The Structure and The Structure and Function of Cells - Function of Cells - Introduction Introduction

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(1)The Structure and Function of Cells Introduction.

(2) Warm-up The unit of structure and function of all living things is: a. an organ b. an atom c. a cell d. a nucleolus Starting with organelles that make up cells, write the levels of organization in an organism. This will help you get started: Organelles  cells .

(3) Secret Worlds: The Universe Within.

(4) Possible cell videos?? Cell Size comparison.

(5) Metabolism occurs in all organelles!! Transport Excretion/ Homeostasis Reproduction Nutrition Excretion. Synthesis Respiration. Synthesis Reproduction, Growth, Regulation & Homeostasis. Synthesis Transport.

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(7) How do cells communicate? Cell Phones!!! What do you call an amoeba that won’t share? Cell-fish!!.

(8) Cell Vocabulary – Ch 7 and 8.1. Cell Voc Quiz #1 SECTION 7.1, 7.2, AND 7.3 - CELL WALL THROUGH CYTOSKELETON (only 7 words in section 7.3) p.191. Cell Voc Quiz #2 The rest of section 7.3 and all of 8.1. p.217.

(9) Honor’s – Cell Analogies See my website for the worksheet!.

(10) Figure 2.1 The hierarchy of biological order from atom to organism.

(11) The Cell Theory Parts –The cell is the basic unit of structure of an organism. –The cell is the basic unit of function. –All cells arise from pre-existing cells.

(12) Anton van Leeuwenhoek: Invented the First Microscope. Robert Hooke: Coined the word “cell”.

(13) Robert Brown discovered the Nucleus. Matthias Schleiden was a botanist who helped create the cell theory..

(14) Theodor Schwann studied animals and contributed to the cell theory.. Rudolph Virchow was the first to say that all cells came from preexisting cells..

(15) Exceptions to the cell theory1. Where did the first cell come from? 2. What about Viruses?. - not a cell, but can reproduce if inside another cell - on the bridge between living and nonliving.

(16) CELL STRUCTURES ORGANELLES – tiny structures that make up cells CELL MEMBRANE – Semipermeable – Allows certain substances in and keeps other substances out (maintains homeostasis) – Made up of lipids and proteins – Cholesterol Helps maintain the structure of the cell membrane.

(17) Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) Excretion.

(18) Cytoplasm The jelly-like, liquid portion of the cell that holds the organelles in place. (the cytoskeleton helps with this). Cytoplasm – Cyclosis – the cytoplasm moving organelles around the cell (cytoplasmic streaming).

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(20) Cytoskeleton Made up of microfilaments (tiny, solid fibers) and microtubules (thin, hollow cylinders) (these are proteins).

(21) The Nucleus. Brain of the cell (controls cell activites) The nucleus has a membrane (envelope) Prokaryotes – lack a nucleus and organelles – PRO NO!!. Eukaryotes – have a nucleus and organelles – EU YOU!!. Reproduction & Growth Regulation & Homeostasis.

(22) Bacteria are the only prokaryotes! All other organisms are eukaryotes.. Prokaryotes lack these compartments.

(23) One more thing to worry about… Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells Prokaryotes NO NUCLEUS Have a cell membrane and cytoplasm…but no organelles Carry out life processes. Eukaryotes HAVE NUCLEUS Have organelles contained within the cytoplasm Carry out life processes.

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(25) Cell Wrap – Josh Sheetz Give Cell Project Information Make sure you choose a partner and that you bring stuff in to work on…you must show proof that you are working with a partner! Pictures, working on the ning, wiki, and e-mails will be great sources of proof!.

(26) Now, take notes in groups at the computers When you are finished, please see if you can answer the organelle review sheet that is at the end of the presentation Then, begin working on your cell project with your chosen partner..

(27) Size comparison of prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes. Warm-up: Explain the difference Between a prokaryote And a eukaryote..

(28) Cell Organelles.

(29) What’s inside the nucleus? Chromosomes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – genetic code.

