Full text

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INDEX

1. Unified modeling language 2

2. Use case Introduction 8

3. Use case diagram

a. Use case of ATM machine 10

b. Use case of Library management 11

c. Use case of Railway Reservation System 12

4. Class introduction 13

5. Class diagram

a. Class diagram of collage management system 16

b. Class diagram of Hospital Management system 17

c. Class diagram of Library management system 18

6. Interactive diagram Introduction 19

7. Interactive diagram

a. Interactive diagram for ATM machine 22 b. Interactive diagram for Library Management system

23

c. Interactive diagram for Railway Reservation system 24

8. Collaboration introduction 25

9. Collaboration diagram

a. Collaboration diagram for ATM machine 26

b. Collaboration diagram for Library machine 27 c. Collaboration diagram for Railway Reservation machine

28

10.State machine diagram 30

11.State chart diagram for CD player 32

12.Activity diagram introduction 33

13.Activity diagram

a. Activity diagram of ATM without swinlanes 35 b. Activity diagram of ATM with swinlanes

36

14.Component diagram introduction 37

15.Component diagrams

a. Component diagram for ATM System 41

b. Component diagram for Hospital Management System 42

16.Deployment diagram 43

17.Deployment diagram for ATM system 44

18.Forward engineering 45

19.Reverse engineering 54

20.Case study

a. Bank ATM System 61

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115

1

UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE

UML is a graphical notation used to visualize, specify, construct and document the artifact of software intensive. UML is appropriate for modeling systems ranging from Enterprise Information Systems to Distributed Web-based Application and even to Hard Real-time Embedded systems. UML effectively starts with forming a conceptual modeling of the language.

There are 2 types of diagrams. They are, 1. Static Diagrams

a) Use case diagrams b) Class diagrams c) Object diagrams d) Component diagrams e) Deployment diagrams 1. Dynamic diagrams a) Interaction diagrams i) Sequence diagrams

ii) Collaboration diagrams a) State machine diagrams

i) State chart diagrams ii) Activity diagrams

Applications of UML :

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1. Enterprise Information Systems 2. Banking and Financial Services 3. Telecommunications

4. Transportation

5. Defense and Aerospace 6. Retail

7. Medical Electronics 8. Scientific

9. Distributed Web-based Services

Basic building blocks of UML:

The building blocks of UML can be categorized as 1. Things

2. Relationships and 3. Diagrams

Things are the most important building blocks of UML. Things can be

a) Structural b) Behavioral c) Grouping d) Annotational

a) Structural Things : They define the static part of the model.

They represent physical and conceptual elements. Following are the structural things –

1. Class: - It describes a set of objects that share the same attribute

operations, relationships and semantics.

Class name Attributes

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2.Object: - It is a collection of operations that specifies a service of a class or a component.

3. Collaboration: - It defines interaction between elements.

1. Use case : - They are used to identify different use

case components of a particular software project. It is used to model the operation.

2. Component : - It is a physical and replaceable part

that confirms to and provides realization of set of interfaces.

3. Node : - A physical resource that exists in runtime and

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4. Actor : - The out side entity that communicates with a

system. Typically a person playing a role on an external device.

a) Behavioral Things : They consist of dynamic parts of the

UML model.

The following are behavioral things –

1. Interaction : - It is defined as a behavior that consists

of a group of message exchanged among elements to accomplish a specific task.

message

2. State machine : - It is useful when the states of an

object in its life cycle. It defines the sequence of states and object goes through in response to events.

a) Grouping Things : They can be defined as a mechanism to

group elements of UML model together. There is only one grouping thing available i.e., Package.

Package is used for gathering structural and behavioral things.

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b) Annotational Things : - They can be defined as a mechanism

to capture remarks, description and comments of UML model elements. There is only one annotational thing available i.e., Note.

Note is used to render comments, constraints and so on of a UML element.

Relationships:

The relationship is another most important building

block of UML. They show how elements are associated with each other and their association describes the functionality of application.

There are 5 types of relationships. They are,

1. Dependency : It is a relationship between two things in

which change in one element also affects another.

2. Generalization : It can be defined as a relationship

which connects a specialized element with a

generalized element. It basically describes inheritance relationship in the object. It is a ‘is_a ‘ hierarchy.

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3. Realization : It can be defined as a relationship in which

two elements are connected. One element describes some responsibility which is not implemented and the other one implement then. This relationship exists in case of interfaces.

4. Association : It is a set of links that connects elements

of an UML model. Two types of associations – a) Unidirectional

b) Bidirectional c)

1. Aggregation : It is a ‘has_a’ relationship. It is of two

types as

-a) Simple aggregation

b) Composition aggregation

UML Diagrams:

-1. Class diagram 2. Use case diagram 3. Interaction diagram

i) Sequence diagram

ii) Collaboration diagram 1. State machine diagram

i) State chart diagram ii) Activity diagram 1. Component diagram

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2. USE CASE DIAGRAMS

A use case diagram describes a set of sequences in which each sequence indicates the relation with outside things. A use case involves the interaction of actor and system. There exist 3 types of

relationships-1. Association 2. Dependency 3. Generalization

Use case diagrams can contain

Actors – “things” outside the system

Use cases – system boundaries identifying what the system should do.

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Use case diagram can be used during analysis to capture the system requirements and to understand how the system should work. During the design phase, you can use use-case diagrams to specify the behavior of the system as

implemented.

Actor represents system users. They help delimit the system requirements and give a clearer picture of what the system should do.

An actor is someone or something that • Interacts with or uses the system.

• Provides input to and receives information from the system.

• Is external to the system and has no control over the use cases.

Customer (actor)  Actors are discovered by examining,

• Who directly uses the system

• Who is responsible for maintaining the system? • External hardware used by the system.

• Other systems that need to interact with the system.

Use case:

A use case can be described as a specific way of using the system from users (actors) perspective.

Use case can be characterized

as-• A pattern of behavior the system exhibits.

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Transfer Funds

Note: Use cases often start with a “verb”.

Use cases provide a means to, • Capture system requirements.

• Communicate with end users and domain experts. • Test the system.

3.1

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c hange pas s w ord

W ithdraw m oney

C hec k balanc e Cus tom er

Tak e m ini s tatem ent

D atabas e s erver

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Student Staff search books Issue books Renew books Pay fine Person Return books Librarian

Fig: Use case diagram for Library Management System

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3.3

Class diagram for

Railway Reservation

System

C h e c k in g T r a i n s c h e d u l eB e r t h a va ila b i li t yfa r e s E n q u ir y R e s e r va t i o n P a y m o n e y Is s u e t ic k e t C o n fi rm a t io n o f t ic k e t P a s s e n g e r C a n c e lla t io n o f t ic k e t t ic k e t Is s u e r

Fig: Use case diagram for Railway Reservation System

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The class diagram contains icons representing classes, interfaces and their relationships.

