Acaricidalactivity of essential oil in vitro. For in vitro applications, the essential oil was mixed with paraffin liquid to obtain five concentrations: 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/ml. Then, 0.1 ml of sample were di- rectly added to the Petri dishes (5 cm in diameter, 2 cm deep), and the mites were placed in the sample with 10 mites per dish. Ivermectin (1%) was used as a positive control and liquid paraffin as a negative control. All experiments were performed in six rep- licates. All dishes were incubated at 25 °C under 75% relative humidity and were observed under a ster- eomicroscope at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. Mites were considered to have died when they exhibited no reaction in response to stimulation with a needle.
Study Design: An experimental study was conducted from November 2017 to May 2018 to determine phytochemical constitutes and an acaricidalactivity of three herbal leaves extracts against the common cattle tick B. decolratous. Study Herbs and Collection: The traditionally recognized medicinal plants used by the local communities to treat animals were the study subjects. The herbs used in the present experimental study were Datura stramonium, Nicotiana glauca, and Azadirachta indica. The leaves of Azadirachta indica specimens were collected from Kalmino Campus, College of Veterinary Medicine while the leaves Nicotiana glauca and Datura stramonium were harvested from Mekelle City Districts.
Several studies in recent years have focused on the bio- active effects of plant-derived products against ectopara- sites, including essential oils. For instance, some essential oils, such as oregano oil, lavender, tea tree oil and neem oil, have been tested against Sarcoptes scabiei and Pso- roptes spp. and seem to have strong acaricidal efficacy in vitro [13–20]. Several essential oils were also tested in vivo against S. scabiei in rabbits, goats and pigs [21–24], against P. cuniculi in rabbits [13, 25–27] and against Cho- rioptes texanus in cattle . Essential oils are volatile oils which are naturally produced by plants as secondary compounds, and are commercially available as concen- trated products containing volatile aroma compounds [29, 30]. In general, essential oils are particularly attrac- tive over chemical acaricides, given their low animal tox- icity and short environmental persistence , although a limited number of studies have displayed phytotoxic effects of essential oils . Furthermore, essential oils are known to have a complex chemistry which sig- nificantly hampers the development of drug resistance against these compounds. On the downside however, essential oils often represent a complex mixture of com- pounds which makes it difficult to pinpoint the acaricidalactivity to a certain compound or a composition of com- pounds. Another potential disadvantage is skin irritation, which has been described in humans .
Methods: The object of this study was to appraise the acaricidalactivity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) size 15 nm against Hyalomma spp. in vitro. The arcaricidal activity of Zn NPs were evaluated at concentrations of 50, 125 and 250 mg/ml and controls (distilled water and Cypermethrin) following 10, 30 and 60 min of exposure in triplicate and the experiments were performed two spraying and contact methods.
Present study has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo acaricidalactivity of some indigenous plants under organized and farmer flock. The expeirment of in vivo and in vitro effect of adulticidal activity of crude extract of arand, yellow kaner and pudina in natural tick infestation have done. The results indicate that all these extracts had quite similar in vivo adulticidal activity on tick population. However, in vitro results revealed that the mortality percentage was higher as the concentration of extract increased and the time interval progresses. Statistical analysis of data further revealed that mortality was significantly different (p<0.5) at 4 and 24 hrs interval in case of crude extract of arand, yellow kaner and Pudina.
