Standards and progression point examples

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English – Progressing towards Foundation

Progression Point 0.5

At 0.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Foundation may, for example:

English – Foundation Level Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

 explain the directionality of printed texts (ACELA1433 Concepts of print and screen)

 describe how word order in sentences is important for meaning, for example 'The boy sat on the dog', 'The dog sat on the boy' (ACELA1435 Sentences and clause level grammar)

 recognise the letters of the alphabet and identify lower and upper case (ACELA1440 Alphabet knowledge)

 explain how print and images contribute to meaning in texts (ACELA1786 Visual language)

 identify some characteristic features of literary texts, for example beginnings and endings of traditional texts, cultural patterns of storytelling, for example ‘Once upon a time’, ‘A long, long time ago’, ‘Before the Dreamtime…’ (ACELT1785 Features of literary texts)

 retell the events in a text in sequence (ACELT1578 Features of literary texts)

 monitor meaning when reading by selecting from a range of information sources and text features (ACELY1649 Reading processes)

Reading and viewing

By the end of the Foundation level, students use predicting and questioning strategies to make meaning from texts. They recall one or two events from texts with familiar topics. They

understand that there are different types of texts and that these can have similar

characteristics. They identify connections between texts and their personal experience. They read short predictable texts with familiar vocabulary and supportive images, drawing on their developing knowledge of concepts about print and sound and letters. They identify the letters of the English alphabet and use the sounds represented by most letters.

Writing

 write spoken sounds and words using letters of the alphabet and punctuation (ACELA1758 Spelling and ACELA1432 Punctuation)

 generate new words by changing an onset or rime (ACELA1438 Spelling)

 use sentences as the key unit for expressing their ideas (ACELA1435 Sentences and clause level grammar)

 retell a range of familiar literary texts through performance, use of illustrations or images (ACELT1580 Creating literary texts)

 communicate ideas and events in written texts (ACELY1651 Creating texts)

 apply concepts about print in their writing, for example left to right, top to bottom (ACELY1651 Creating texts)

 read back from their own writing to check that it communicates what they intended (ACELY1652 Editing)

 produce some lower and upper case letters using learned formations ( ACELY1653 Handwriting)

Writing

When writing, students use familiar words and phrases and images to convey ideas. Their writing shows evidence of sound and letter knowledge, beginning writing behaviours and experimentation with capital letters and full stops. They correctly form known upper- and lower-case letters.

Speaking and listening

 identify onset and rime in one-syllable spoken words (ACELA1439 Phonemic awareness)

 contribute ideas to discussions, selecting appropriate vocabulary, and accompanied by some appropriate non-verbal strategies, for example gesture and eye contact (ACELY1784 Listening and speaking interactions and ACELA1437 Vocabulary)

 talk about stories and authors, choosing favourites and discussing feelings about what happens in stories (ACELA1429 Evaluative language and ACELT1783 Expressing preferences and evaluating texts)

 replicate the rhythms and sound patterns in a range of stories, rhymes, songs or poems (ACELT1579 Language devices in literary texts)

 deliver short oral presentations to peers (ACELY1647 Oral presentations)

 ask simple questions in response to information presented by others (ACELY1646 Listening

Speaking and listening

They listen to and use appropriate language features to respond to others in a familiar environment. They listen for rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words. Students understand that their texts can reflect their own experiences. They identify and describe likes and dislikes about familiar texts, objects, characters and events. In informal group and whole class settings, students communicate clearly. They retell events and experiences with peers and known adults. They identify and use rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words.

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and speaking interactions)

 sequence ideas appropriately when speaking to others in familiar contexts (ACELY1647 Oral presentations)

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English – Progressing towards Level 1

English – Foundation Level Achievement Standard Progression Point F.5

At F.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 1 may, for example:

English – Level 1 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of the Foundation level, students use predicting and questioning strategies to make meaning from texts. They recall one or two events from texts with familiar topics. They understand that there are different types of texts and that these can have similar characteristics. They identify connections between texts and their personal experience. They read short predictable texts with familiar vocabulary and supportive images, drawing on their developing knowledge of concepts about print and sound and letters. They identify the letters of the English alphabet and use the sounds

represented by most letters.

Reading and viewing

 identify the parts of a simple sentence that represent ‘What’s happening?’, ‘Who or what is involved?’ and the surrounding circumstances (ACELA1451 Sentences and clause level grammar)

 identify and distinguish all uppercase and lowercase letters in the alphabet (ACELA1458 Alphabet knowledge)

 recognise common sound-letter correspondences (ACELA1458 Alphabet knowledge)

 recognise and use common vowel blends, for example ‘ae’ in cake, and consonant blends, for example ‘tr’ in train (ACELA1458 Alphabet knowledge)

 read and view supportive print and digital texts in a phrased and fluent manner, using a range of information sources and text features to develop and sustain meaning (ACELA1450 Concepts of print and screen and

ACELY1659 Reading processes)

 describe some differences between imaginative and informative texts (ACELY1658 Purpose and audience and ACELA1453 Visual language)

 identify and describe words that represent people, places and things (nouns, including pronouns), happenings and states (verbs), qualities (adjectives) and details such as when, where and how (adverbs) (ACELY1659 Reading processes and ACELA1452 Word level grammar)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 1, students understand the different purposes of texts. They make connections to personal experience when explaining characters and main events in short texts. They identify the language features, images and vocabulary used to describe characters and events. Students read aloud, with developing fluency and intonation, short texts with some unfamiliar vocabulary, simple and compound sentences and supportive images. When reading, they use knowledge of sounds and letters, high frequency words, sentence boundary punctuation and directionality to make meaning. They recall key ideas and recognise literal and implied meaning in texts.

Writing

When writing, students use familiar words and phrases and images to convey ideas. Their writing shows evidence of sound and letter knowledge, beginning writing behaviours and experimentation with capital letters and full stops. They correctly form known upper- and lower-case letters.