(30) Chromatin Chromatin is tangled masses of DNA inside the nucleus Chromatin condenses into chromosomes right before cell division begins..

(31) Nucleolus Contains protein and RNA (ribonucleic acid)… Makes ribosomes. Synthesis.

(32) Ribosomes Site of protein sythesis Found free floating in the cytoplasm or on the endoplasmic reticulum.. Synthesis.

(33) Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 2 Types - Rough and Smooth ER Used for transport in the cell.

(34) Rough – has ribosomes Smooth – does not have ribosomes. Synthesis and Transport. The smooth ER helps detoxify. Excretion.

(35) Mitochondrion Powerhouse of the Cell!!! Cell Respiration occurs here! Do you remember what cell respiration makes??? Energy!! Folded inner membrane increases surface area!!! Remember that the energy is in the form of ATP!!.

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(37) Golgi Apparatus Packaging center of the cell. Along with the smooth ER, it also helps to detoxify! It makes vesicles to help with transport.

(38) Golgi Body Secreting Vesicles. Transport.

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(40) Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes Digest old worn out parts and invaders.

(41) Lysosomes breaking down organelles within a cell.. Nutrition.

(42) Vacuole Storage Hold food, oil, wastes HUGE in plant cells – they usually only have one!! smaller in animal cells – usually have more than one!!.

(43) Contractile Vacuoles Pump excess water out of Unicellular organisms..

(44) Turgor pressure pressure exerted against the cell wall in a plant from water in the vacuole When turgor pressure is present, plants are perky instead of wilted!!.

(45) Centrioles (Animal Cells only) Used during cellular reproduction. Centrioles.

(46) Cell Wall (Plant cell only) Surrounds the cell membrane and helps with structure and support in plant cells. Cell Wall. Cell membrane The cell wall allows Everything to pass through!! It is not semi-permeable like the membrane.

(47) The cell wall contains cellulose!!.

(48) Chloroplast (Plant cells only) Carry out photosynthesis take energy from the sun and make food. Contain chlorophyll, so they’re green!.

(49) Photosynthesis.

(50) Lets put ‘em all together. Animal Cells. Plant Cells.

(51) Animal Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum. Nucleolus. Nucleus. Cell Membrane. Vacuole. Mitochondria Lysosome Golgi Apparatus.

(52) Animal Cells-Drawing.

(53) Plant Cell. Chloroplast. Vacuole.

(54) Major Differences between Plant and Animal Cells Plant Cells. Animal Cells. No Centrioles Large vacuole. Have centrioles Small vacuoles No cell wall No Chloroplasts Usually round. Cell Wall Chloroplasts Usually rectangular.

(55) Do these in your groups!.

(56) Review – Do these in your groups! Which organelle is found in animal cells, but not in plant cells? Which organelles are found in plant cells, but not animal cells? What is the major physical difference between vacuoles in plant cells vs. animal cells? Which plant cells might not contain any chloroplasts? Which organelles are required by cells that have the function of making protein? Why are mitochondria required by a cell that moves by means of cilia or flagella?.

(57) et’s abel is gether!.

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(59) Warm-up – Label these cells! Write the numbers and their correct structures..

(60) Identify Organelles SmartBoard.

(61) Identify!!!.

(62) Identify!!!.

(63) Identify!!!.

(64) Identify!!!.

(65) Identify!!!. Identify!!.

(66) Identify!!!.

(67) Identify!!!.

(68) Identify!!!. Identify!!.

(69) Identify!!!.

(70) Identify!!!.

(71) Identify!!!.

(72) How does the structure of organelles relate to their function?.

(73) Metabolism occurs in all organelles!! Transport Excretion/ Homeostasis Reproduction Nutrition Excretion. Synthesis Respiration. Synthesis Reproduction, Growth, Regulation & Homeostasis. Synthesis Transport.

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(75) Coolest Cell Video Cellular Visions: The Inner Life of a Cell.

(76) End Cell Organelles.