A class is a set of objects that share a common structure and common behavior (the same attributes, operations and semantics).

A class is a abstraction of real-world items. When these

items exist in the real-world, they are instances of the class and are referred to as objects.

A class icon is a 3-part box.

Class name Attributes Operations

1. Generalize relationship for classes: It shows that sub

classes share the structure or behavior defined in one or more super classes. Use a generalize relationship to show “is_a” relationship. Super class Sub class 1 Sub class2

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2. Dependency Relationship : The dependency is a

relationship between two model elements in which change in one element will affect the other model element.

Typically on class diagrams, a dependency relationship indicates that the operations of the client invoke operation of the supplier.

Cardinality Adornment:- Cardinality specifies how many instances of one class may be associated with single instance of other class.

When you apply a cardinality adornment to a class, you are indicating number of instances allowed for that class. A relationship, you are indicating number of links allowed between one instance of a class and the instances of another class. Valid Values: Value Description 0..0 zero 0..1 zero or one 0..n zero or more 1..1 one 1..n one or more n unlimited number

Interface:-An interface specifies the externally visible

operations of a class and/or component, and has no implementation of its own. An interface specifies only a limited part of behavior of class or a component.

3. Association relationship : An association provides a

pathway of communications. The communication can be between use cases, actors, classes or interfaces. If two classes are usually considered independently, the

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An association is an orthogonal or straight solid line with an arrow at one end.

Customer Transfer funds

4. Aggregate relationship : Use the aggregate relationship to

show a whole or part relationship between two classes.

Unidirectional aggregation Bidirectional aggregation

The diamond end designates the client class.

Supplier A Suppler B Client

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5.1

Class diagram for Collage

Management

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T& P s e c t io n s tu d _ id : in t s tu d _ n a m e : s trin g B ra n c h : s trin g c o m p a n y n a m e : s trin g R e c ru itm en t() S u b je c t id : in t n a m e : s trin g n a m e : s t rin g lo c a t io n : s t rin g A d d s tu d en t() rem o ve s tu d e n t() a d d d e p () rem d e p t() a d d s t aff() rem s ta ff() * 1 * 1 s tu d e n t id : in t n a m e : s t rin g B ra nc h : s trin g E n rollm en t() A t te n d c las s e s () A t te n d E x a m s () * 1 * 1 * * * * * * * * L e c tu re r n a m e : s t rin g D e s ig n a tio n : s trin g D e p t id : in t Te a c hin g () * 1 * 1 Q u a lific a tio n : s trin g

* 1 * 1 L ib ra ry B o o k id : in t Is s u e () re n e w a l() C o lle c t fin e () c o llec t b o o k s () * 1 * 1 1 * 1 * * * * * * 1 * 1 D e p a rtm e n t D e p t n u m : in t D e p t n a m e : s t rin g L o c a tio n : s trin g A d d s u b je c t() R e m o ve s u b je c t () * 1 * 1 1 ..* 1 ..* * 1 * 1 1 1 1 1

Fig: Class diagram for College

Management System

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5.2

Class diagram for

Hospital Management

System

O t h e r s t a ff n a m e : s t r in g D e s i g n a t io n : s t r i n g S u r g e o n sP h y s i c ia n sIn t e r n s In p a t i e n t O u t p a t i e n t N u r s e s L a b t e h n i c i a n s P a t ie n t s N a m e : s t r in g c o n s u l t i n g d o c n a m e : s t r in g B i l l p a y m e n t ( ) M e d i c a l s t o re m e d i c i n e n a m e : s t r i n g m e d i c i n e c o s t : in t s u p p ly m e d ic in e s ( ) * * * * * 1 * 1 H o s p i t a l N a m e : s t r i n g L o c a t io n : s t r i n g m a i n t a in d o c t o r re c o r d s ( ) m a i n t a in p a t ie n t r e c o r d s () m a i n t a in s t a ff r e c o r d s () * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 T re a t m e n t d i s e a s e t y p e : s t r in g t re a t m e n t : s t r i n g * * * * D o c t o r s N a m e : s t r in g S p e c ia li z a t i o n : s t r in g p e rf g e n e ra l c h e c k u p s ( ) p re s m e d ic i n e ( ) p re s t e s t s ( ) p e rf s u g e ry ( ) * * * * D e p a rt m e n t D e p t n u m : in t D e p t n a m e : s t r i n g L o c a t i o n : s t r in g < < > m a i n t a i n d o c t o r r e c o r d s ( ) * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1

Fig: Class diagram for Hospital Management

System

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System

s tudent F ac ulty Library adm in Id : int Nam e : s tring M anages library () Librarian Id : int N am e : s tring Is s ue book s () renew al() c ollec t fine() c ollec t book s () * 1 * 1 B ook s B ook id : int Title : s tring A uthor : s tring O peration B ook id : int is s ue() renew al() return() fine() * 1 * 1 U s er id : int N am e : s tring Tak e book s () pay fine() return book s () 1 * 1 * Library N am e : s tring Loc ation : s tring Is s ue c ards ()

m aintain book details ()

1 1 1 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1 * 1

Fig: Class diagram for Library Management

System

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6.

INTERACTION DIAGRAMS

An interaction is an important sequence of interactions

between objects. There are two types of interaction diagrams,

a) Sequence Diagrams. b) Collaboration diagrams.

1. Sequence Diagrams: A sequence diagram is a graphical

view of a scenario that shows object interaction in a time based sequence, what happens first, what happens next. Sequence diagrams establish the roles of objects and help provide essential information to determine class

responsibilities and interfaces.

A sequence diagram has two dimensions: vertical placement represents time and horizontal placement represents different objects.

Link: Objects interact through their links to other objects. A

link is an instance of an association, analogous to an object being instance of a class.

A link should exist between two objects, including class utilities, only if there is a relationship between their corresponding classes.

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will follow.

The message icon is a horizontal, solid arrow connecting two lifelines together.

A message icon in a sequence diagram represents exactly one message.

Lifeline: Each object appearing on the sequence diagram

contains a dashed vertical line, called lifeline, which

represents the location of an object at a particular point in time.

The lifeline also serves as a place for messages to start and stop and a place for the focus of control to reside.

Lifeline

Message or Event: a message is a communication carried

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represented in collaboration and sequence diagrams by a message icon which usually indicates its synchronization. Synchronization types that are supported.