Writing

 use of common punctuation correctly including full stops, question marks and exclamation marks (ACELA1449 Punctuation)

 recognise and use some morphemes in word families to spell unfamiliar words, for example ‘play’ in ‘played’ and ‘playing’ (ACELA1455 Spelling)

 recreate texts imaginatively using a selection of drawing, writing, performance and digital forms of communication (ACELT1586 Creating literary texts)

 write one or more sentences for an imaginative or informative purpose, and using sentence-level grammar (ACELY1661 Creating texts)

 use illustrations and diagrams that support the intended meaning of writing (ACELY1661 Creating texts and

Writing

When writing, students provide details about ideas or events. They accurately spell words with regular spelling patterns and use capital letters and full stops. They correctly form all upper- and lower-case letters.

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ACELY1664 Computer programs)

 write words legibly, using unjoined print script of consistent size, using appropriate pencil grip (ACELY1663

Handwriting)

 add or delete words to improve meaning, for example adding an adjective to a noun (ACELY1662 Editing)

Speaking and listening

They listen to and use appropriate language features to respond to others in a familiar environment. They listen for rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words. Students understand that their texts can reflect their own experiences. They identify and describe likes and dislikes about familiar texts, objects, characters and events. In informal group and whole class settings, students communicate clearly. They retell events and experiences with peers and known adults. They identify and use rhyme, letter patterns and sounds in words.

Speaking and listening

 use appropriate vocabulary to express feelings and emotions (ACELA1787 Evaluative language)

 identify some features of characters and how particular words and images convey qualities of their nature, for example some characters are portrayed as shy, others adventurous (ACELT1581 How texts reflect the context of culture and situation in which they are created)

 discuss how plots develop including: beginnings

(orientation), how the problem (complication) is introduced and solved (resolution) (ACELT1584 Features of literary texts)

 consider how others might respond before expressing their views and how they might respond appropriately to others’ views (ACELY1656 and ACELY1788 Listening and speaking interactions and ACELA1445 Language for social interaction)

 take turns during group discussion (ACELY1656 and ACELY1788 Listening and speaking interactions and ACELA1445 Language for social interaction)

 apply active listening behaviours to a range of

conversations and discussions (ACELY1656 Listening and speaking interactions)

 provide simple explanations about how to do or make something (ACELY1657 Oral presentations)

Speaking and listening

They listen to others when taking part in conversations using appropriate language features. They listen for and reproduce letter patterns and letter clusters. Students understand how characters in texts are developed and give reasons for personal preferences. They create texts that show

understanding of the connection between writing, speech and images. They create short texts for a small range of purposes. They interact in pair, group and class discussions, taking turns when responding. They make short presentations of a few connected sentences on familiar and learned topics.

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English – Progressing towards Level 2

English – Level 1 Achievement Standard Progression Point 1.5

At 1.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 2 may, for example:

English – Level 2 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 1, students understand the different purposes of texts. They make connections to personal experience when explaining characters and main events in short texts. They identify the language features, images and vocabulary used to describe characters and events. Students read aloud, with developing fluency and intonation, short texts with some unfamiliar vocabulary, simple and compound sentences and supportive images. When reading, they use knowledge of sounds and letters, high frequency words, sentence boundary punctuation and directionality to make meaning. They recall key ideas and recognise literal and implied meaning in texts.

 identify and explain the typical text structures of a range of text types, for example simple narratives, instructions and expositions (ACELA1463 Purpose, audience and

structures of different types of texts)

 identify nouns that represent people, places, things and ideas and can be, for example, common, proper, concrete or abstract (ACELA1468 Word level grammar)

 recognise a wide range of letter/sound correspondences including some silent letters, vowel/consonant diagraphs and less common sound-letter combinations (ACELA1474 Sound and letter knowledge)

 identify sentences that contain more than one idea (ACELA1467 Sentence and clause level grammar)

 discuss language used to describe characters and settings within and across texts and how these support meaning (ACELT1591 Features of literary texts)

 use some comprehension strategies to build literal and inferred meaning, for example making connections between information in print and images or building on and using prior knowledge and vocabulary (ACELY1670 Comprehension strategies)

 read less predictable texts in a phrased and fluent manner, using a range of information sources and text features to monitor meaning and self-correct (ACELY1669 Reading processes)

 use punctuation to support phrasing and fluency when reading aloud, for example recognition of capital letters to signal proper nouns and commas to separate items in lists (ACELY1669 Reading processes)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 2 students understand how similar texts share characteristics by identifying text structures and language features used to describe characters, settings and events. They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, some unfamiliar vocabulary, a significant number of high frequency sight words and images that provide additional information. They monitor meaning and self-correct using context, prior knowledge, punctuation, language and phonic knowledge. They identify literal and implied meaning, main ideas and supporting detail. Students make connections between texts by comparing content.

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Writing

When writing, students provide details about ideas or events. They accurately spell words with regular spelling patterns and use capital letters and full stops. They correctly form all upper- and lower-case letters.

Writing

 spell words correctly, using knowledge of sound–letter patterns, visual memory and syllabification (ACELA1471 Spelling)

 identify and use punctuation, including full stops, question marks, exclamation marks, commas and capital letters (ACELA1465 Punctuation)

 create imaginative reconstructions of stories and poetry using a range of print and digital media (ACELT1593 Creating literary texts)

 sequence content according to the text structure (ACELY1671 Creating texts)

 select language features, for example simple and compound sentences, to express and combine ideas appropriate to audience and purpose (ACELY1671 Creating texts)

 use vocabulary, including technical vocabulary, appropriate to text type and purpose (ACELY1671 Creating texts)

 use strategies to reread, revise and edit writing for spelling, punctuation and/or text structure, for example reading aloud, use of feedback from others (ACELY1672 Editing)

Writing

Students create texts that show how images support the meaning of the text. They accurately spell familiar words and attempt to spell less familiar words and use punctuation accurately. They legibly write unjoined upper- and lower-case letters.

Speaking and listening

They listen to others when taking part in conversations using appropriate language features. They listen for and reproduce letter patterns and letter clusters. Students understand how characters in texts are developed and give reasons for personal preferences. They create texts that show

understanding of the connection between writing, speech and images. They create short texts for a small range of purposes. They interact in pair, group and class discussions, taking turns when responding. They make short presentations of a few connected sentences on familiar and learned topics.