Abstract The acaricidal activities of solvent extracts and essential oil obtained from Cryptomeria japonica were investigated. The two target spider mites (Tetranychus kanzawai and T. urticae), are known pests for various crops. The C. japonica leaves, barks, and heartwood were extracted by hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol succes- sively, and acaricidal activities were tested by the leaf disc method. Acaricidalactivity was observed on a hexane extract of C. japonica leaves. Next, the acaricidal activities of essential oil obtained from leaves by hot water distilla- tion was tested and found to show stronger effects than the hexane extract. Elemol and ent-kaurene were found as the active components of essential oil. The LC 50 values of ent-
The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth. was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Caryophyllene oxide (39.2%) was the major compound following by benzyl benzoate (9.7%), phytol (7.8%), humulene epoxide II (6.8%), (E)-14-hydroxy-9-epi- caryophyllene (4.9%), myrcene (4.3%), linalool (3.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (3.5%) and (Z)- nerolidol (3.5%). The acaricidalactivity of this oil against Rhipicephalus microplus was assessed by modified Larval Packet Test (LPT) and Adult Immersion Test (AIT) with oil concentrations of 5%, 10% and 20% (v/v). Mortality percentages of larvae were 88.27%, 80.29% and 78.94% respectively at 20%, 10% and 5% dilutions. LC 50 value was 3.279%. Xylopia parviflora leave’s
The anticholinesterase and acaricidal activities of two plants of family Aizoaceae; Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Aizoon canariensis L. against Rhipicephalus annulatus tick were performed. Acaricidalactivity was evaluated using adult and larval immersion tests of different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mg/ml). Anti- acetylcholinesterase activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds were performed spectrophotometrically using different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml). Trianthema portulacastrum crude hydroalcoholic (CH) extract showed 100% adult and larval mortality, while A. canariensis L. showed only 20% and 25%, respectively (p ≥ 0.05). The bioassay-guided fractionation of T. portulacastrum hydroalcoholic extract was performed for the acaricidalactivity and both n-hexane fraction and the unsaponifiable matter (USM) retained a significant activity in immersion tests. Its column chromatography (CC) led to the isolation of a β-sitosterol (1)-stigmasterol (2) mixture (1:1). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed 70% adult mortality and the compound 20-hydroxyecdysone (3) was isolated as a major compound. The hydroalcoholic extract of T. portulacastrum, hexane fraction, and 20-hydroxyecdysone (3) produced the most potent inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In conclusion, T. portulacastrum L. contains secondary metabolites with acaricidal activities that provide promising natural products for controlling bovine tick. These acaricidal effects may be mediated, at least in part, via AChE inhibitory activities.
The acaricidalactivity of aqueous extracts obtained from 28 plant species was tested against Tetranychus urticae. The extract efficacy on the incidence of individual development stages of T. urticae on the treated plants was determined, compared to untreated plants. Of the 28 extracts, 24 showed an efficacy higher than 50%; of these, 16 extracts caused a reduction in the count of adults on the plants by more than 90% compared to the control. The counts of nymphs and eggs showed significant differences depending on the extract used. Only 13 extracts showed an efficacy higher than 50%, and only 2 extracts (obtained from ammi visnaga and Saponaria officinalis) had more than 90% efficacy. Twenty extracts resulted in eggs reduction of more than 50% compared to the control; of these, 6 extracts (from a. visnaga, G. glabra, J. palmata, l. carthamoides, O. majorana, S. officinalis) exhibited an efficacy higher than 90%. Extracts with the highest efficacy were tested for their acute toxicity for T. urticae adults, and LD 50(90) values were estimated. By comparing the confidence intervals (CI 95 ) for individual LD 50 values, extracts obtained from Saponaria officinalis roots and ammi visnaga seeds were found to provide the significantly highest efficacies, and lethal doses (LD 50 ) of 10.3 and 12.5 g/l, respectively, were estimated for them. However, wanting to compare LD 90 values as well, we chose 5 extracts (a. visnaga, C. annum, M. × piperita, O. majorana, and S. officinalis) whose CI 95 intervals overlapped (P ≤ 0.05). Based on our tests, aqueous extracts from S. officinalis roots can be recommended for the development of products which reduce the incidence of T. urticae on plants.
The present study has been designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, larvicidal and acaricidal activities of the ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and Carica papaya leaves. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was evaluated against five pathogenic bacterial and two fungal strains. The activity was compared with a standard antibiotic Erythromycin. Larvicidal activity of the extract was evaluated as the percentage mortality of mosquito larvae using different concentrations of the extract. Acaricidalactivity was evaluated against the cattle tick Rhipicephalous annulatus.The results of the present study are presented and discussed. The findings of the present study, clearly demonstrates the antimicrobial, larvicidal and acaricidal activities of the ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and Carica papaya.
