant Validity of Sub - Latent Variables

Executor Role Facilitator Role Regulator Role

Executor Role 0,866

Facilitator Role 0,422 0,729

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Benefit

Environmental

Benefit

Socio – Cultural

Benefit Economic Benefit 0,865 Environmental Benefit

0,602 0,759

Socio – Cultural

Benefit

0,550 0,831 0,765

Source: Primary Data, 2016

Table 4 illustrates that all latent variables of sustainable marine tourism and local government roles have discriminant validity. This can be seen by the value in bold is greater than the value of correlation with other sub-latent variables, except sub-latent environmental benefit and facilitator role that have a smaller value than the correlation value with the other sub-latent. Nevertheless, after examining the cross-loading of each latent, no cross-loading was found. It can be concluded that all latent variables have discriminant validity and can be analyzed in the next step.

3.4 Interpretation of Sub – Model Measurement (Outer Model)

After examining the measurement model (outer model analysis), the interpretation of the sub-measurement model is complete. The feasibility of a measurement model can be seen from the t-statistical value of loading results, provided that t-statistics must be greater than the critical value of 1.96 (2- tailed) and the probability value at the 5 percent significance level (Hussein, 2015:20 : Kencana, et al., 2015: 174). The t-statistical value and the opportunity value (p-value) for the sub-measurement model interpretation were obtained from the bootstrapping process, using 60 cases and 500 repetitions. The path analysis of the sub-model measurement can be seen in Table 5.

Table 5. Interpretation of Sub – Model Measurement (Outer Model)

Latent Sub

Latent R2 Valu es Path Coeffici ents Stand ard Deviat ion T Statis tics P Valu es Relationsh ips The Role of Local Regulator Role 0,77 6

0,881 0,026 34,30

9

0,00 0

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0,940 0,018 52,60

0 0,00 0 Significant Executor Role 0,42 7

0,654 0,083 7,854 0,00

0 Significant The Sustainab ility of Marine Tourism Economic Benefit 0,72 3

0,850 0,050 16,88

9 0,00 0 Significant Socio – Cultural Benefit 0,76 1

0,872 0,025 34,62

8 0,00 0 Significant Environment al Benefit 0,82 9

0,911 0,023 40,05

4

0,00 0

Significant

Source: Primary Data, 2016

Table 5 shows all path coefficients of each latent to its reflection sub-latent are significant at (α) 5 percent level (2-tailed). The reflective relationship between the variables of the role of local government with the three sub-latent, namely the role of the regulator, the role of facilitator, and the role of the executor as its indicators, these three path coefficients show a significant relationship. In the latent reflective relationship of sustainable marine tourism with its three sub-latent, economic benefit, socio-cultural benefit, and environmental benefit show a significant relationship.

3.5 Inner Model Analysis

After the outer model analysis was done, we conducted inner model analysis. This analysis was done because the outer model successfully represented the structure of every latent and its indicators. Structural analysis of the model is performed to ensure that structural models are constructed accurately. Inner model evaluation can be seen from the Goodness of Fit Index (GoF). This GoF value can be calculated using the following equation:

GoF = (1) .

In Equation 1 and are the weighted average value of AVE and weighted average value of each endogenous latent on the model (Tenehaus, et al., 2005). After examining the value of GoF is obtained value as much as 0.653. As the lowest threshold limit is 0.50, thus the model constructed in this study has a representative ability to explain the latent (exogenous and endogenous) relationships in a structural equation model (Tenenhaus, et al., 2005).

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This analysis also uses a bootstrapping procedure, available in software SmartPLS 3.0 and set no sign changes with 60 cases and 500 samples in the bootstrap setting. The results are shown in Table 6 below.

Table 6. Direct Effects of Each Causal Relationship in the Inner Model

Latent Compiler Latent Endogeneous R2 Valu es Informa tion Values Path Coeffici ents P Valu es Relations hips

The Role of Local

Government

The Sustainability of

Marine Tourism

0.054 Weak -0.232 0.114 Not

Significa nt

The Role of Local

Government

Regulator Role

0.776 Good 0,881 0,000 Significa

nt

The Role of Local

Government

Facilitator Role

0.884 Good 0,940 0,000 Significa

nt

The Role of Local

Government

Executor Role

0.427 Fair 0,654 0,000 Significa

nt

The Sustainability of

Marine Tourism

Economic Benefit

0.723 Good 0,850 0,000 Significa

nt

The Sustainability of

Marine Tourism

Socio – Cultural Benefit

0.761 Good 0,872 0,000 Significa

nt The Sustainability of Marine Tourism Environmental Benefit

0.829 Good 0,911 0,000 Significa

nt

Source: Primary Data, 2016

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inseparable from the discovery in the field indicating that local government has played a large part in mentoring programs, such as: guide and diving training; financial assistance to Pakraman Village; physical assistance in the form of boats for Pecalang Segara (sea guards); facilitating public education with the establishment of SMAN 2 Gerokgak in Pemuteran Village area; promoting and marketing the marine tourism through Buleleng Dive Festival activities by making Pemuteran the main subject of brochures, event calendar, and tourism map which are distributed by Tourism Office to hotels and travel agents in strategic tourism area of Kuta.