Speaking and listening

 use language appropriate to different social and classroom interactions (ACELA1461 Language for social interactions)

 identify and use language for appreciating texts and the qualities of people and things (ACELA1462 Evaluative language)

 discuss opinions about characters, events and/or settings in texts (ACELT1589 Personal responses to the ideas, characters and viewpoints in texts)

 discuss how characters reflect the contexts in which they were created, for example a particular situation or culture (ACELT1587 How texts reflect the context of culture and situation in which they are created)

 respond appropriately to others contributions, including selecting from positive statements and voicing

disagreement (ACELY1666 and ACELY1789 Listening and speaking interactions)

 create spoken texts, including selecting from more formal speech and specific vocabulary to match purpose (ACELY1667 Oral presentations)

 modify tone and pace of speaking when communicating with others (ACELY1789 Listening and speaking interactions)

Speaking and listening

They listen for particular purposes. They listen for and manipulate sound combinations and rhythmic sound patterns. When discussing their ideas and experiences, students use everyday language features and topic-specific vocabulary. They explain their preferences for aspects of texts using other texts as comparisons. They create texts that show how images support the meaning of the text. Students create texts, drawing on their own experiences, their imagination and information they have learned. Students use a variety of strategies to engage in group and class discussions and make presentations.

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English – Progressing towards Level 3

English – Level 2 Achievement Standard Progression Point 2.5

At 2.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 3 may, for example:

English – Level 3 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 2 students understand how similar texts share characteristics by identifying text structures and language features used to describe characters, settings and events. They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, some unfamiliar vocabulary, a significant number of high frequency sight words and images that provide additional information. They monitor meaning and self-correct using context, prior knowledge, punctuation, language and phonic knowledge. They identify literal and implied meaning, main ideas and supporting detail. Students make connections between texts by comparing content.

 become familiar with typical text structures and language features of various types of text, for example narratives, procedures, reports, reviews and expositions (ACELA1478 Purpose, audience and structures of different types of texts)

 identify the effect on audiences of a selection of visual techniques (ACELA1483 Visual language)

 develop criteria for establishing personal preferences for literature (ACELT1598 Expressing preferences and evaluating texts)

 identify and discuss the use of descriptive adjectives (‘in the middle of a vast, bare plain’) to establish setting and atmosphere (‘the castle loomed dark and forbidding’) and to draw readers into events that follow (ACELT1599 Features of literary texts)

 read and view an increasing range of different types of texts by combining contextual, semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge, using text processing strategies, for example monitoring, predicting, confirming, rereading, reading on and self-correcting (ACELY1679 Reading processes)

 identify an author’s purpose for writing a text, for example, to entertain, to inform, to persuade, and evaluate how well the text achieved its purpose (ACELY1678 Purpose and audience)

 use text features and search tools to locate information in written and digital texts efficiently (ACELY1680

Comprehension strategies)

 make considered inferences taking into account, for example, topic knowledge or a person’s likely actions and feelings (ACELY1680 Comprehension strategies)

comprehend and evaluate texts by, for example, drawing on knowledge of the topic, subject-specific vocabulary and experience of texts on the same topic (ACELY1680 Comprehension strategies)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 3, students understand how content can be organised using different text structures depending on the purpose of the text. They understand how language features, images and vocabulary choices are used for different effects. They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, a range of punctuation conventions, and images that provide additional information. They identify literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different parts of a text. They select information, ideas and events in texts that relate to their own lives and to other texts.

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Writing

Students create texts that show how images support the meaning of the text. They accurately spell familiar words and attempt to spell less familiar words and use punctuation accurately. They legibly write unjoined upper- and lower-case letters.

Writing

 write sentences in which the subject and verb are in agreement (ACELA1481 Sentences and clause level meaning)

 use verbs to represent different processes (doing, thinking, saying, and relating) (ACELA1482 Word level grammar)

 know that contractions are a feature of informal language (ACELA1480 Punctuation)

 use knowledge of a range of spelling rules, including compound words, prefixes, suffixes, morphemes and sound-letter relationships (ACELA1485 Spelling)

 use action and saying verbs in narrative texts to give information about what characters do and say, and sensing verbs to allow readers to know what characters think and feel (ACELA1482 Word level grammar and ACELT1601 Creating literary texts)

 create sequenced imaginative, informative and persuasive texts in print and multimodal forms, selecting an

appropriate text structure for the purpose, for example paragraphs (ACELY1682 Creating texts)

 use simple, compound and complex sentences to express and combine ideas (ACELY1682 Creating texts)

Writing

Their texts include writing and images to express and develop in some detail experiences, events, information, ideas and characters. They demonstrate understanding of grammar and choose vocabulary and punctuation appropriate to the purpose and context of their writing. They use knowledge of sounds and high frequency words to spell words accurately, checking their work for meaning. They legibly write using consistently sized joined letters.

Speaking and listening

They listen for particular purposes. They listen for and manipulate sound combinations and rhythmic sound patterns. When discussing their ideas and experiences, students use everyday language features and topic-specific vocabulary. They explain their preferences for aspects of texts using other texts as comparisons. They create texts that show how images support the meaning of the text. Students create texts, drawing on their own experiences, their imagination and information they have learned. Students use a variety of strategies to engage in group and class discussions and make presentations.

Speaking and listening

 identify and use modal verbs, for example ‘must’, ‘might’,’ or ‘could’, to indicate, for example degrees of certainty, command or obligation (ACELA1477 Evaluative language)

 discuss texts in which characters, events and settings are portrayed in different ways, identifying variations in the storyline (ACELT1594 How texts reflect the context of culture and situation in which they are created)

 select and sequence key ideas and information in short presentations (ACELY1677 Oral presentations)

 communicate in a clear, coherent manner in informal and classroom situations (ACELY1792 Listening and speaking interactions)

 contribution of relevant ideas to discussions and asking of questions to clarify meaning (ACELY1676 Listening and speaking interactions)

 listen actively and take turns in small or large-group contexts (ACELY1792 Listening and speaking interactions)

Speaking and listening

Students listen to others’ views and respond appropriately. They understand how language features are used to link and sequence ideas. They understand how language can be used to express feelings and opinions on topics. They create a range of texts for familiar and unfamiliar audiences. They contribute actively to class and group discussions, asking questions, providing useful feedback and making presentations.