1. Simple 2. Synchronous 3. Balking 4. Time out 5. Asynchronous 6. Procedure call 7. Return

Message to self: It is a tool that sends a message from one

object back to the same object. The sender of the message is same as the receiver.

Tools: 1. Object 2. Object message 3. Message to self

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4. Return message

5. Destruction marker

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User

User ATMATM Database

server Database

server 1: Insert atm card

2: Check card 3: Invalid:Insert card properly

4: Valid:Display enter pin number 5: Enter pin number

6: Check pin number 7: Valid/Invalid 8: Invalid:Re enter pin number

9: Valid:displays Menu 10: Select withdraw option from menu

11: Enter with draw amount

12: Check for available balance 13: Available/Not 14: Not: Displays menu balance not available

15: Available:Transaction performed

16: Do u want to continue transactions? 17: Close transaction

Fig: Sequence diagram for ATM System

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1: Search for required book

2: Available/not 3: Available:Takes books

4: Not:Leaves Library

5: Gives ID card for issue of book

6: Checks for validation 7: Valid/Not 8: Invalid:Does not issue

9: Valid:Issue Books

10: Updates Database 11: Renewal of books

12: Checks fine amount 13: Pays fine

14: Updates database 15: Renews books

16: Returns books

17: checks fine amount 18: Pays fine

19: Updates database 20: Books added back

Fig: Sequence diagram Library Management System

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7.3 Sequence diagram for Railway Reservation System

Passenger Passenger Reservation counter Reservation counter database database 1: Enquiry about train

2: Check for availability 3: Available:Yes/No 4: No:End enquiry

5: yes:Tells the details of train 6: Pay money for ticket

7: Issues ticket

8: Updates Database 9: Confirms Reservation

10: Cancellation of ticket

11: Updates database

Fig: Sequence diagram for Railway Reservation System

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interaction diagram that shows the order of messages that implement an operation or a transaction.

Collaboration diagrams show objects, their links, and their messages. They can also contain simple class instances and class utility instances.

Each collaboration diagram provides a view of the interactions or structural relationships that occur between objects and object-like entities in the current model.

Collaboration diagrams contain icons representing objects. The “Create Collaboration Diagram” Command creates a collaboration diagram from information contained in the

sequence diagram.

The “Create Sequence Diagram” Command creates a sequence diagram from information contained in the interaction's collaboration diagram.

The “Goto Sequence Diagram” and “Goto Collaboration Diagram” commands traverse between an interaction's two representations.

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1.1. Collaborative diagram for ATM System

U s e r A T M D a t a b a s e s e rv e r 2 : C h e c k c a r d 1 6 : D o u w a n t t o c o n t in u e t r a n s a c t io n s ? 1 : In s e r t a t m c a rd 5 : E n t e r p i n n u m b e r 1 0 : S e le c t w i t h d ra w o p t i o n fr o m m e n u 1 1 : E n t e r w i t h d ra w a m o u n t 1 7 : C lo s e t r a n s a c t io n 3 : In v a li d : In s e r t c a r d p r o p e r ly 4 : V a li d : D i s p la y e n t e r p i n n u m b e r8 : In va li d : R e e n t e r p in n u m b e r 9 : V a li d : d is p l a y s M e n u

1 4 : N o t : D is p la y s m e n u b a la n c e n o t a v a ila b l e1 5 : A v a ila b le : T ra n s a c t i o n p e rfo rm e d 6 : C h e c k p in n u m b e r1 2 : C h e c k fo r a v a il a b l e b a la n c e 7 : V a li d / In va li d

1 3 : A v a ila b le / N o t

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1.2.

Collaborative diagram for Library Management

System

U s er Library Librarian D ataba se 2: A vailable/not 1: S earc h for re quired book

3: A vailable:Tak es book s 4 : Not:Leave s Library

5: G ives ID c ard for is s ue of boo k 11: R enew al o f b ook s

13: P a y s fine 16: R eturns book s

18: P a y s fine 8: Invalid:Does not is s ue

9: V alid:Is s ue B ook s15: R enew s book s 6: C hec k s fo r validation 10: Up dates D atabas e 12: C hec k s fine am ou nt 1 4: U pdates databas e 17: c h ec k s fine am ount 1 9: U pdates databas e 7: V alid/N ot 20 : B ook s added bac k

Fig: Collaboration diagram for Library management System

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1.3. Collaborative diagram for railway Reservation

System

d a ta b a s e P a s s e n g e r R e s e rva t io n c o u n te r 1 : E n q u iry a b o u t tra in 6 : P a y m o n e y fo r t ic k e t 9 : C o n firm s R e s e rva tio n 1 0 : C a n c e lla t io n o f t ic k e t 4 : N o :E n d e n q u iry 5 : y e s :T e lls t h e d e ta ils o f t ra in 7 : Is s u e s t ic k e t 2 : C h e c k fo r a va ila b ilit y 8 : U p d a te s D a ta b a s e 1 1 : U p d a te s d a t a b a s e 3 : A va ila b le : Y e s / N o

Fig: collaboration diagram for Railway Reservation System

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2.

STATE-MACHINE DIAGRAMS

There are two types of state-machine diagrams: 1. State chart diagram

2. Activity diagram

1. State chart diagram : state chart diagrams model the

dynamic behavior of individual classes or any other kind of object.

They show the sequence of states that an object goes through the events that cause a transition from one state to another and the actions that result from a state change. A state chart diagram is typically used to model the

discrete stages of an objects lifetime.

A state chart diagram typically contains one start state and multiple end states.

1. State : - A state represents a condition or situation during

the life of an object during which it satisfies some

condition or waits for an event. Each state represents a cumulative history of its behavior.

States can be shared between state machines. Transitions cannot be shared.

Naming: The name of the state must be unique to its enclosing class,

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Actions: Actions on states can occur at one of four times • On entry • On exit • Do • On event

1. Start state:- A start state (also called an “initial state”)

explicitly shows the beginning of the execution of the state machine on the state chart diagram or beginning of the workflow on an activity diagram.

Normally, one outgoing transition can be placed from the start state.

However, multiple transitions may be placed on start

state, if at least one of them is labeled with a condition. No incoming transitions are allowed.

The start state icon is a small, filled circle that may contain the name (Begin process).

Begin process

2. End state:- An end state represents a final or terminal

state on an activity or state chart diagram.. Transitions can only occur into an end state.

The end state icon is a filled circle inside a slightly larger unfilled circle that may contain the name (End process).

End process

3. State transition:- A state transition indicates that an action

in the source state will perform certain specified actions and enter the destination state when a specified event occurs or when certain conditions are satisfied.