In the latent reflective relationship of sustainable marine tourism with its three sub-latents also show significance, where the biggest coefficient determination (R2) is found in the sub-latent of environmental sustainability (82.9 percent), followed by socio-cultural sustainability (76.1 percent), and the lowest, economic sustainability (72.3 percent). This shows that the local community in Pemuteran Village is more beneficial to the environmental benefit than the socio-cultural and economic benefits of marine tourism. This is confirmed by the community and can be demonstrated by the condition of coral reefs, compared to when the marine tourism was not developed as rapidly as it is today, cleaning the beach and sea is done routinely, public facilities are more organized, indirectly, also increase community awareness of a sustainable living environment.

The formative relationship shows that the role of local government does not significantly affect the sustainability of marine tourism. It is shown by its coefficient determination of only 5.4 percent. It means that local government roles only affected the sustainability of marine tourism as much as 5.4 percent.

3.7 Discussion

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development in a region lies in the ability and knowledge of government, as both are far from adequate. This includes planning, development of tourism programs, regulation, until cross-sectoral coordination (Damanik & Weber, 2006). Some facts show that the number of tourism planners with a qualified capacity in local government institutions is minimal. Otherwise they more commonly found in big resorts. This is very important because there are still many local government institutions that do not have a master plan for tourism development in their area (Can, Allaedinoglu, & Turker, 2014).

These notions are in line with Kusworo & Damanik (2002), who found that the ability of the bureaucracy in the regional tourism offices from 9 regions and city in Bali Province (the island that has a long history of tourism) is still under regions or cities outside Bali. Which are otherwise is classified as "inexperienced in tourism" at the national level such as Cianjur, Subang or even Pare-Pare. This means, the ability of the bureaucracy in Bali regional tourism offices to carry out the planning, implementation and management of tourism development is still limited. So, it can be understood, as local community in Pemuteran confirmed that most government’s programs were not a match for the problems faced by the community in Pemuteran Village, and were not continuous, with no assertiveness from the local government in responding to any violations related to marine tourism.

It is important to note that previous studies have only measured the role of local government as regulator and facilitator. This study tries to examine the role of executor also The results show that the role of executor should be conducted by the local government can be seen from the value t-statistics and the value of significant opportunities. Mertha (2015) stated that the local government's responsibility towards the quality of the destination has an insignificant result, that the community has greater expectations for the government as both regulator and facilitator. This view is also in line with the notions of Cavaye (2000) and Swanson et al. (2006), who mentioned the importance of consistent governmental enforcement.

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the sustainability of tourism. A good mediator in this case, is the traditional institution of Pemuteran Village or Desa Pakaman Pemuteran. In line with UNWTO (2011) stated that community agencies have a very important role in strengthening relations and coordination between stakeholders, and in providing advice to other stakeholders, as they are most understanding of the region.

CONCLUSION

This study shows that local government has not played a significant role in realizing sustainable marine tourism, although the three roles of regulator, facilitator, and executor are reflected significantly. Among the three roles, That of facilitator is the most represented in Pemuteran Village. Meanwhile, although the role of local government was not significant in realizing sustainable marine tourism, local people of Pemuteran still feel the sustainability of marine tourism in the region. The sustainability of marine tourism in Pemuteran is demonstrated through the economic, social-cultural and environmental benefits that are reflected, significantly in the research model. Environmental benefits are the most represented variables of sustainable marine tourism in Pemuteran Village. It is strongly suspected that there are other stakeholder roles affecting the local community’s acceptance of these three benefits. Interviews with local community leaders found that, traditional institution at the Pemuteran Village or Desa Pakraman keeps trying to maintain the sustainability of marine tourism.

The local government must be aware that their roles cannot affect sustainable marine tourism in a significant way. From this viewpoint, we suggest the government reviews their roles in order to match them with community needs. Besides that, The local government initiating the program should not directly work with the community, but coordinate first with other institutions, such as Pakraman Village (traditional institution), because Pakraman Village is considered the most understanding of the condition of society and its territory.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank Dr. I Wayan Mertha, SE., M.Si and Ir. I Putu Eka Nila Kencana, M.T who have provided much guidance and inspiration in the writing of this study.

