Primary Care Information Services

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(1)

Information needs in

Information needs in

primary care

primary care

October 26th 2004 Deborah Swinglehurst, GP, Teaching Fellow UCL

(2)

Introduction

Introduction

--

objectives

objectives

To describeTo describe –

– the information needs of primary care cliniciansthe information needs of primary care clinicians –

– the barriers to meeting information needsthe barriers to meeting information needs –

– how information might be used to support how information might be used to support evidence based health care

evidence based health care

– the role of information services in facilitating the role of information services in facilitating evidence based health care

evidence based health care

Explore teleconferencing to share learning and Explore teleconferencing to share learning and experience

(3)

Why is this important?

Why is this important?

Changing roles Changing roles in primary care in primary care “Resourceful “Resourceful patient” patient” (1)(1) Breadth of Breadth of primary care primary care Information Information jungle jungle

(4)

Scenario

Scenario

Mrs Brown attends surgery. She is 78, has been fit and

Mrs Brown attends surgery. She is 78, has been fit and

well all her life and is the main carer of her husband who

well all her life and is the main carer of her husband who

has been wheelchair bound since a stroke last year.

has been wheelchair bound since a stroke last year.

She recently developed indigestion and (reluctantly) had

She recently developed indigestion and (reluctantly) had

an

an endoscopyendoscopy which she found distressing. The which she found distressing. The gastroenterologist told her she has “Barrett’s

gastroenterologist told her she has “Barrett’s

oesophagus”.

oesophagus”.

He explained she would need to have endoscopies every

He explained she would need to have endoscopies every

two years, because of her risk of getting cancer. He also

two years, because of her risk of getting cancer. He also

advised her to take medicine (

advised her to take medicine (lansoprazolelansoprazole) all her life. ) all her life. She is extremely anxious about all this

She is extremely anxious about all this -- only last year only last year her brother died of cancer.

(5)

Information needs

Information needs

--

interactive exercise

interactive exercise

Imagine you are the primary care

Imagine you are the primary care

clinician trying to help this patient.

clinician trying to help this patient.

What information would help you

What information would help you

manage this patient?

manage this patient?

Make a list of the information needs or

Make a list of the information needs or

questions which arise

(6)

Scenario

Scenario

Mrs Brown attends surgery. She is 78, has been fit and

Mrs Brown attends surgery. She is 78, has been fit and

well all her life and is the main carer of her husband who

well all her life and is the main carer of her husband who

has been wheelchair bound since a stroke last year.

has been wheelchair bound since a stroke last year.

She recently developed indigestion and (reluctantly) had

She recently developed indigestion and (reluctantly) had

an

an endoscopyendoscopy which she found distressing. The which she found distressing. The gastroenterologist told her she has “Barrett’s

gastroenterologist told her she has “Barrett’s

oesophagus”.

oesophagus”.

He explained she would need to have endoscopies every

He explained she would need to have endoscopies every

two years, because of her risk of getting cancer. He also

two years, because of her risk of getting cancer. He also

advised her to take medicine (

advised her to take medicine (lansoprazolelansoprazole) all her life. ) all her life. She is extremely anxious about all this

She is extremely anxious about all this -- only last year only last year her brother died of cancer.

(7)

Information needs

Information needs

Patient

values,

concerns,

preferences

Published

information

The “evidence”

The patient

health record

(8)

Evidence based

Evidence based

medicine

medicine

Convert information needs into answerable

Convert information needs into answerable

questions

questions

Track down the best evidence

Track down the best evidence

Critically appraise the evidence to assess

Critically appraise the evidence to assess

validity and relevance

validity and relevance

Implement results into practice

Implement results into practice

(9)

Cultural and organisational factors

Cultural and organisational factors

Locating EBM in

Locating EBM in

primary care

primary care

Reflective practice

Reflective practice

Evidence based

Evidence based

medicine

medicine

(10)

Information is not

Information is not

enough!

enough!

Information Information needs needs Information Information seeking seeking Information Information use use

(11)

Interactive exercise

Interactive exercise

Answering questions

Answering questions

Librarians Librarians -- Why may you not have heard from Mrs Why may you not have heard from Mrs Brown’s GP with a question?

