Process Diagram Technique for Business Processes Modeling

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 1

Vaclav Repa

University of Economics,

Prague, Czech Republic

ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000

Process Diagram Technique

for Business Processes Modeling

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 2

Agenda

• The Scope

• The Technique

• Diagram Elements

• Process Meta-Model

• Different Levels of the Technique

• Important Topics

• Events, Activities, and States from the Object

vs. Process Point of View (Consistency Rules)

• Process Memory (Simple/Complex Processes)

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 3

The Scope

M

odel of the system of business processes

which:

• respects basic

objectives and goals, current state and

specific characteristics

of the organization

• respects

objective circumstances

(those which are given

outside the organization and are independent of the

organization) which can play a significant role in the behavior

of the organization

is "optimal"

in the sense of economic

efficiency

of the

processes

is "optimal"

in the sense of maximum

simplicity

together

with whole

functionality

• is prepared for later

optimization, implementation and

installation

of the system of processes which respect

characteristics described above

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 4

The Scope

Convergence of BPE, WfM, and ISD

Business

Processes

(Re)Engineering

Information

System

Development

Workflow

Management

Sense and Context of Work Business Processes Implementation Business Requirements Analysis Organizational & Technological Infrastructure Information Requirements (Strategic Level) Information Support Information Support Information Requirements (Operational Level) Business Interface Analysis (Use Cases) BP to be engineered BP to be modeled and supported BP to be performed Conceptual Business Processes Analysis

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 5

The Scope

Objects and processes as a basis for IS development

Real World Structure

Technological IS Model Logical Database Structure Program Modules Structure Top-Down Function Structure Real World Structure (static view)

Real World Behaviour (Object Life Histories) Usability Requirements

* buffering needs * user views * data sets extent

etc.

Transition Techniques (Design Rules)

Technology Constraints and Requirements and

Program Design Rules Technology Constraints and Requirements

and

Database Design Rules

Conceptual IS Model

Interface Functions Structure Actors

Business

Activities Products

Conceptual Business Processes Model

* I/O functions * Dialogue functions * Interface functions etc. Actors Business Objects Products * Objects * Attributes * Life history

Conceptual Business Objects Model

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 6

The Technique

Process modeling diagram elements - basic set

Diagram

Element

Symbol

Explanation

Activity

Activity

Basic element of the process - input(s) to output(s)

processing.

Activity is decomposable on principle, i.e. it can be

always regarded as the process (on the deeper level of

detail).

Decision

Decision

Elementary (i.e. undecomposable) activity. Decision on

the particular follow-up of the process.

Event

Event

External stimulus for the activity. Information about the

event outside of the process and independent of it.

State

State

Internal stimulus for the activity. Result of the preceding

activity.

Logical

Connector

AND

Primitive decision without any information at the input

(predefined decision). The only AND and OR (XOR)

connectors are allowable.

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 7

The Technique

Process modeling diagram elements - external elements

Diagram Element

Symbol Explanation

Information Set

Information Set

Set of the information for process control. Examples:

manufacturing plan, strategic investment intention, delivery note etc.

Material Set

Material Set

Set of the subjects of processing. I.e. raw material (at the input) or product (at the output), no matter whether it is material or data. Examples: engine component, car (final product) in the case of car manufacturing. Stock list, investment advice (final product) in the case of broker's business (information plays the role of the material here). Mixed Set

Mixed Set

Set of the combination of the subjects of processing as well as the information for controlling it.

Example: delivery together with the delivery note Actor

Actor

Abstract person - all kinds of the attendee of the process (person, organization unit, system, position, profession, role, entity etc.).

Problem

Problem

Problem related to the process in the particular point.

Organization

Unit Organization

Unit

Unit of the organization where the process runs.

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 8 Process model Stimulus Activity Event State

Processing Activity Control Activity 1 0..

*

Consists of Stimulates 1..* 0..1 Stimulates 0..1 0..1 Stimulates 0..

*

0..1 Produces 1..* 1 Logical Connector Decision

Information Set Material Set Mixed Set Input/Output Set Is input for 0..1 1..* Produces 0..1 1..