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THE FEASIBILITY OF PUNCAK DAMAR AND

TANJUNG DURIAT ECOTOURISM AS TOURIST

DESTINATION AREAS.

(CASE RESEARCH IN JATIGEDE RESERVOIR

AREA, SUMEDANG REGENCY)

Nadya Nur Aziza, Endah Djuwendah. Universitas Padjadjaran. Indonesia.

nadyanuraziza@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Jatigede Reservoir area has the potential to be a Tourist Destination Area. This area has two ecotourism areas. They are Puncak Damar and Tanjung Duriat. The area will be used as a Tourism Special Economic Zone (Kawasan Ekonomi Khusus). This research purpose is to find out how the feasibility of Puncak Damar and Tanjung Duriat Ecotourism as tourist destinations. The design used is qualitative with a case research approach. The result of the research shows that Puncak Damar and Tanjung Duriat have not fulfilled the principle of ecotourism. Puncak Damar Ecotourism has attractions, (1) the views of Jatigede Reservoir, (2) taking pictures at view deck, (3) camping, (4) offroad. While in Tanjung Duriat, there are (1) the view of the Jatigede Reservoir, (2) taking photos in tree towers, (3) camping, (4) fishing, (5) boating. In terms of accessibility, the road conditions of both ecotourism are damaged and rocky and there is no public transportation. The facilities of the infrastructure in both ecotourism are not yet complete. The obstacles in Puncak Damar Ecotourism are (1) damaged road conditions, (2) no clean water, (3) no food stall that operates, (4) relations between managers. In Tanjung Duriat there obstacles are (1) damaged road conditions, (2) no electricity system, (3) relations between managers. Both of ecotourism areas are still not feasible for tourist destinations. It is because there are still many attractions that cannot support tourism activities at Puncak Damar and Tanjung Duriat Ecotourism objects. Keywords: Ecotourism, Tourist Destination Area, Jatigede Reservoir.

INTRODUCTION

The Indonesian government is now intensifying the efforts to build a strong economy in various sectors. One of the sectors that can be utilized is the tourism sector. The tourism sector is expected to be able to improve the national and local economy, and encourage business opportunities for the surrounding society in order to recruit labor (Soebagyo, 2012).

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their ecosystems, the diversity of flora and fauna and natural phenomena with the beauty of pure views can be the attraction of a tourist attraction.

The shifting of the concept of world tourism to special interest tourism, is known as ecotourism. Ecotourism can be a great opportunity for our country with its extraordinary natural potential. This because of the fact that many tourists tend to visit tourist objects based on the nature and the culture of local people.

According to The International Ecotourism Society, ecotourism is tourism that is responsible for areas based on nature with the aim of preserving the environment, encouraging the welfare of local communities, and involving elements of education for workers and tourists alike (TIES, 2015).

The principle of ecotourism according to Minister of Home Affairs Regulation No. 33 of 2009, namely:

1. Conformity between types and characteristics of ecotourism.

2. Conservation, which is protecting, preserving and sustainably utilizing natural resources used for ecotourism.

3. Economical, namely providing benefits to the local community and driving economic development in the region and ensuring that ecotourism can be sustainable.

4. Education, which contains elements of education to change one's perception in order to have care, responsibility, and commitment to environmental and cultural preservation.

5. Providing satisfaction and experience to visitors.

6. Community participation, namely the participation of the community in the activities of planning, utilizing and controlling ecotourism by respecting the socio-cultural and religious values of the communities around the area.

7. Accommodate local wisdom.

In developing ecotourism, it can be optimized from three key factors, namely internal, external, and structural factors. Internal factors in ecotourism development include the potential contained in tourist sites, tourism managers know how local culture, nature, and knowledge about the environment, local residents who are involved in ecotourism. External factors in ecotourism development namely tourists who come to ecotourism locations contribute to environmental sustainability. Meanwhile, structural factors are related to institutions, regulations regarding ecotourism management. If, there are many obstacles in the management of ecotourism, then the development will run poorly (Suwena and Widyatmaja, 2017).

Figure

Table 5. ANOVA test results of antioxidant capacity on breadfruit leaves  functional drink
Table 7. ANOVA test result of Energy amount on breadfruit leaves  functional drink
Figure 2: Average score of sensory test of aroma on  breadfruit leaves functional drink
Figure 3: Average score of sensory test of colour on  breadfruit leaves functional drink
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References

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