Brown’s GP with a question?

Health professionals Health professionals –– Why may you not have Why may you not have asked a librarian for help with your questions?

(12)

Things we know about

Things we know about

GPs’ questions

GPs’ questions

How many? How many? –– between 0.5 per half day and 2 per 3 between 0.5 per half day and 2 per 3 patients

patients (3(3--6)6)

Most (70%) are not pursued Most (70%) are not pursued (3,4)(3,4)

May be higher for nurse practitioners?May be higher for nurse practitioners?

Factors influencing whether a question is pursued Factors influencing whether a question is pursued include

include (5)(5)

– belief that an answer existsbelief that an answer exists –

(13)

And…

And…

GPs are more likely to ask a colleague than

GPs are more likely to ask a colleague than

pursue other routes to answer a question

pursue other routes to answer a question

(3)(3)

Most GPs support the notion of EBM

Most GPs support the notion of EBM

(8)(8)

Only 5% of GPs feel that the best way to

Only 5% of GPs feel that the best way to

move towards EBM is by identifying and

move towards EBM is by identifying and

appraising primary literature and systematic

appraising primary literature and systematic

reviews themselves

(14)

Perceived barriers to

Perceived barriers to

practising EBM

practising EBM

Lack of personal time

Lack of personal time

Personal and organisational inertia

Personal and organisational inertia

Problems with the “evidence”

Problems with the “evidence”

– Lack of evidenceLack of evidence –

– Evidence not related to the primary care contextEvidence not related to the primary care context

Attitudes of colleagues

Attitudes of colleagues

(15)

Obstacles to answering

Obstacles to answering

questions

questions

Finding information Finding information -- excessively time consumingexcessively time consuming

Modifying original questionModifying original question

Selecting optimal search strategySelecting optimal search strategy

Knowing when to stop the searchKnowing when to stop the search

Failure of an information resource to cover the topicFailure of an information resource to cover the topic

Synthesising multiple source of evidence into a Synthesising multiple source of evidence into a clinically useful statement

(16)

Usefulness = relevance x validity / work

Usefulness = relevance x validity / work

From EBM to

From EBM to

“Information Mastery”

“Information Mastery”

EBM takes too long

EBM takes too long

“Information mastery” is a more realistic

“Information mastery” is a more realistic

alternative

alternative

(10)(10)

(17)

In other words…

In other words…

Relevant knowledge

Relevant knowledge

Right time

Right time

Right place

Right place

Right amount

Right amount

(18)

Imperial informaticist

Imperial informaticist

project

project

“Path lab” analogy“Path lab” analogy

Strong research componentStrong research component –

– Detailed recording of “process”Detailed recording of “process” –

– Data collection about the questionsData collection about the questions –

– User satisfaction / usefulnessUser satisfaction / usefulness of answersof answers

Standardised approach to answering questionsStandardised approach to answering questions –

– Search cascadeSearch cascade –

(19)

Use of the service

Use of the service

In 10 months, 22 of 34 participants used serviceIn 10 months, 22 of 34 participants used service

60 questions (2/3 on therapy)60 questions (2/3 on therapy)

Wide variability in use of serviceWide variability in use of service –

– 14/60 questions from one group practice14/60 questions from one group practice

Without the serviceWithout the service –

– 1/3 would take “no action”1/3 would take “no action” –

– 1/3 would “ask a colleague”1/3 would “ask a colleague” –

(20)

Answering questions

Answering questions

Time consuming (median 130 Time consuming (median 130 minsmins) ) (12,13)(12,13)

Median “turnaround” time 9 daysMedian “turnaround” time 9 days

72% questions answered within 2 weeks72% questions answered within 2 weeks

Requested timescales met for 82% of questionsRequested timescales met for 82% of questions –

– Only 12% answers were requested in less than 1 Only 12% answers were requested in less than 1 week

week

(21)

What did they ask?

What did they ask?

Does breast examination reduce

Does breast examination reduce

mortality from breast cancer?

mortality from breast cancer?