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English – Progressing towards Level 4

English – Level 3 Achievement Standard Progression Point 3.5

At 3.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 4may, for example:

English – Level 4 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 3, students understand how content can be organised using different text structures depending on the purpose of the text. They understand how language features, images and vocabulary choices are used for different effects. They read texts that contain varied sentence structures, a range of punctuation conventions, and images that provide additional information. They identify literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different parts of a text. They select information, ideas and events in texts that relate to their own lives and to other texts.

Reading and viewing

 identify and explain how adverb group/phrases and prepositional phrases provide details of the circumstances surrounding a happening or state (for example, ‘At midnight (time) he rose slowly (manner) from the chair (place) and went upstairs (place)’ (ACELA1495 Word level grammar)

 read and view different types of texts, identifying how they vary in either complexity and technicality, depending on either the approach to the topic, the purpose and the intended audience (ACELY1691 Reading processes and ACELA1490 Purpose, audience and structures of different types of texts)

 identify and explain a range of devices and deliberate word play in poetry and other literary texts, for example

nonsense words, spoonerisms, neologisms and puns (ACELT1606 Language devices)

 recognise how authors and illustrators choose techniques to hold a readers’ attention and elicit an emotional response (ACELT1605 Features of literary texts)

 monitor meaning, for example by note-taking and recording of key information from a range of texts (ACELY1691 Reading processes)

 build literal and inferred meaning to analyse and evaluate texts, for example make inferences about a persons’ motivations and intentions consider how this impacts on the audience (ACELY1692 Comprehension strategies)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 4, students understand that texts have different structures depending on the purpose and audience. They explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to engage the interest of audiences. They describe literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different texts. They express preferences for particular texts, and respond to others’ viewpoints.

Writing

Their texts include writing and images to express and develop in some detail experiences, events, information, ideas and characters. They demonstrate understanding of grammar and choose vocabulary and punctuation appropriate to the purpose and context of their writing. They use knowledge of sounds and high frequency words to spell words accurately, checking their work for meaning. They legibly write using consistently sized joined letters.

Writing

 use linking devices, for example, using pronouns to refer back to noun groups/phrases (ACELA1491 Texts cohesion)

 use quotation marks to correctly signal dialogue, titles or quoted (direct) speech (ACELA1492 Punctuation)

 use a range of strategies for spelling words, for example spelling rules, knowledge of morphemic word families, spelling generalisations, and letter combinations including double letters (ACELA1779 Spelling)

 experiment with a range of devices and deliberate word play in poetry and other literary texts, for example

Writing

Students use language features to create coherence and add detail to their texts. They understand how to express an opinion based on information in a text. They create texts that show understanding of how images and detail can be used to extend key ideas. Students create structured texts to explain ideas for different audiences. They demonstrate

understanding of grammar, select vocabulary from a range of resources and use accurate spelling and punctuation, editing their work to improve meaning.

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nonsense words, spoonerisms, neologisms and puns (ACELT1606 Literary devices)

 create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts for a widening range of audiences demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features (ACELY1694 Creating texts)

 create texts that take account of the needs and interests of familiar and some unfamiliar audiences (ACELY1694 Creating texts)

 use a range of software to combine print, audio and visual elements to construct and publish texts (ACELY1697 Use of software)

 write using correctly-formed joined letters that have been taught, for example joining to ascenders and descenders, with increased fluency and automaticity (ACELY1696 Handwriting)

Speaking and listening

Students listen to others’ views and respond appropriately. They understand how language features are used to link and sequence ideas. They understand how language can be used to express feelings and opinions on topics. They create a range of texts for familiar and unfamiliar audiences. They contribute actively to class and group discussions, asking questions, providing useful feedback and making presentations.

Speaking and listening

 discuss a response to or point of view about the effect of literary techniques (ACELT1603 Personal responses to the ideas, characters and viewpoints in texts)

 plan, rehearse and deliver presentations incorporating learned content and taking into account the particular purposes and audiences (ACELY1689 Oral presentations)

 communicate relevant information and responses to questions when speaking to others in a range of familiar contexts (ACELY1688 Listening and speaking interactions)

 use of an increasing range of vocal effects, for example tone, pace, pitch and volume, to speak clearly and coherently (ACELY1688 Listening and speaking interactions)

 listen attentively to spoken texts, for key points in order to interpret and share ideas and information, and carry out tasks (ACELY1687 Listening and speaking interactions)

Speaking and listening

Students listen for key points in discussions. They use language features to create coherence and add detail to their texts. They understand how to express an opinion based on information in a text. They create texts that show

understanding of how images and detail can be used to extend key ideas. Students create structured texts to explain ideas for different audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, varying language according to context.

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English – Progressing towards Level 5

English – Level 4 Achievement Standard Progression Point 4.5

At 4.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 5 may, for example:

English – Level 5 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 4, students understand that texts have different structures depending on the purpose and audience. They explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to engage the interest of audiences. They describe literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different texts. They express preferences for particular texts, and respond to others’ viewpoints.

Reading and viewing

 identify the typical structures and language features of a range of text types for example narrative, procedure, exposition, explanation, discussion and informative (ACELA1504 Purpose, audience and structures of different types of texts)

 describe how aspects of literary texts can convey information about cultural elements, such as beliefs, traditions and customs (ACELT1608 How texts reflect the context of culture and situation in which they are created)

 identify and explain characteristic text structures and language features used in a range of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text (ACELY1701 Purpose and audience)

 analyse, for example by making connections between ideas and information in and across texts to clarify understanding, and synthesise ideas and information from print and digital sources (ACELY1703 Comprehension strategies)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 5, students explain how text structures assist in understanding the text. They understand how language features, images and vocabulary influence interpretations of characters, settings and events. They analyse and explain literal and implied information from a variety of texts. They describe how events, characters and settings in texts are depicted and explain their own responses to them.