A state transition is a relation ship between two states, two activities or between an activity or a state.

The icon for a state transition is a line with an arrow head pointing toward the destination state or activity.

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We can show one or more state transitions from a state as long as each transition is unique. Transitions originating from a state cannot have the same event, unless there are conditions on the event.

Naming: We should label each state transition with the name of at least one event that causes the state

transition. We do not have to use unique labels for the state transitions because the same event can cause a transition to many different states or activities.

Tools: 1. State 2. Activity 3. Start state 4. End state 5. State transition 6. Transition to self

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7. Horizontal synchronization 8. Vertical synchronization 9. Decision 10. Swimlanes

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power on open Insert disk Select a song play

Rewind Forward Pause Resume

song

Stop

Fig: State chart diagram for CD Player

12.Activity diagram:- An activity diagram is a special

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chart showing the flow a control from one activity to another.

An activity diagram is used to model dynamic aspect of the system.

Activity diagram contains:

1. Activity states and action states 2. Transition

3. Object

Action state:- These are atomic, executable

computation which represents the execution of an action.

Activity state :- They can be decomposed. That is, their activity is represented by other activity diagrams.

Branching:- In branching, we have one incoming transition and two or more outgoing transitions.

Decision Forking and Joining:-

Forking:- It is a process of splitting a single flow of

control into multiple flow of controls. Generally a fork has a single incoming flow of control but multi outgoing flow of control.

Joining:- It is exactly opposite of forking. It generally has

multiple incoming flows of control but single outgoing flow of control.

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Swim - lanes:- They represent the columns in the activity diagram to group the related activities. These are

represented in the form of partitioned region.

Swim-lanes are helpful when modeling a business work flow because they can represent organizational units or role with in a business model. Swim-lanes are very

similar to an object because they provide a way to tell who is performing a certain role.

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13.1. Activity diagram for ATM System without swimlanes

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Insert card Enter pin number Select any transaction Check pin number. Perform Transaction End Transaction Do u want to continue transactions? Remove card Invalid Valid No Yes

Fig: Activity diagram for ATM System without swimlanes

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13.2. Activity diagram for ATM System with swimlanes Insert card Enter pin number Select any transaction Remove card Verify pin number Check pin number Perform Transaction End Transaction DO U want to continue Transaction? Invalid Valid No Yes Bank system Customer

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They provide a physical view of the current model. A component diagram shows the organizations and dependencies among software components, including source code component, binary code component, and executable component.

These diagrams also show the externally visible

behavior of the component by displaying the interfaces of the components.

Component diagrams contain: 1. Component package

2. Components 3. Interfaces

4. Dependency relationship

1. Component package:- component package

represents clusters of logically related

components, or major pieces of our system.

Component packages parallel the role played by logical packages for class diagrams. They allow us to partition the physical model of the system.

Typically, a component package name is the name of a file system directory.

The component package is a folder shaped icon.

2. Components:- A component represents a software

module (source code, binary code, executable, dll, etc.) with a well-defined interfaces.

The interfaces of the component are represented by one or several interfaces elements that the component provides.

Components are used to show the compiler and runtime dependencies as well as interface and calling dependencies among software modules.

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Interface circle attached to the component icon means that the component supports that particular interface.

Component stereotypes:- A system may be composed of several software modules of different kinds (.exe files, .dll files etc). To distinguish

different kinds of software modules from each other, component stereotypes are used.

By default, the following stereotypes types of components are available.

a) Main program b) Sub program c) Packages d) Tasks e) EXE f) DLL

a) Package:- A software component of the type

package consists of a specification module and an implementation module; the

implementation module often referred to as body. By default, a class is declared in a package.

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c) Main program:- This component represents a

file that contains the root of the program. There is only one main program component per program.

d) Sub program:- Sub program components

corresponds to sub routine declarations. Sub programs generally contain single or grouped sub routines; they do not contain class definitions.

e) Task:- Task components represents package

with independent thread of control. If task are compiled differently than regular packages, we can allocate a class definition to a task.

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f) EXE:- A component of the type EXE

represents executable(.exe file).

1. Interface:- An interface specifies the

externally-visible operations of a class or component and has no implementation of its own. An interface

typically specifies only a limited part of behavior of a class or component.

Interfaces belonging to the logical view but can occur in class, use case and component diagram.

2. Dependency relationship:- A dependency

relationship between two model elements in which a change to one model element will affect the

other model element.

Use a dependency relationship to connect model elements with the same level of meaning.

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A TM

.ex e file

databas e

A TM Tra ns ac tion .h file

c han ge pw dB al en quiryW ithdrawl Ta k e m ini s tatem ent

Fig: Component Diagram for ATM System

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. e x e fil e D a t a b a s e . h fi le D o c t o r D e p a r t m e n t P a t ie n t s M e d i c a l s t o re g e n e r a l c h e c k u pp e rfo rm s u r g e r yp re s c r ib e t e s t sp r e s c r ib e m e d i c in e sm a i n t a in d o c re c o r d sB i ll p a y m e n tS u p p ly m e d ic in e s

Fig: Component diagram for Hospital Management System

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A deployment diagram shows processors, devices and

connections. Each model contains a single deployment diagram which shows the connections between its processors and

devices and its processes to processors.

Processor:- A processor is a hardware component capable of

executing programs. Each processor must have a name, there are no constraints on the processor name because processors denote hardware rather than software entities.

The icon for processor is a shaded box.

Device:- A device is a hardware component with no computing

power. Each device must have a name. Device names can be generic, such as “modem” or “terminal”.

The icon of device is a box.

Connection:- A connection represents some type of hardware

coupling between two entities. An entity is either a processor or a device. The hardware coupling can be direct such as an

RS232 cable or indirect such as satellite-to-ground communication. Connections are usually bidirectional. The icon for connection is a straight line.

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17.1. Deployment diagram for ATM System Server ATM Machine Modem ATM card

Fig: Deployment diagram for ATM System

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18. FORWARD ENGINEERING

Forward engineering implies converting the models into software code. This process is usually done by mapping.