*

Is input for 0..1 1..

*

Actor Problem Organization Unit External Aspect Is connected to 1..

*

0..* Is connected to 1..

*

0..

*

Additional Constraints: 1. Activityhas to be

stimulated by either Stimulus or

Control Activity (Decision or

Logical Connector)

2. Input Sethas to be input for either Processing Activity or

Decision Is input for 0..1 1..

*

The Technique

Process meta-model

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 9

The Technique

Three levels of model simplification

Level

Description

Purpose of simplification

level 0

Full complexity. All elements used.

Model without actors, problems and

organization units.

Description of the process itself without the respect

to the related external aspects (actors, problems and

organization). There is no possibility to analyze

those external aspects (for the purpose of the

information analysis of the legal IS for example).

Level 1 model without sets (material,

information or mixed).

Description of the process itself without the respect

to the inputs and outputs of the activities. Such a

model describes the succession of the activities

together with the process control (activity stimuli).

It does not describe the substance of the processing.

Level 2 model without states and control

activities.

Description of the process itself without the respect

to the inputs and outputs of the activities. Such a

model describes the succession of the activities

only. No internal control is described.

level 1

level 2

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 10

Consistency of processes and objects

Outline of the consistency rules requirements concerning external facts (different meanings of the same fact)

Fact Object Model Business Process Model

Event Stimulus for:

• object internal state change

• possible communication with other objects (send the message) in the case of the "common action"

Stimulus for:

• operation execution

• process state change

• output production

• possible communication with other processes (processes co-ordination) Output Consequence of

• object action

• object internal state change

Consequence of:

• operation execution (product)

• process state change

Outline of the consistency rules requirements concerning internal concepts (different meanings of the same concept)

Concept Object Model Business Process Model

Action Action executed/allowed by the object Causes:

• object state change

• possible output production

• possible communication with other objects (send the message) in the case of the "common action"

Activity inside the process Causes:

• process state change

• possible output production

• possible communication with other processes (co-ordination of processes)

State Object life cycle state

• starting point for action processing

• result of action processing

Process course state

• starting point for operation execution

• result of operation execution

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 11

Process Memory

Process memory includes:

actual

process state identification

attributes

of actual state of the process

data gathered

by the process activities

(once the data are gathered, they exist inside the process and can be used by its

activities without any limitation (global data access))

Why:

The need to store the information about the actual process state

in controlling

complex processes (which often have complex relationships to other processes).

The need to reduce the complexity

of the process description.

Consequences:

• criterion for

distinguishing between primitive and complex processes

.

(process without the need to store the information about the state is so simple

that it is possible to take it (and implement it, as well) as a simple algorithm)

• indicates the

possible parallelism inside the process

or at least in the

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 12

Primitive Process (Order Receiving)

Stock Order rejected Formal correctness check

Order entry Satisfiability

check Satisfiable Order rejection report Order rejection due to the formal incorrectness Incorrect Correct Order Unsatisfiable Order deficiencies report Order rejection due to the unsatisfiability Order acceptation Order accepted Delivery order Invoice

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 13

Primitive Process (Order Receiving) - Aris Notation

Stock Order

Order rejected

Order entry Satisfiability check Satisfiable

Order rejection report Order rejection due to the formal incorrectness Incorrect Correct Unsatisfiable Order deficiencies report Order rejection due to the unsatisfiability Order accepted Delivery order Invoice Formal correctness check Order acceptation

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V.Repa: Process Diagram Technique for BPM, ISD2000 Conference, Kristiansand, Norway, August 2000 14 Customer

Store Manager

Customer

Complex Process (Order Transaction)

Order accepted Stock Order rejected Order rejection report Order Order deficiencies report Order Receiving Delivery order Order entry Invoice Order Fulfilment Goods Dispatched Goods Delivered Order Clearance Order Cleared Customer Payment Done

Waiting for

Store Action

Waiting for

Customer Action

Figure

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References

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Related subjects : The Business Process Diagram