Writing

Students use language features to create coherence and add detail to their texts. They understand how to express an opinion based on information in a text. They create texts that show understanding of how images and detail can be used to extend key ideas. Students create structured texts to explain ideas for different audiences. They demonstrate

understanding of grammar, select vocabulary from a range of resources and use accurate spelling and punctuation, editing their work to improve meaning.

Writing

 use vocabulary to create precise meaning, and select words appropriate to the context (ACELA1512 Vocabulary)

 form the possessive by adding just the apostrophe to regular plural nouns ending in ‘s’ (ACELA1506 Punctuation)

 use noun groups to provide a fuller description of a person, place, thing or idea appropriate to the purpose and audience (ACELA1508 Word level grammar)

 create literary text using settings or characters that draw on the worlds from texts students have experienced or read in class (ACELT1612 Creating literary texts)

 plan, draft and publish a selection of imaginative, informative and persuasive print and multimodal texts, choosing texts structures and language features appropriate to purpose and audience (ACELY1704 Creating texts)

 develop agreed criteria for text structure and language features to edit own and others’ work (ACELY1705 Editing)

Writing

Students use language features to show how ideas can be extended. They develop and explain a point of view about a text. They create a variety of sequenced texts for different purposes and audiences. When writing, they demonstrate understanding of grammar, select specific vocabulary and use accurate spelling and punctuation, editing their work to provide structure and meaning.

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Speaking and listening

Students listen for key points in discussions. They use language features to create coherence and add detail to their texts. They understand how to express an opinion based on information in a text. They create texts that show

understanding of how images and detail can be used to extend key ideas. Students create structured texts to explain ideas for different audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, varying language according to context.

Speaking and listening

 temper bare assertions by using, for example, distancing, recruiting anonymous support, indicating a general or specific source of opinion (ACELA1502 Evaluative language)

 present a point of view about particular literary texts using metalanguage, for example simile, metaphor and personification (ACELT1609 Personal responses to the ideas, characters and viewpoints in texts)

 sequence ideas logically and providing supporting detail, including graphics, sound and visuals to enhance audience engagement and understanding (ACELY1700 Oral presentations)

 ask relevant questions to clarify meaning of others’ presentations or contributions to discussions (ACELY1796 Listening and speaking interactions)

 experiment with voice effects in formal presentations such as tone, volume, pitch and pace, recognising the effects these have on audience understanding (ACELY1796)

Speaking and listening

Students listen and ask questions to clarify content. They use language features to show how ideas can be extended. They develop and explain a point of view about a text selecting information, ideas and images from a range of resources. They create a variety of sequenced texts for different purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, taking into account other perspectives.

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English – Progressing towards Level 6

English – Level 5 Achievement Standard Progression Point 5.5

At 5.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 6 may, for example:

English – Level 6 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 5, students explain how text structures assist in understanding the text. They understand how language features, images and vocabulary influence interpretations of characters, settings and events. They analyse and explain literal and implied information from a variety of texts. They describe how events, characters and settings in texts are depicted and explain their own responses to them.

Reading and viewing

 identify and explain how language choices are used to influence personal responses to texts, for example modality can be used to opened up degrees of possibility through the use of a selection of modal verbs, adverbs, adjectives and nouns (ACELT1615 Expressing preferences and evaluating texts)

 analyse the similarities or differences in literary texts on similar topics, themes or plots, for example, the use of a first-person or third-person narrator (ACELT1614 Personal responses to the ideas, characters and viewpoints in texts)

 compare the structures and features of different texts with a similar purpose (ACELY1711 Purpose and audience)

 use of a variety of comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas; for example, reviewing, summarising, asking questions or predicting, (ACELY1713 Comprehension strategies)

 identify and analyse strategies authors use language to influence the reader (ACELY1801 Analysing and evaluating texts)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 6, students understand how the use of text structures can achieve particular effects. They analyse and explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used by different authors to represent ideas, characters and events. They compare and analyse information in different texts, explaining literal and implied meaning. They select and use evidence from a text to explain their response to it.

Writing

Students use language features to show how ideas can be extended. They develop and explain a point of view about a text. They create a variety of sequenced texts for different purposes and audiences. When writing, they demonstrate understanding of grammar, select specific vocabulary and use accurate spelling and punctuation, editing their work to provide structure and meaning.

Writing

 use either omission or substitution to create cohesive links in texts (ACELA1520 Text cohesion)

 use the subordinate clause in complex sentences to elaborate, extend or explain ideas (ACELA1522 Sentence and clause level grammar)

 select vocabulary to express shades of meaning, feeling or opinion (ACELA1525 Vocabulary)

 use of a selection of banks of known words, word origins, base words, suffixes and prefixes, morphemes, spelling patterns and generalisations to learn and spell new words (ACELA1526 Spelling)

 plan, draft and publish a range of texts appropriate to purpose and audience, choosing and experimenting with text structures, language features, images or digital resources (ACELT1714 Creating texts)

Writing

Students understand how language features and language patterns can be used for emphasis. They show how specific details can be used to support a point of view. They explain how their choices of language features and images are used. They create detailed texts elaborating upon key ideas for a range of purposes and audiences. They demonstrate

understanding of grammar, make considered choices from an expanding vocabulary, use, accurate spelling and punctuation for clarity and make and explain editorial choices.

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Speaking and listening

Students listen and ask questions to clarify content. They use language features to show how ideas can be extended. They develop and explain a point of view about a text selecting information, ideas and images from a range of resources. They create a variety of sequenced texts for different purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, taking into account other perspectives.

Speaking and listening

 use strategies and skills for interaction to match increasing formality (ACELA1516 Language for social interaction, ACELY1816 Listening and speaking interactions)

 plan, rehearse and deliver of presentations for defined audiences and purposes, with attention to making choices for modality and emphasis (ACELY1710 Oral

presentations)

 use of open or closed questions in discussions depending on the purpose (ACELY1709 Listening and speaking interactions)

 experiment with voice effects for different audiences and purposes, such as tone, volume, pitch and pace, recognising the effects these have on audience understanding and engagement (ACELY1816 Listening and speaking interactions)

Speaking and listening

Students listen to discussions, clarifying content and challenging others’ ideas. They understand how language features and language patterns can be used for emphasis. They show how specific details can be used to support a point of view. They explain how their choices of language features and images are used. They create detailed texts, elaborating on key ideas for a range of purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using a variety of strategies for effect.