The in vitro acaricidal effect of ethanolic extract and its hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were tested for acaricidalactivity in fully engorged adult female, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test. The results were compared with standard acaricidal drug deltamethrin. The crude extract showed more acaricidal property compared to the fractions with an LC 50 of 89.95 mg/ml and LC 95 117 mg/ml. Among fractions, the maximum mortality was observed with chloroform fraction with an LC 50 of 113 mg/ml while the maximum inhibition of fecundity was with the hexane fraction. Hatching of eggs laid by the treated ticks was inhibited by crude extract and its hexane fraction. It may be concluded that the acaricidal effect of Ageratum conyzoides L., is produced by more than one component, which may be of non-polar nature.
A tetraterpene; β-carotene and the alcohol germacra-1(10),5-dien-4-ol, also called germacrene D-4-ol were also found to be the minor compounds of oil of both Ricinus communis cultivars in the present study. Most of the major compounds from the two cultivars extract are biologically active molecules. They are considered to be a part of plant defense systems, and as such have been included in a large group of protective molecules found in plants named “phytoanticipins” or “phytoprotectants . Our results show that the variation in quantities of the main components e.g. monoterpenes and sesquiterpene, might be responsible for the different acaricidalactivity. The red cultivar RH21 has higher percentage of monoterpenes (42.22%) than the green one GH12 (34.20%). This result was in agreement with many studies reported the intense insecticidal properties of plant extract might be associated with their high contents of oxygenated monoterpenes . In the present study, camphor, α-thujone and 1,8-cineole were identified in the oil of RH21. In another study, Artemisia herba-alba oil rich in camphor, α-thujone and 1,8-cineole were demonstrated to have potent insecticidal activity against three stored product beetles . Monoterpenes possess many pesticidal activities, including insecticidal . A linear relationship between LD 50 values for house
Repellents are supposed to prevent arthropods from landing on the surface where they are applied (without a necessary killing effect). However, previous studies showed that DEET and IR3535 display insecticidal as well as acaricidalactivity [25, 26]. In the present study, the repellents DEET, IR3535 and icaridine had acaricidalactivity and differed in their effects on mites. Although the exact mode of action and molecular target of repellents remain controversial, there is evidence that repellents exert their effects through interactions with odorant receptors and gustatory receptors in insects . It was also demonstrated that DEET induced a neurotoxic effect on insects by disrupting the calcium equilibrium in the nerve cells . Faulde et al. showed that Both DEET and IR3535 revealed a dose-dependent insecticidal as well as acaricidalactivity, and DEET exhibited a higher knockdown effect and mortality than IR3535 . From the present study, DEET also showed a small-scale dose-dependent scabicidal activity, but IR3535 may work better than DEET against S. scabiei. Although the repellent products, especially DEET and IR3535, caused relatively high scabicidal effect, one can- not infer that repellents work better than pyrethroids.
Fluralaner demonstrates potent acaricidal in vitro acti- vity against all life stages of R. sanguineus. The investi- gation of contact as well as feeding routes using O. moubata nymphs underlines the high acaricidalactivity of fluralaner via both exposure routes. Given the fact that juvenile tick stages are even more susceptible to fluralaner than adult ticks, this molecule offers the op- portunity to even more effectively control ticks across their lifecycle.