(77) Cell Voc Quiz #1 Work on your graphic organizer after the quiz Then we are going to take a few notes Then we will do Day #2 of the egg diffusion lab Then you will work on your Cell Projects or take notes on Transport on the computers!.

(78) Cell Locomotion and Methods of Study.

(79) What are methods of cellular movement??? H o w d o c e lls m o v e ? ? C e llu la r lo c o m o t io n P seudopod. C ilia. F la g e lla.

(80) Pseudopods Pseudopods (false feet) Projections of the cytoplasm Examples – amoeba and some white blood cells.

(81) Cilia Cilia- tiny beating hairs that act like oars Examples – – Paramecium, cells that line your respiratory tract.

(82) Flagella Flagella- whip like tail Examples – Euglena, sperm cells.

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(85) Leewenhoek Compared to modern microscopes, it is an extremely simple device, using only one lens, mounted in a tiny hole in the brass plate that makes up the body of the instrument. The specimen was mounted on the sharp point that sticks up in front of the lens, and its position and focus could be adjusted by turning the two screws. The entire instrument was only 3-4 inches long, and had to be held up close to the eye; it required good lighting and great patience to use..

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(87) Methods of Cell Study.

(88) Magnification of a compound microscope Eyepiece (ocular) x objective Resolution is the ability to distinguish two objects that are close together..

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(90) Phase Contrast Microscope. Phase Contrast Microscope. Electron Microscope.

(91) Phase Contrast.

(92) Electron Microscope Micrographs Images are 100,000 – 300,000 times their normal size!!.

(93) Microdissection.

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(95) Cell Transport.

(96) Warm-up – Please write the answers only! Which organelle is the boundary between the cell and its environment? Which membrane-bound organelles transform energy in all eukaryotic cells? What are highly organized structures within cells? Which organelles are the sites of protein synthesis? What is the basic unit of organization of both unicellular and multicellular organisms?.

(97) On Top of the Membrane Song On top of the membrane Got a nice cushy seat On soft phospholipids And proteins so neat. The nucleus floats by And what do I see, A tangle of Chromosomes Two times twenty-three..

(98) A dark nucleolus Of pure RNA Will fashion the ribosomes That make proteins all day. They'll slip through the pores in The double membrane so tough And stick to the E. R. Which then becomes rough..

(99) Those cute mitochondria Keep dashing around. Without them in my cell No energy is found. The stacks of the Golgi All piled up so high Assembling large molecules So my cell won't die..

(100) The cytoplasms' streaming I think I'll jump in. I'll slip through the membrane And go for a swim. But I can't get through it Can't seem to get down. The membrane's selective And it knows I'm a clown..

(101) Cell Membrane – Fluid Mosaic Model.

(102) Fluid Mosiac Model Has a lipid bilayer With embedded proteins.

(103) The phospholipid.

(104) STOP!! BIG WORDS!!!! Hydrophobic: Hydro = Water ; Phobic = afraid The tail of the phospholipid is hydrophobic Hydrophilic: Hydro = Water ; Philic = loving The head of the phospholipid is hydrophilic This explains the structure of the phospholipid bilayer – (the heads are toward the water of the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid, the tails are not).

(105) Cell membrane Fxn. Controls transport into/out of a cell Holds the cell together Semi-permeable (Selectively permeable) Gateway: allows only certain materials to pass through. Head. Phospholipid. Tail.

(106) Membrane looks big? Picture this……. It would take 10,000 membranes to equal the thickness of one sheet of paper!!!. Cell Membrane.

(107) Cell Membrane Proteins Proteins embedded in the cell membrane allow molecules into and out of the cell They also serve as receptors to detect foreign invaders as well as accept hormones..

(108) Cell Membrane Proteins.

(109) DIFFUSION Diffusion: movement of materials from an area of high to low concentration without the use of energy. Materials move with the Concentration gradient Passive transport – No energy from the cell – High to low concentration – Materials move with the concentration gradient.

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(112) Osmosis Osmosis: the diffusion of water through a membrane Solutions can be referred to as: – – –. Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic.