Is quinine sulphate effective for

Is quinine sulphate effective for

nocturnal leg cramps?

nocturnal leg cramps?

In a 73 yr old lady with osteoarthritis,

In a 73 yr old lady with osteoarthritis,

does oral

does oral

glucosamine

glucosamine

reduce pain or

reduce pain or

slow onset of disease?

(22)

Was the service

Was the service

valued?

valued?

High levels of satisfaction with answersHigh levels of satisfaction with answers

1/3 answers changed management (index patient)1/3 answers changed management (index patient)

1/2 answers would change management (future)1/2 answers would change management (future)

Other spinOther spin--offs : offs : –

– promoted discussion promoted discussion –

– provided reassuranceprovided reassurance –

– led to new learningled to new learning –

– encouraged further use of the service encouraged further use of the service –

(23)

Models of service

Models of service

None of project team involved in

None of project team involved in

local service general practice

local service general practice

All relevant primary and

All relevant primary and

secondary sources identified and

secondary sources identified and

appraised

appraised

Focus on academic rigour and

Focus on academic rigour and

technical excellence

technical excellence

Strong research component

Strong research component

Low emphasis

Low emphasis--personal contactpersonal contact “like a laboratory test service”

“like a laboratory test service”

Imperial

Imperial (14, 15)(14, 15)

Strong local links of project leader

Strong local links of project leader

(a local GP) enabled integration

(a local GP) enabled integration

into a clinical effectiveness unit

into a clinical effectiveness unit

Pragmatic approach

Pragmatic approach –– “find out “find out what we can and share it” using

what we can and share it” using

easily accessible sources

easily accessible sources

Focus on identifying important

Focus on identifying important

questions through face to face

questions through face to face

dialogue

dialogue

Strong service component

Strong service component

High emphasis

High emphasis--personal contactpersonal contact “friendly local facilitator”

“friendly local facilitator”

Basildon

(24)

Two dimensions

Two dimensions

Low High

Low High

Technical quality of answers

Facilitation of questioning behaviour

Questions from wide range of practitioners High quality answers that are implemented and disseminated in practice

(25)

Bridging the divide

Bridging the divide

Clinician / information specialist gap

Clinician / information specialist gap

close working links are rare

close working links are rare

practice information management

practice information management

focussed on patient records

focussed on patient records

the geographical divide

the geographical divide

(26)

Need for partnership

Need for partnership

personalised community based servicespersonalised community based services

explicit aim of facilitating information seekingexplicit aim of facilitating information seeking

tailor service / information provided to the contexttailor service / information provided to the context

trust between professionals trust between professionals

flexibility to adapt to varying organisational cultures flexibility to adapt to varying organisational cultures

“problem orientated” approach “problem orientated” approach (18, 19)(18, 19)

integration of information services into primary integration of information services into primary care, akin to clinical medical librarianship?

(27)

Conclusions (1)

Conclusions (1)

Primary care information needs Primary care information needs –– vast /expandingvast /expanding –

– originate largely from direct patient careoriginate largely from direct patient care

The implementation of EBM is much more complex The implementation of EBM is much more complex than the plugging of “information gaps”

than the plugging of “information gaps”

– it is not likely to be achieved by individual it is not likely to be achieved by individual practitioners searching for and appraising

practitioners searching for and appraising

evidence themselves

evidence themselves

The process of meeting information needs, using The process of meeting information needs, using the evidence based approach is time

(28)

Conclusions (2)

Conclusions (2)

Providing quality answers to questions can result in Providing quality answers to questions can result in real change in practice

real change in practice

Information providers need to combine academic Information providers need to combine academic and service dimensions

and service dimensions

Primary care professionals need to work with Primary care professionals need to work with

information specialists to identify ways of shaping

information specialists to identify ways of shaping

services to meet local contextual variations

(29)

References (1)

References (1)

1.

1. www.resourcefulpatient.orgwww.resourcefulpatient.org. Muir Gray. Accessed 27. Muir Gray. Accessed 27thth September 2004September 2004

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References (2)

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References (3)

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