Procedure:

1. First add “Rose C++”using AddIn->Addin manager”

2. select class diagram, goto Tools->C++->code generation

3. Again select class diagram, goto Tools->C++->Browser Header

Example - 18.1 :- Student Rollno : int Name : char[20] Branch : char[5] Enrollment() Attend classes() Attend exams() Output:-Student.h #ifndef Student_h #define Student_h 1 class Student { public: Student();

Student(const Student &right); ~Student();

(52)

void Attend_classes (); void Attend_exams (); protected: private:

const int get_Rollno () const; void set_Rollno (int value); const char* get_Name () const; void set_Name (char* value); const char* get_Branch () const; void set_Branch (char* value); private: int Rollno; char Name[20]; char Branch[5]; };

inline const int Student::get_Rollno () const

{

return Rollno; }

inline void Student::set_Rollno (int value) {

Rollno = value; }

inline const char* Student::get_Name () const

{

return Name; }

inline void Student::set_Name (char* value) {

Name = value; }

inline const char* Student::get_Branch () const

{

return Branch; }

inline void Student::set_Branch (char* value) {

Branch = value; }

(53)

#endif

Example 18. 2 :- Generalization

Non Teaching Staff Cleaning() Incharge() Teaching Staff Teaching() Staff Id : int Name : char[10] Subject : char[10] Dept Id : int Output:-Staff.h #ifndef Staff_h #define Staff_h 1 class Staff { public: Staff();

Staff(const Staff &right); ~Staff();

Staff & operator=(const Staff &right); int operator==(const Staff &right) const; int operator!=(const Staff &right) const; protected:

private:

const int get_Id () const; void set_Id (int value);

const char* get_Name () const; void set_Name (char* value);

(54)

private int Id; char Name[10]; char Subject[10]; int Dept_Id; };

inline const int Staff::get_Id () const

{

return Id; }

inline void Staff::set_Id (int value) {

Id = value; }

inline const char* Staff::get_Name () const

{

return Name; }

inline void Staff::set_Name (char* value) {

Name = value; }

inline const char* Staff::get_Subject () const

{

return Subject; }

inline void Staff::set_Subject (char* value) {

Subject = value; }

inline const int Staff::get_Dept_Id () const

{

return Dept_Id; }

inline void Staff::set_Dept_Id (int value) { Dept_Id = value; } #endif Teaching Staff.h #ifndef Teaching_Staff_h #define Teaching_Staff_h 1 #include " Staff.h"

(55)

{

public:

Teaching_Staff();

Teaching_Staff(const Teaching_Staff &right); ~Teaching_Staff();

Teaching_Staff & operator=(const Teaching_Staff &right); int operator==(const Teaching_Staff &right) const;

int operator!=(const Teaching_Staff &right) const; void Teaching (); protected: private: private: }; #endif

Non Teaching Staff.h

#ifndef Non_Teaching_Staff_h

#define Non_Teaching_Staff_h 1

#include " Staff.h"

#include "Teaching Staff.h"

class Non_Teaching_Staff : public Teaching_Staff,public Staff {

public:

Non_Teaching_Staff();

Non_Teaching_Staff(const Non_Teaching_Staff &right); ~Non_Teaching_Staff();

Non_Teaching_Staff & operator=(const Non_Teaching_Staff &right); int operator==(const Non_Teaching_Staff &right) const;

int operator!=(const Non_Teaching_Staff &right) const; void Cleaning (); void Incharge (); protected: private: private }; #endif

(56)

E n g i n e B r a n d n a m e : c h a r [ 1 0 ] R u n s c a r ( ) C a r B r a n d n a m e : c h a r [ 2 0 ] N u m p l a t e : c h a r [ 1 0 ] I n s u r a n c e n u m : i n t W h e e l s Radius : int R o t a t e s ( ) Example 18 . 3: Aggregation: Output: Car.h #ifndef Car_h #define Car_h 1 #include "Wheels.h" #include "Engine.h" class Car { public: Car();

(57)

~Car();

Car & operator=(const Car &right); int operator==(const Car &right) const; int operator!=(const Car &right) const; const Engine get_the_Engine () const; void set_the_Engine (Engine value);

const Wheels get_the_Wheels () const; void set_the_Wheels (Wheels value); protected:

private:

const char* get_Brand_name () const; void set_Brand_name (char* value); const char* get_Num_plate () const; void set_Num_plate (char* value); const int get_Insurance_num () const; void set_Insurance_num (int value); private: char Brand_name[20]; char Num_plate[10]; int Insurance_num; Engine the_Engine; Wheels the_Wheels; };

inline const char* Car::get_Brand_name () const

{

return Brand_name; }

inline void Car::set_Brand_name (char* value) {

Brand_name = value; }

inline const char* Car::get_Num_plate () const

{

(58)

inline const int Car::get_Insurance_num () const

{

return Insurance_num; }

inline void Car::set_Insurance_num (int value) {

Insurance_num = value; }

inline const Engine Car::get_the_Engine () const

{

return the_Engine; }

inline void Car::set_the_Engine (Engine value) {

the_Engine = value; }

inline const Wheels Car::get_the_Wheels () const

{

return the_Wheels; }

inline void Car::set_the_Wheels (Wheels value) { the_Wheels = value; } #endif Engine.h #ifndef Engine_h #define Engine_h 1 #include "Car.h" class Engine { public: Engine();

Engine(const Engine &right); ~Engine();

(59)

int operator!=(const Engine &right) const;

void Runs_car ();

const Car * get_the_Car () const; void set_the_Car (Car * value); protected:

private:

const char* get_Brand_name () const; void set_Brand_name (char* value); private:

char Brand_name[10];

Car *the_Car; };

inline const char* Engine::get_Brand_name () const

{

return Brand_name; }

inline void Engine::set_Brand_name (char* value) {

Brand_name = value; }

inline const Car * Engine::get_the_Car () const

{

return the_Car; }

inline void Engine::set_the_Car (Car * value) { the_Car = value; } #endif Wheels.h #ifndef Wheels_h #define Wheels_h 1 #include "Car.h"

(60)

~Wheels();

Wheels & operator=(const Wheels &right); int operator==(const Wheels &right) const; int operator!=(const Wheels &right) const; void Rotates ();

const Car * get_the_Car () const; void set_the_Car (Car * value); protected:

private:

const int get_Radius () const; void set_Radius (int value); private:

int Radius; Car *the_Car; };

inline const int Wheels::get_Radius () const

{

return Radius;

}

inline void Wheels::set_Radius (int value) {

Radius = value;

}

inline const Car * Wheels::get_the_Car () const

{

return the_Car; }

inline void Wheels::set_the_Car (Car * value) {

the_Car = value; }

(61)

#endif

19. REVERSE ENGINEERING

It involves converting the developed code into models. Procedure:

1. Write the code in notepad. Save it in

C:/program files/Rational/Rose/C++/designs/”filename.cpp” 2. Tools->C++->Reverse engineering

3. File->new

Files->Rose (select filename then click add-selected then select filename and click add-current, finally OK)

4. select filename and press F3(Action->Analyse) for compilation.