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English – Progressing towards Level 7

English – Level 6 Achievement Standard Progression Point 6.5

At 6.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 7 may, for example:

English – Level 7 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 6, students understand how the use of text structures can achieve particular effects. They analyse and explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used by different authors to represent ideas, characters and events. They compare and analyse information in different texts, explaining literal and implied meaning. They select and use evidence from a text to explain their response to it.

Reading and viewing

 identify and explain how the text structures and language features become more complex in informative and persuasive texts (ACELA1531 Purpose, audience and structures of different types of texts)

 evaluate texts, using references, either to the text or other sources (ACELA1782 Evaluative language)

 recognise and analyse the ways that characterisation, events and settings are combined in narratives (ACELT1622 Features of literary texts)

 interpret and discuss how language is compressed to produce a dramatic effect in film or drama or to create layers of meaning in poetry (ACELT1621 Language devices in literary texts including figurative language)

 use prior knowledge and text processing strategies to interpret a range of types of texts (ACELY1722 Reading processes)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 7, students understand how text structures can influence the complexity of a text and are dependent on audience, purpose and context. They demonstrate understanding of how the choice of language features, images and vocabulary affects meaning. They explain issues and ideas from a variety of sources, analysing supporting evidence and implied meaning. They select specific details from texts to develop their own response, recognising that texts reflect different viewpoints.

Writing

Students understand how language features and language patterns can be used for emphasis. They show how specific details can be used to support a point of view. They explain how their choices of language features and images are used. They create detailed texts elaborating upon key ideas for a range of purposes and audiences. They demonstrate

understanding of grammar, make considered choices from an expanding vocabulary, use, accurate spelling and punctuation for clarity and make and explain editorial choices.

Writing

 use a selection of devices to create text structure for example overviews, initial and concluding paragraphs and topic sentences, indexes or site maps or breadcrumb trails for online texts (ACELA1763 Text cohesion)

 expand noun groups, including through the use of embedded subordinate clauses (ACELA1534 Sentences and clause level grammar)

 use a selection of modal verbs, adverbs, adjectives and nouns to achieve a sense of certainty, probability and obligation (ACELA1536 Word level grammar)

 create literary texts that adapt stylistic features

encountered in a range of other texts studied, for example, narrative viewpoint, structure of stanzas, contrast and juxtaposition (ACELT1625 Creating literary texts)

 plan, draft and publish a range of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, selecting aspects of subject matter and particular language, visual, and audio features to

Writing

Students understand how the selection of a variety of language features can influence an audience. They understand how to draw on personal knowledge, textual analysis and other sources to express or challenge a point of view. They create texts showing how language features, text structures, and images from other texts can be combined for effect. They create structured and coherent texts for a range of purposes and audiences. When creating and editing texts they demonstrate understanding of grammar, use a variety of more specialised vocabulary, use accurate spelling and punctuation.

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convey information and ideas ( ACELY1725 Creating texts)

 use of a range of strategies to edit for meaning, for example removing repetition, refining ideas, reordering sentences and adding or substituting words for impact (ACELY1726 Editing)

Speaking and listening

Students listen to discussions, clarifying content and challenging others’ ideas. They understand how language features and language patterns can be used for emphasis. They show how specific details can be used to support a point of view. They explain how their choices of language features and images are used. They create detailed texts, elaborating on key ideas for a range of purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using a variety of strategies for effect.

Speaking and listening

 investigate changes in word use and meaning over time and some of the reasons for these changes, for example the influence on spelling and vocabulary of new forms of communication (ACELT1528 Language variation and change)

 identify and explain differences between ideas and points of view in texts (ACELT1619 How texts reflect the context of culture and situation in which they are created)

 use of multimodal elements to support meaning in presentations for a variety of purposes and audiences (ACELY1720 Oral presentations)

 select voice effects for different audiences and purposes, such as tone, volume, pitch and pace, recognising the effects these have on audience understanding and engagement (ACELY1804 Listening and speaking interactions)

Speaking and listening

Students listen for and explain different perspectives in texts. They understand how the selection of a variety of language features can influence an audience. They understand how to draw on personal knowledge, textual analysis and other sources to express or challenge a point of view. They create texts showing how language features and images from other texts can be combined for effect. They create texts structured and coherent texts for a range purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using language features to engage the audience.

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English – Progressing towards Level 8

English – Level 7 Achievement Standard Progression Point 7.5

At 7.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 8 may, for example:

English – Level 8 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 7, students understand how text structures can influence the complexity of a text and are dependent on audience, purpose and context. They demonstrate understanding of how the choice of language features, images and vocabulary affects meaning. They explain issues and ideas from a variety of sources, analysing supporting evidence and implied meaning. They select specific details from texts to develop their own response, recognising that texts reflect different viewpoints.

Reading and viewing

 analyse how vocabulary choices contribute to the specificity, abstraction and style of texts, including nominalisation (ACELA1547 Vocabulary)

 identify a selection of examples, quotations and

substantiation of claims used in paragraphs (ACELA1766 Text cohesion)

 explain how tone, for example serious, bitter, sincere, amused, indicates attitude to the subject and to

readers/listeners, who can identify or judge tone through past experience and language clues in the text

(ACELT1630 Language devices in literary texts including figurative language)

 compare attitudes and ideas in texts drawn from contexts that are different to students’ own (ACELT1626 How texts reflect the context of culture and situation in which they are created)

 evaluate content by connecting and comparing information found in a text to knowledge sourced elsewhere

(ACELY1734 Comprehension strategies)

 compare representations of different social groups in texts drawn from different modes and media, for example comparing contemporary representations of homeless people with romantic representations of the swagman and the impact of these representations on the audience (ACELY1735 Analysing and evaluating)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 8, students understand how the selection of text structures is influenced by the selection of language mode and how this varies for different purposes and

audiences. They explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to represent different ideas and issues in texts. They interpret texts, questioning the reliability of sources of ideas and information. They select evidence from the text to show how events, situations and people can be represented from different viewpoints.