The rapid systemic distribution of fluralaner leads to a targeted action on ticks through subcutaneous tissue fluids and blood. Therefore, the tick is exposed to a small but very potent dose of fluralaner on initial feeding and is rapidly killed at an early stage following attach- ment . Investigations using tick weights and the coxal index as a tick growth parameter showed that I. ricinus ticks attached to fluralaner treated dogs did not become engorged . Experimental studies using adult I. ricinus have shown tick killing activities of 89.6 % at 4 h, 97.9 % at 8 h, and 100 % at 12 and 24 h. Using tick counts at 8 h after re-infestation, efficacy was 96.8 % at 4 weeks and 83.5 % at 8 weeks post-treatment, whereas the efficacies at 12 and 24 h after re-infestation were at least 98.1 % over the entire 12 week period . A com- parative study against R. sanguineus and D. reticulatus following a 24 h exposure measured efficacy that de- clined from 100 % at 30 days to 65.7 % at 84 days after a single oral administration [88, 89]. Persistent fluralaner efficacy of 100 % for 115 days when assessed 72 h after treatment was measured against the Australian paraly- sis tick I. holocyclus following a single oral dose of at least 25 mg fluralaner . High fluralaner acaricidalactivity was shown following 48 h exposure of imma- ture R. sanguineus (s.l.) in an in vitro contact study and by artificially feeding Ornithodorus moubata nymphs . Efficacy against juvenile tick stages has also been observed under field conditions in Europe suggesting a larger tick control spectrum for fluralaner .
Several acaricidal agents have been tested for their repellent and acaricidal properties, mainly under labora- tory conditions, but also in field trials , evaluating also the efficacy against immature stages of the ticks. Permethrin 65% has been shown to have a higher effi- cacy in terms of repellency and tick killing efficacy than fipronil 9.7% against adult Ixodes ricinus under labora- tory conditions in dogs . In the field trial by Otranto et al. , a combination of imidacloprid 10%/permeth- rin 50% or fipronil 10%/(2)-methoprene 12% was used, resulting in a significantly different efficacy against im- mature stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus at day 28 post-treatment (98.52% versus 72.40%). Both prepara- tions could protect dogs against tick-borne infection by B. burgdorferi or A. phagocytophilum in an experimental setting as no dog seroconverted after imidacloprid/per- methrin and only 1 out of 8 dogs seroconverted after fipronil . Imidacloprid 10%/permethrin 50% was also very efficient (>95%) in protecting a dog population from exposure to Ehrlichia canis . A combination of fipronil, amitraz, and (S)-methoprene was shown to effi- ciently (86%) block transmission of B. canis canis by D. reticulatus and to protect all dogs from clinical signs . Apart from spot on formulations, an imidacloprid/ flumethrin collar has also shown high efficacy against tick infestation  and prevention of transmission of Babesia canis to dogs .
The collected leaves Elettariacardamomum and Ferula assa- foetida leaveswere cut into small pieces when got properly dried with the help of mixer. The powdered leaves (5 g) was weighed and soaked in 100 ml of methanol in a conical flask. The flask containing the leaves was shaken, corked and left to stand on shaker for 48 h at room temperature. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered by What man filter no1 and the extract was collected and concentrated by evaporation to dryness in evaporating dish (Trease et al., 1997). Keep it foe 50-72 hours in desiccator. The dried methanol extract was stored in refrigerator for, antimicrobial activity, anti-tumor activity study.
The basic structure of xanthone (Table 1) indicates that phenyl ring B cannot be substituted. Alteration of the net charge of adjacent atoms (qO11, qC9, qC9a, qC4a, qO10, qC10a, and qC8) will only be obtained through electronic density induction of charge modification of atoms in phenyl rings A and C. On the basis of the structure of compound 5 (as it had the best cytotoxic activity), this alteration could be achieved by modifications at qC5, qC7, and qC8 (ring A) and at qC1 and qC2 (ring C). Therefore, these two phenyl rings must be considered in designing a new xanthone with better cytotoxic activity. 41
The study design used in the study was similar to the one used in Prullage et al. . Ticks were placed next to the dogs and not in the fur; hence, the ticks had to move toward the host, which can be considered more similar to natural conditions. The thumb counts at 4, 12, and 24 h, although less accurate than a removal and count because they do not allow an easy counting by isolating the tick from the dog, gave data on the re- pellent effect while maintaining the ticks on dogs for the 48 h acaricidal efficacy assessment. The high number of ticks observed in the untreated control group at all time-points indicates that the tick challenge was vigo- rous on all assessment days (>30 ticks corresponding to >60% of the ticks used for infestation).