Then press F8(Action->Export) for running then press OK.

5. Goto rational rose, File->open->path(C:/program files/Rational/Rose/C++/designs)then click F8 Example 1:-Class employee { Private: Int id;

(62)

};

Perform 4 steps given in procedure Then, we get output

employee id : int name : char [20] Getdata() Example 2:- Generalization Class staff { Private: Int id; Name:char[20]; Public: getdata(); };

(63)

{ Private: Int x; Public: Putdata(); };

Class ntstaff:public staff { Private: Int y; Public: Display(); };

Perform 4 steps given in procedure Then, we get output

(64)

tstaff x : int Putdata() getdata() ntstaff y : int Display() Example3 :- Aggregation Class car { Public: Char brand_name[20]; Char num_plate[10]; Int ins_num; Class Engine E; Class Door D; Class Wheel W; }; Class Engine {

Private: char br_type[10]; Public: void runs_car(); };

(65)

Class Door {

Public: void open(); Void close(); };

Class Wheel {

Private :int Radius(); Public : Void Rotates(); };

Perform Above given 4 steps, Then we get, Output: Engine br_type : char [10] runs_car() Wheel Radius : int Rotates() car brand_name : char [20] num_plate : char [10] ins_num : int D : Door 1 1 +E 1 1 +W 1 1 1 1

(66)

CASE-

STUDY

(67)

CASE STUDY: BANK ATM SYSTEM

Problem statement

Each bank provides its own computer to maintain its own accounts and process transactions against them. With this system, a client must first open account before he can use ATM. The opening account involves the client providing his Personal information, and SSI. A client may open one or more accounts for deposit ,withdraw, transfer money between checking and saving account. The client can check the account status 24 hours a day.

When the client deposit/withdraw money. The client must specify which account and the amount. Then ATMs communicate with a central computer which clears transactions with the appropriate banks. An ATM accepts a cash card, interacts with the user, communicates with the central system to carry out the transaction, dispenses cash, and prints receipts. The system requires appropriate recordkeeping and security provisions. The system must handle

concurrent accesses to the same account correctly. The banks will provide their own software for their own computers.

Functional Requirements

The functional requirements are organized in two sections; First requirements of the ATM and second requirements of the bank computer.

* Requirements of the ATM - authorization process

- transaction (withdrawal process) * Requirements of the bank computer

- authorization process (bank code and password) - transaction

Non-functional Requirement

The non-functional requirement is bellowed.

(68)

Usecase Diagram For Bank ATM System

Customer

System startup

System shutdown Operator

Withdrawl Deposit Transfer Enquiry Session Invalid Pin Bank Transaction <<include>> <<extend>>

(69)
(70)

customers ACustomers Bank() readCustomers() addCustomers() findCustomer() Customer CheckingAccount SavingsAccount customerNumber pin accounts Coustomer() match() getAccount() ATM State CustomerNumber Current Customer AccountBank Start State Pin State Account State Transact State ATM() setCustomerNumber() selectCustomer() selectAccount() Withdraw() Deposit() setState() BankAccount Balance BankAccount() deposit() withdraw() getAccount() 0..* 0..* ATM Simulation

(71)

: User : User

Atm InterfaceAtm

Interface DatabaseDatabase

Insert Card Enter Pin Validate Pin Validate Ok Show Options Choose Option Select Withdrawl Enter Amount Check Balance Validate Ok Receive Cash Remaining balance Balance Slip

(72)

: U se r A tm In te rfa ce D a ta b ase 1 : In se rt C a rd 2 : E n te r P in 3 : V alid a te P in 4 : V a lid ate O k 5 : S h o w O p tio n s 6 : C h o o se O p tio n

7 : S e lec t W ith d raw l 8 : E n ter A m o u n t 9 : C h e ck B a la n c e 1 0 : V a lid a te O k

1 1 : R ec e iv e C a sh

1 2 : R em a in in g b a la n ce 1 3 : B a lan ce S lip

(73)

enter pin perform transaction collect card select transaction insert card invalid valid no more transactions more trasactions

(74)

A tm d a ta b a se h e a d e r file s A tm e xe c u ta b le file s a tm _ file s w ith d r a w a l b a la n c e m in i sta te m e n t a tm _ m a in c h a n ge p in

(75)

Bank Database AT M Machine Customer Console Card Reader WebPage Client Desktop Employee Console Client Desktop providing services at desks

Each bank employee given a desktop and provided with id,pwd to login into database

Webpage providing services of online transaction Card Reader providing

services of credit,debit transaction

Customer may be AT M card holder,credit,debit card holder or oline user of bank

AT M Machine providing services of ATM transaction

Bank Database keeping the details of each and every account

(76)

smooth operation of the network, for example in handling call handovers from one cell to another. These frequencies are assigned according to a frequency plan, which is updated from time to time, in response to evolving network requirements. The migration from one frequency plan to a new one proceeds in stages, governed by the network’s base station controllers. Existing methods result in periods of reduced network availability or performance during the reassignment process. The Study Group was asked to develop an algorithm for implementing a new frequency plan that maintains service quality during the transition.

A cellular network usage application is to be developed to assist cellular companies in capacity planning. This application will report on cell tower site usage in two ways: 1) immediate notification if a cell tower site's call capacity is being exceeded, and 2) a formatted report on demand, showing calls in progress for a given cell tower site, or for all cell tower sites. This application is not meant to be a simulation or real-time monitoring system of a cellular network, but more of a simple "play back" application, for usage projections.

The application monitors cell tower site usage by tracking cell phones as they move around, are turned on and off, originate or receive calls and run out of battery power. Note that calls are tracked in two directions - both originating from the cell phone and received by the cell phone. Calls may be made to or received from a cell phone being tracked in the application, or from an outside number. Assume that the cell phone data comes from previous field monitoring and testing procedures (although randomly generated data or keyed input are other possible data capture sources).

Functional Requirements:

Cellular Network: A cellular network is a network distributed over land areas called cells,

each served by at least one fixed-location known as a or . When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area.

Place Phone call:User places a phone call to the receiver and the cellular network identifies

this phone call.

Receive phone call: User recieves a phone call from the sender and the cellular network

identifies this phone call.

Place Conference Call: User places a Conference call if he need and the cellular network

(77)

Receive additional Call: when reciever is on call and gets an additional call then he holds

the present call and receive the additional call.

Non Functional Requirements:

a) System should be designed simple enough to enable User to operate the phone without any formal training or delay.

b)System must handle Network and power failure.

c)System must be efficient to use and provide quick recover from the fault.

d) Software must validate and cancel operation in case of incorrect member details,incomplete transaction, and time delay and return failure.