Writing

Students understand how the selection of a variety of language features can influence an audience. They understand how to draw on personal knowledge, textual analysis and other sources to express or challenge a point of view. They create texts showing how language features, text structures, and images from other texts can be combined for effect. They create structured and coherent texts for a range of purposes and audiences. When creating and editing texts they demonstrate understanding of grammar, use a variety of more specialised vocabulary, use accurate spelling and punctuation.

Writing

 use cohesive devices, for example lexical cohesion, ellipsis, grammatical theme and text connectives, when writing complex texts (ACELA1546 Text cohesion)

 create a range of literary texts that draw upon text structures and language features of other texts for particular purposes and effects (ACELT1632 Creating literary texts)

 create a range of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts that raise issues, report events and advance opinions, using deliberate language and textual choices, and including digital elements as appropriate (ACELY1736 Creating texts)

Writing

Students understand how the selection of language features can be used for particular purposes and effects. They explain the effectiveness of language choices they use to influence the audience. Through combining ideas, images and language features from other texts students show how ideas can be expressed in new ways. They create texts for different purposes selecting language to influence audience response. When creating and editing texts for specific effects, they take into account intended purposes and the needs and interests of audiences. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, select vocabulary for effect and use accurate spelling and punctuation.

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 create and perform scripts for short plays that make use of the affordances of visual, verbal and additional modes (for example music) to create atmosphere, to deepen

interpretation of verbal meaning and to enhance the drama of a performance (ACELY1768 Experimentation and adaptation)

 use of a range of software to create, edit and publish texts (ACELY1738 Use of software)

Speaking and listening

Students listen for and explain different perspectives in texts. They understand how the selection of a variety of language features can influence an audience. They understand how to draw on personal knowledge, textual analysis and other sources to express or challenge a point of view. They create texts showing how language features and images from other texts can be combined for effect. They create texts structured and coherent texts for a range purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using language features to engage the audience.

Speaking and listening

 investigate borrowings from a range of languages into English, for example from French and Italian (ACELA1540 Language variation and change)

 discuss the relative merits of literary texts and comparing and evaluating personal viewpoints on texts (ACELT1627 Personal responses to the ideas, characters and

viewpoints in texts)

 present ideas in particular ways to appeal to different audiences, using research to support the approach (ACELY1731 Oral presentations)

 use a selection of rhetorical devices to persuade audiences; for example, irony, hyperbole, parody or understatement (ACELY1731 Oral presentations and ACELA1542 Evaluative language)

 use evidence to support or challenge different perspectives (ACELY1730 Listening and speaking interactions)

Speaking and listening

Students listen for and identify different emphases in texts, using that understanding to elaborate upon discussions. They understand how the selection of language features can be used for particular purposes and effects. They explain the effectiveness of language choices they use to influence the audience. Through combining ideas, images and language features from other texts students show how ideas can be expressed in new ways. They create texts for different purposes selecting language to influence audience response. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using language patterns for effect.

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English – Progressing towards Level 9

English – Level 8 Achievement Standard Progression Point 8.5

At 8.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 9 may, for example:

English – Level 9 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 8, students understand how the selection of text structures is influenced by the selection of language mode and how this varies for different purposes and

audiences. They explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to represent different ideas and issues in texts. They interpret texts, questioning the reliability of sources of ideas and information. They select evidence from the text to show how events, situations and people can be represented from different viewpoints.

Reading and viewing

 compare texts that use evaluative language in different ways and identifying wordings that appraise things indirectly, through evocative language, similes and metaphors that direct the views of the readers in particular ways (ACELA1552 Evaluative language)

 compare and contrast vocabulary choices across texts, considering how they are used to create precise

information, abstract ideas and/or stylistic interpretations of texts (ACELA1561 Vocabulary)

 identify a selection of language devices, for example extended metaphor, metonymy, allegory, icons, myths and symbolism, and considering how their use adds to

meaning and may also influence the emotional responses of listeners or readers, in varying ways (ACELT1637 Language devices in literary texts including figurative language)

 explore and analyse representations of values (for example love, freedom, integrity) in literature drawn from cultures and times different from the students’ own (ACELT1633 How texts reflect the context)

 analyse and interpret assumptions that have shaped or influenced representations of people, places, events and things in texts (ACELY1742 Purpose and audience)

 analyse and explain the combinations of language and visual choices that authors make to present information, opinions and perspectives in selected texts (ACELY1745 Analysing and evaluating texts)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 9, students analyse the ways that text structures can be manipulated for effect. They analyse and explain how images, vocabulary choices and language features distinguish the work of individual authors. They evaluate and integrate ideas and information from texts to form their own interpretations. They select evidence from the text to analyse and explain how language choices and conventions are used to influence an audience.

Writing

Students understand how the selection of language features can be used for particular purposes and effects. They explain the effectiveness of language choices they use to influence the audience. Through combining ideas, images and language features from other texts students show how ideas can be expressed in new ways. They create texts for different purposes selecting language to influence audience response. When creating and editing texts for specific effects, they take into account intended purposes and the needs and interests of audiences. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, select vocabulary for effect and use accurate spelling and

Writing

 use abstract nouns to summarise preceding or subsequent stretches of text (ACELA1559 Word level grammar)

 use colons and semicolons in expositions and other extended writing to improve precision and clarity of expression (ACELA1556 Punctuation)

 create a range of literary texts that innovate on aspects of other texts such as structures and literary devices (ACELT1773 Creating literary text)

 create a range of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts that present a point of view and advance or illustrate

Writing

Students understand how to use a variety of language features to create different levels of meaning. They

understand how interpretations can vary by comparing their responses to texts to the responses of others. In creating texts students demonstrate how manipulating language features and images can create innovative texts. They create texts that respond to issues interpreting and integrating ideas from other texts. They edit for effect, selecting vocabulary and grammar that contribute to the precision and persuasiveness of texts and using accurate spelling and punctuation.

