6 Input Output Devices

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Input/Output Devices

Input/Output Devices

Alona Sorin

Seminar in Computer Science - 236801

Typewriter

9 QWERTY, Christopher Sholes 9 52% Q W E R T Y U I O P 32% A S D F G H J K L ; ' 16% Z X C V B N M , . / 1864

Writing Ball

1865 9 Rasmus Malling-Hansen 9 different placements of the

letters on the keys

9 electromagnetic escapement for the ball

9 the first electric typewriter

Teletype

9 1910: first commercial installation of a printing telegraph 9 trademark used for a teletypewriter \ teleprinter

9 1915: 30 or 50 WPM 9 1957: 300 WPM 1910

Drum Printer

9 1954: UNIVAC, UNIPRINTER, Earl Masterson 9 typewriter with an attached tape drive 9 first commercially available high speed printer 9 600 LPM, 130 CPL 1954

Line Printer

1959 9 IBM 1403, 600 LPM 9 600-1200 LPM ( 10-20 PPM) 9 a lot of noise

9 were always enclosed in sound-absorbing cases of varying sophistication 9 not expensive

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Plotter

9 graphics printer that draws images with ink pens

9 1959: Calcomp 560, first computer graphics output devices sold 9 1970: Hewlett Packard and Tektronix

desk-sized flatbed plotters

1959

IBM Selectric Printer

1961

9 pivoting typeball 9 different fonts 9 14.8 CPS

9 high quality printed output

Dot Matrix Printer

9 impact matrix printer

9 the oldest of the three technologies used in most of today’s printers 9 1970: 165 CPS ,$2,995

9 1977: speed of 240 CPS 9 1983: ImageWriter, $675 1970

9each character as a group of small dots

9tiny metal rod, also called a "wire" or "pin“

9one or two columns of dot hammers 9speeds range from 200 to 400 cps

Dot Matrix Printer

Few of the more common problems : 9 light or poor print quality

9 paper jams 9 missing print 9 paper out

Dot Matrix Printer

9 non-impact method

9 canister of ink instead of ribbon

9 three ink colors (cyan, magenta and yellow) 9 black ink for pure black printing

9 propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper 9 higher quality text than dot matrix printers

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Technologies to control the flow of ink: 9 Thermal Ink Jet

9 Piezoelectric Ink Jet 9 Continuous Ink Jet

Inkjet Printer

1964

Continuous Ink Jet Technology

9 1867: William Thomson

9 1951: first commercial model, Siemens

9 one of the oldest ink jet technologies in use and is fairly mature

9 control a continuous inkjet droplet stream direction onto the printed media or into a gutter

1867

Drop on Demand Method

9 Siemens, PT-80 9 thermal , piezoelectric 9 ejects ink droplets

only when they are needed

9 faster and more quietly than dot matrix printers

1977

Thermal Wax Printer

9 dye-sublimation and solid ink

9 small resistive heating pins melt wax-based ink onto ordinary paper or burn dots onto special coated paper 9 typically 300dpi 9 specialist applications 1964

Electrophotography

9 Chester Carlson 9 Xerography 910-22-38 ASTORIA 9 $150,000,000 1938

Xerography

9“dry writing”

9a dry photographic or photocopying process 9used in copy machines, laser and LED printers 9officially announced in 1948

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9General Electric, Eastman Kodak, IBM 9Haloid Company - 1949 9 Xerox Corporation

Xerography

1949

Laser Printer

9 1970 – 1971: Gary Starkweather - Scanned Laser Output Terminal, “SLOT”

9 1972: Butler Lampson and Ronald Rider – control system

9 EARS: Ethernet, Alto, Research character

generator, Scanned laser output terminal

9 first laser printer 9 base of the Xerox 9700 1972

9 Xerox 9700 laser printing system 9 industry's first commercial laser printer 9 120 pages per minute

9 fastest commercial laser printer 9 huge

Xerox 9700

1978 9 electrostatic charges 9 "painting" a negative of the page to be printed on the charged drum 9 where light falls, the

charge is dissipated, leaving a positive image to be printed

Laser Printer

9 high quality text and graphics on plain paper

9 fastest models can print over 200 monochrome pages per minute (12,000 pages per hour)

Laser Printer

Color Laser Printer

9 CMYK colored toner (cyan, yellow, and magenta ) 9 complexity of the

printing process 9 each of the four inks

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9 drum 9 dot matrix 9 inkjet 9 impact 9 piezo electric 9 thermal wax 9 laser 9 thermal bubble 9 dye sublimation 9daisy-wheel 9 bubblejet

Printer Technologies

9 1936: August DVORAK 22% ' , . P Y F G C R L ? 70% A O E U I D H T N S -8% ; Q J K X B M W V Z 9 One-handed versions 9 AZERTY A Z E R T Y U I O P Q S D F G H J K L M % W X C V B N ? . /

Keyboard

Right -handed Left -handed S im p lified 1936

Non-Traditional Keyboards

Light Pen / Gun

9 photosensitive device 9 1952: handmade prototype of a

"light gun“, Whirlwind Project at MIT 9 1957: Lincoln TX-0 computer at the

MIT Lincoln Laboratory

1952

Graphics Tablet

9 sketching new images or tracing old ones

9 1964: RAND Tablet, ( Grafacon -Graphic Converter)

9 1984: Koala Pad, first home computer graphics tablet

1964

9 1963: Douglas Engelbart, Stanford Research Institute

9 one button on top and two wheels on the underside 9 device with its long cable tail looked something like

a mouse

Early Mouse

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Mechanical Mice

9 1972: Bill English, ball mouse, part of the hardware package of the Xerox Alto computer 9 rubber or metal ball rotates in any direction 9 mechanical sensors detect the direction 1972

Optomechanical Mice

9 optical sensors detects motion of the ball 9 1980: Steve Kirsch, Mouse Systems Corporation,

infrared light-emitting diodes and a four-quadrant infrared sensor

9 1981: Richard F. Lyon, 16-pixel visible-light image sensor with integrated motion detection, sold by Xerox

1980

9 optical mouse sensor, developed by Agilent Technologies

9 a tiny camera takes thousands of pictures every second

9 most optical mice use a small, red light-emitting diode

Optical Mouse

1999

Laser Mouse

9 1998 : Sun Microsystems 9 2004: Logitech with Agilent

Technologies introduced MX 1000 9 infrared laser instead of an LED 9 wireless mouse 1998

References:

¾ http://www.answers.com/ ¾ http://en.wikipedia.org/ ¾ http://computer.howstuffworks.com/ ¾ http://www.about.com ¾ http://www.osp.ru/ ¾ http://news.softpedia.com/

References:

¾ http://img.alibaba.com/ ¾ http://www.askoki.co.uk/ ¾ http://www.pctechguide.com/ ¾ http://www.askoki.co.uk/ ¾ http://www.parc.xerox.com/ ¾ http://www.new-tex.ru/

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