(78)

P la c e c o n fe re n c e c a ll U s e s c h e d u le r P la c e P h o n e c a ll < < e xte n d > > C e llu la r n e tw o rk U s e r R e c e iv e p h o n e c a ll R e c e iv e a d d itio n a l c a ll < < e xte n d > >

(79)

Dialler Digit() Send() Dialler Display DisplayDigit() Display Speaker Emit tone() Button CRDisplay Cellular Radio Connect()

(80)

:D i a le r

:D i a le r

S e n d :B u tto n

S e n d :B u tto n :S e n d B u tto n

A a d a p te r

:S e n d B u tto n

A a d a p te r

:C e llu la r

:C e llu la r

R a d io

R a d io

D is p a y C R D i

D is p a y C R D i

s p la y

s p la y

1 : B u tto n p r e s s e d ( )

2 : S e n d ( )

3 : C o n n e c ti o n ( p n o )

4 : In u s e ( )

(81)

S e n d :B u t to n

: S e n d B u tt o n

A a d a p te r

: D ia le r

: C e llu la r

R a d io

D is p a y C R

D is p la y

1 : B u tt o n p re s s e d ()

2 : S e n d ()

3 : C o n n e c tio n (p n o )

4 : In u s e ()

(82)

Indicate no balance Process the dial Give busy indication Busy Ringingtone

No response till t sec

Increment the usage time Add Update the balance

Response Cut the service Balance out Have balance Balance Out Before 1 min After Completion

(83)

State Chart Diagram For Cellular Phone Network idle Ready to dial Off-hook Connecting Destination A lerted Ringing Talk Bus y Busy Dial On-hook On-hook Tim e-out

(84)

U s e r C e llu la r E x e c u ta b le N e tw o rk D a ta b a s e C e llu la r N e tw o rk M a i n N e tw o rk

(85)

Deployment Diagram For Cellular Phone Network

Cell

Phone Window Mobile

Phone Central Server Control console{0...*} GPS Controller T ablet PC{0...*} Fixed Installation GPS Locator {0...*}

(86)

At the beginning of each semester students may request a course catalogue containing a list of course offerings for the semester. Information about each course, such as professor, department, and prerequisites will be included to help students make informed decisions. The new on-line registration system will allow students to select four course offerings for the coming semester. In addition, each student will indicate two alternative choices in case a course offering becomes filled or canceled. No course offering will have more than ten students. No course offering will have fewer than three students. A course offering with fewer than three students will be canceled. Once the registration process is completed for a student, the registration system sends information to the billing system, so the student can be billed for the semester.

Professors must be able to access the on-line system to indicate which courses they will be teaching. They will also need to see which students signed up for their course offering.

For each semester, there is a period of time that students can change their schedules. Students must be able to access the on-line system during this time to add or drop courses. The billing system will credit all students for courses dropped during this period of time.

Functional Requirements:

Maintain curriculum: This use case is started by the registrar. It provides the capability to

create, review, modify, and delete a list of course offerings for a given semester.

Maintain Student Information: This use case is started by the registrar. It provides the

capability to create, review, modify, and delete student information.

Maintain Staff Information: This use case is started by the registrar. It provides the

capability to create, review, modify, and delete staff information.

Register for programmer: The use case is started by the student. It provides the capability

to create, review, modify, and delete a course schedule for a specified semester.

Write exam: This usecase is started by the student. It provides the capability to write exam. Pay Fee: This usecase is started by the student. It provides the capability to pay fee.

(87)

• System should be designed simple enough to enable staff to operate enqiry screen without any formal training or delay.

• System must be secured and protected from the staff and other unauthorized users.A student is allowed only to view and restricted to access/insert/update the other part of the system.

• Student is not necessary to maintain the staff information,student information and curriculum.

• Registrar is not necessary to pay fee and write exam.

(88)

maintain staff inforamation maintain currirculum maintain student information registrar student

register for a programmer

write examination

(89)

Class diagram For Student Course Registration System

student

sttudent name : char[20] studentid : int university name : char[20] location : char[20] 1..* 11 1..* programme progrmname : char[20] 1..* 1..* 1..* attend member department deptno : int depname : char[20] has a 1..* 1..* 1..* 1..* provide staff staffname : char[20] staffid : int 1..* 1 1..* 1 assigned to 1..* 1..* 1..* 1..* teach 1 1..* 1 head of 1..*

(90)

student

student applicationapplication inteviewinteview admissionadmission

1: send

2: attend

3: [pass]admit

(91)

Collaboration diagram For Student Course Registration System

student

application

inteview

admission

1: send

2: attend

3: [pass]admit

(92)

canceled

do/ notify registerd students

intialization

do/ intialize batch

open

entry/ register student exit/ increment student

close

do/ finalize batch

cancel

cancel

cancel add student/ set c=0

addstudent[c<n]

[c=n]

start

end

(93)

Component diagram For Student Course Registration System re g is tra tio n e xe c uta b le d a ta b a s e re g is tra tio n m a in s tud e nt

a p p lic a tio n inte rvie w a d m is s io n c o urs e s

(94)
(95)

CASE STUDY : HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Problem Statement:

Due to budget cutbacks and general concern for providing the best service possible to the public, we as a hospital would like to ensure that we are using our scarce hospital resources in the most efficient manner possible. With this in mind we would like you to design a system which will help us manage our hospital in an efficient, effective manner. Specifically the system should help us schedule and monitor the various resources that we have at the hospital. This includes keeping track of available beds, waiting lists for patients, patients expected length of stay, scheduling of surgeries, patient notification and billing, scheduling of nurses and doctors.

This function of the Hospital Management Information System deals with registering new patients, for either OPD or IPD and issuing unique identification numbers to the patients. These numbers are unique throughout the system.

A patient can be registered either at the IPD front office or at the OPD reception. The OPD or IPD identification number is also created for each of the patient's separate visits. This also serves as a part of patient registration. The IPD/OPD ID is used for tracking the medical records of the patient for that particular OPD visit or IPD admission. All medical records of the patient are identified by a combination of numbers, i.e. Patient ID and OPD/IPD ID. The numbers allow for a flexible search in terms of finding the patient's history record.

Functional requirements:

Prescription: This Module handles various activities such as Doctor Diagnoses the patient,

gives treatment & gives suggestions to the patients & prescribes laboratory tests& medicines.

Operation: This is initiated by the doctor and undergoes the various operations by

diagnosing the patients.

Checking: This is initiated by doctor who treats patients came for checking. Patients tells the

problem so that the doctor gives prescription according to his problem.