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punctuation. arguments (ACELY1746 Creating texts)

 review and edit students’ own and others’ texts to improve clarity and control over content, organisation,

paragraphing, sentence structure, vocabulary and audio/visual features (ACELY1747 Editing)

Speaking and listening

Students listen for and identify different emphases in texts, using that understanding to elaborate upon discussions. They understand how the selection of language features can be used for particular purposes and effects. They explain the effectiveness of language choices they use to influence the audience. Through combining ideas, images and language features from other texts students show how ideas can be expressed in new ways. They create texts for different purposes selecting language to influence audience response. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using language patterns for effect.

Speaking and listening

 discuss differences in English usage over time (ACELA1550 Language variation and change)

 discuss and analyse different responses to literature, comparing what is valued (ACELT1634 Expressing preference and evaluating texts)

 plan, rehearse and deliver presentations that demonstrate an understanding of audience and purpose (ACELY1741 Oral presentations)

 use a range of interaction skills to present and discuss an idea and to influence and engage an audience by selecting persuasive language, varying voice tone, pitch, and pace, and using elements such as music and sound effects (ACELY1811 Listening and speaking interactions)

 identify moral and ethical dimensions of issue/s

represented in spoken texts, and analyse how these align or contradict with personal and others’ perspectives (ACELY1740)

Speaking and listening

They listen for ways texts position an audience. They understand how to use a variety of language features to create different levels of meaning. They understand how interpretations can vary by comparing their responses to texts to the responses of others. In creating texts, students

demonstrate how manipulating language features and images can create innovative texts. They create texts that respond to issues, interpreting and integrating ideas from texts. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, comparing and evaluating responses to ideas and issues.

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English – Progressing towards Level 10

English – Level 9 Achievement Standard Progression Point 9.5

At 9.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 10 may, for example:

English – Level 10 Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 9, students analyse the ways that text structures can be manipulated for effect. They analyse and explain how images, vocabulary choices and language features distinguish the work of individual authors. They evaluate and integrate ideas and information from texts to form their own interpretations. They select evidence from the text to analyse and explain how language choices and conventions are used to influence an audience.

Reading and viewing

 interpret texts by drawing on knowledge of the historical context in which texts were created (ACELA1565 Evaluative language)

 evaluate the impact of different choices in the

representation of still and moving images (ACELA1572 Visual language)

 investigate the structure and language of similar text types presented in different media and how these are influenced by different technological affordances (ACELA1566 Purpose, audience and structures)

 compare and evaluate a range of representations of individuals and groups in different historical, social and cultural contexts, through language, structural and or visual choices (ACELT1639 How texts reflect the context of culture and situation in which they are created and ACELY1749 Texts and the contexts in which they are used)

 identify and analyse implicit or explicit values, beliefs and assumptions in text and how these are influenced by purposes and likely audiences (ACELY1752 Purpose and audience)

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 10, students evaluate how text structures can be used in innovative ways by different authors. They explain how the choice of language features, images and vocabulary contributes to the development of individual style. They develop and justify their own interpretations of texts. They evaluate other interpretations, analysing the evidence used to support them.

Writing

Students understand how to use a variety of language features to create different levels of meaning. They

understand how interpretations can vary by comparing their responses to texts to the responses of others. In creating texts students demonstrate how manipulating language features and images can create innovative texts. They create texts that respond to issues interpreting and integrating ideas from other texts. They edit for effect, selecting vocabulary and grammar that contribute to the precision and persuasiveness of texts and using accurate spelling and punctuation.

Writing

 refine vocabulary choices to discriminate between shades of meaning, with deliberate attention to the effect on audiences (ACELA1571 Vocabulary)

 select language features to develop higher order concepts in complex texts, for example nominalisation, clause combinations, technicality and abstraction (ACELY1570 Word level grammar)

 create a range of literary texts with a sustained ‘voice’, selecting and adapting appropriate text structures, literary devices, language, auditory and visual structures and features for a specific purpose and intended audience (ACELT1814 Creating literary texts)

 create a range of sustained multimodal texts, for imaginative, informative, or persuasive purposes, that reflect challenging and complex issues (ACELY1756 Creating texts)

Writing

Students show how the selection of language features can achieve precision and stylistic effect. They explain different viewpoints, attitudes and perspectives through the

development of cohesive and logical arguments. They develop their own style by experimenting with language features, stylistic devices, text structures and images. They create a wide range of texts to articulate complex ideas. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, vary vocabulary choices for impact, and accurately use spelling and punctuation when creating and editing texts

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 evaluate how effectively texts meet the demands of purpose, audience and context (ACELY1757 Editing)

Speaking and listening

They listen for ways texts position an audience. They understand how to use a variety of language features to create different levels of meaning. They understand how interpretations can vary by comparing their responses to texts to the responses of others. In creating texts, students

demonstrate how manipulating language features and images can create innovative texts. They create texts that respond to issues, interpreting and integrating ideas from texts. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, comparing and evaluating responses to ideas and issues.

Speaking and listening

 analyse and evaluate how text structures and language features include, distance or marginalise others (ACELA1564 Language for social interactions)

 justify a point of view based on close textual analysis to support an interpretation of a text (ACELT1640 Personal responses to the ideas, characters and viewpoints in texts)

 plan, rehearse and deliver presentations to influence an audience to take a course of action (ACELY1751 Oral presentations)

 select subject matter and language to position readers to accept representations of people, events, ideas and information (ACELY1750 Listening and speaking interactions)

 select structures, voice and language conventions to present a point of view on a subject, speaking clearly, coherently and with effect, using for example, logic, imagery and rhetorical devices, to engage audiences (ACELY1813 Listening and speaking interactions)

Speaking and listening

Students listen for ways features within texts can be

manipulated to achieve particular effects. They show how the selection of language features can achieve precision and stylistic effect. They explain different viewpoints, attitudes and perspectives through the development of cohesive and logical arguments. They develop their own style by experimenting with language features, stylistic devices, text structures and images. They create a wide range of texts to articulate complex ideas. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions building on others' ideas, solving problems, justifying opinions and developing and expanding arguments.

Figure

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References

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