(113) Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Isotonic Isotonic solution – cell remains the same….equal concentrations of water in and out of the cell. Hypertonic solution – Cell shrinks…There is a higher water concentration inside the cell than outside, so water will move out of the cell. Hypotonic solution – Cell expands…The water concentration is higher on the outside of the cell than inside, so water flows into the cell..

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(117) Osmosis Animation http://www.nclark.net/osmosisPocus.gif.

(118) The effects of osmosis on cells. Hypotonic. Isotonic. Hypertonic. Different solutions have different impacts on cells….

(119) Osmosis Tube.

(120) Think about this……. You have two identical pitchers side by side, one filled with exactly 2 quarts of water, the other filled with 2 quarts of Koolaid……….which has more water?? WHY???.

(121) Hyponatremia Can you drink too much water?.

(122) Facilitated Diffusion Transport proteins are used to move materials in and out of the cell by way of diffusion – there is still no energy used from the cell..

(123) Passive vs. Active Transport. Facilitated diffusion.

(124) Active Transport 1 - Active transport requires energy 2 - Active transport brings substances from a low to high concentration 3 – Materials move against the concentration gradient.

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(126) ENDOCYTOSIS AND EXOCYTOSIS Endocytosis – materials move INTO the cell Exocytosis – materials move OUT OF the cell.

(127) Active Transport vs. Diffusion.

(128) Active Vs. Passive Transport Active Transport – Requires Energy – Low to High Concentration – Against Concentration Gradient – Use Proteins. Passive Transport – No Energy – High to Low – With the concentration gradient – May or may not use proteins.

(129) Do this with your Group!.

(130) Do this with your Group!.

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(133) Warm-up Show 2 differences between active and passive transport by drawing diagrams. Use dots and arrows to show how particles move into or out of the cells..

(134) Osmosis Tube video clip from you tube.

(135) Cell Wall. Cell Wall.

(136) Cell wall - What is it? Only in plant cells, bacteria, and fungi - outside of the cell membrane Made of cellulose DEAD – everything passes straight through it!! Maintains structure – turgor pressure helps!! Holes called plasmodesmata help with transport between cells.

(137) PLASMODESMATA.

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(139) Cell Voc Quiz #2 Rest of 7.3 (endoplasmic reticulum – vacuole) and 8.1.

(140) End Cell Transport.

(141) Cell Communication.

(142) Cell Communication A major function of the cell membrane is to maintain HOMEOSTASIS!! Homeostasis is maintained by RECEPTOR molecules. (proteins) Receptor molecules receive NERVE and HORMONE signals from other cells. The receptors are actually proteins found in the cell membrane!!!.

(143) Review Smartboard activity – correct the cell paragraph!!.

(144) Cell Warm-up #7 Tell me one thing that you learned with the Cell Diffusion Lab we did yesterday. Please get out your lab sheet so we can go over the first part. We will do part 2 in a moment Please get out your Cell Packet – we are going to go over the back page.

(145) Cell Warm-up #8 Please list where these life functions are carried out in a cell (if you don’t know the answers, please look at your notes on cell structure) - Nutrition – Respiration – Excretion – Synthesis – Transport – Homeostasis.

(146) Warm-up #9 If you were able to walk inside a cell, which organelle would you be most curious to see? Describe what you think it would look and act like…..

(147) Warm-up #10 What are the black circles that you see sometimes when you make a wet-mount slide? What should you do if you see nothing when looking through the ocular? How do increase or decrease the amount of light going through the stage?.

(148) Warm-up #11 Please describe in detail how to focus a microscope! – Start on low power using the coarse adjustment, then.

(149) Microminiaturized!!! You have been microminiaturized and injected into a Human Body. As a Cytologist (a scientist that studies cells), your assignment is to enter a cell and explore it carefully. You are to keep a detailed log of your adventure, including the manner in which you entered and exited the cell. Briefly tell about your journey, making sure that you describe at least 5 of the organelles you encounter! The success of your journey depends on how creative you are with telling others about your journey..

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