(96)

NonFunctional requirements:

a)System should be designed simple enough to enable receptionist to operate enqiry screen without any formal training or delay.

b)System must be secured and protected from the staff and other unauthorized users.A patient is allowed only to view and access the enquiry and restricted to access /insert/update the other part of the system.

c)Staff members must know the correct functioning of the equipments in the hospitai. d)Doctors must be available in any critical situation.

(97)

doctor checking operations prescription patient receptionist

(98)

ambulance nurses name : char[20] workers name : char[20] staff name : char[20] is a is a wards name : char[20] medical shop hospital name : char[20] has a has a has a has a doctor name : char[20] is a patients name : char[20] Goes to Treatment

(99)

D o c to r

D o c to r P a tie n tP a tie n t in te rfa c e re c e p tio n ist d ia gn o stic

in te rfa c e re c e p tio n ist d ia gn o stic 1 : P a tie n ts n a m e ,a ge 2 : C o lle c t fe e s 3 : C h e c k s p a tie n ts 4 : P e rfo rm so m e o p 5 : G e ts R e p o rt 6 : G iv e s p re sc rip tio n

Collaboration Diagram For Hospital Management System

(100)

Doctor Patient interface receptionist diagnostic 3: Checks patients 4: perform some op 6: Gives Prescript 1: Patients name,age 2: Collect fees 5: Gets Report

(101)

Doctor perform operation check patient Prescriptio n Prescription NO yes

(102)

H o s p ita l H e a d e r f ile s H o s p ita l M a in D o c to r D e p a r tm e n t P a tie n t R e c e p tio n is t D ia g n o s is d a ta b a s e N a m e I d C h ie f d o c to rN a m e A g e A p p o in tm e n t P a tie n t R e c o rd s R e s u lt H o s p ita l E x e c u ta b le F ile T e s tin g S p e c if ic a tio n

(103)

Disease UNT Server

Receptionist PC articfact User Friendly Screens artifact Contains Information about

(104)

Problems that are facing by the users while using the current Library system. The current system of the university doesn’t allow users to login from different campuses.

1. As it is not available online every student calls up to find out if the book is available or not. - Too many calls to answer

2. Every time a student calls for a book you have to check the racks for the availability of the book. - Too much of physical work.

3. If some one reserves the book, he’s not sure if he definitely can get the book as the previous student may not return in time.

4. Either the student has to call or come to the library to reserve the book, but cannot reserve online over the internet.

5. Fines have to be calculated manually.

6. Students have no idea to check their account.

Functional Requirements:

a)Member of library:All the staff and student members of the college can become a member and obtain the library card of library by showing id card issued by the college.

b)Article: A college library has books,journals audio and vedio and cassettes and CDROMS.They are collectively called as articles in the library.

c)Lend Article:A library member can borrow maximum of 4 books for the period of 15 days. d)Return of the Article:A library member can return an article. In case of default over due charges will be levied.

e)Renewal of Article:A library member can renew the article borrowed,when other library members donot reserve it.

f)Loss of Article: Loss of Issued Articles should be reported immediately to the librarian. g)Loss of Member card: Loss of Member card should be reported immediately to the librarian.

h)Enquiry:Library member can enquire about the articles details availability and their possible return dates in case of issued.

i)Reservation: A Library member can reserve an article that is not currently available in the library.

(105)

a) System should be designed simple enough to enable library member to operate enquiry screen without any formal training or delay.

b)System must be secured and protected from library members and other unauthorized users. A member is allowed only to view and access the enquiry and restricted to access/insert/update the other part of system.A member can borrow, reserve or return book only through a librarian.

c)System must handle Network and power failure.

d)System must be efficient to use and provide quick recover from the fault.

e) Software must validate and cancel operation in case of incorrect member details,incomplete transaction, and time delay and return failure.

f)User interface screen must be designed to operate easily. It should have visual appealing.

(106)

Article Renewal Enquiry MakeReservation Member Remove reservation Lend article Return of article Librarian

(107)

A r t i c l e a r t i c l e i d a v a i l a b i l i t y i s s u e d a t e r e t u r n d a t e n e w a r t i c l e ( ) r e m o v e a r t i c l e ( ) l e n d a r t i c l e ( ) r e t u r n a r t i c l e ( ) r e n e w a l ( ) F i n e a m o u n t f i n e a m t p a i d d a t e p a y f i n e ( ) r e c e i p t ( ) c o l l e c t i o n ( ) 0 . . * 0 . . * U p d a t e s T i t l e T i t l e i d t y p e c o p i e s p r i c e a u t h o r p u b l i c a t i o n s e d i t i o n r e s e r v e d c o p i e s i s s u e d c o p i e s n e w t i t l e ( ) r e m o v e t i t l e ( ) a d d n a l p u r c h a s e ( ) 0 . . * 0 . . * c o p y o f M e m b e r m e m b e r i d n a m e a d d r e s s b o r r o w i n g l i m i t n e w m e m b e r ( ) r e m o v e m e m b e r ( ) 0 . . * 0 . . * U t i l i z e s 0 . . * 0 . . * P a y 0 . . * r e s e r v e s

(108)

: L ib r a r ia n : L ib r a r ia n

F ro n t P a n e l:L e n d ...

F ro n t

P a n e l:L e n d ... :T itle:T itle :A rtic le:A rtic le :M e m b e r:M e m b e r

1 : L e n d in g d e ta ils ( T itle ,M e m b e r ) 2 : V a lid a te :F in d B o r ro w in g L im it 3 : B o rro w lim it o k 4 : F in d a v a ila b ility 5 : A v a ila b le O K 6 : U p d a te is s u e d e ta ils 7 : U p d a te a v a ila b le c o p y 8 : U p d a te b o o k b o rr o w e d 9 : C lo s e

(109)

Collaboration Diagram For Library Information System

F r o n t P a n e l:L e n d in g

W in d o w

: L ib r a r ia n

:T itle

:A r tic le

:M e m b e r

1 : L e n d in g d e ta ils ( T itle ,M e m b e r )

9 : C lo s e

2 : V a lid a te :F in d B o r r o w in g L im it

8 : U p d a te b o o k b o r r o w e d

3 : B o r r o w lim it o k

4 : F in d a v a ila b ility

7 : U p d a te a v a ila b le c o p y

5 : A v a ila b le O K

6 : U p d a te is s u e d e ta ils

(110)

T itle r e s e rv a tio n /re s e rv e d c o p ie s + +

N o t re s e rv e d

e n try / re s e rva tio n := 0

R e s e rv e d

R e s e rv a tio n re m o v e d / re s e rv e d c o p ie s

Figure

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References

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