Drip irrigation means the drop by drop application of water directly to the plant root zone, Drip irrigation saves up to 50% of water on comparison to flood and furrow system of irrigation, Fertigation via Drip is 30% more effective than Flooding, The Combination of drip irrigation and Fertigation increases the productivity by up to 200% and in sugarcane by 133%, Saves the energy, Reduces the weed growth, Reduces the Incidence and Transmission of Pests and Diseases, When the Drip irrigation system is not Maintained properly, that is when day to day cleaning activities of Drip system is not performed, it leads to Blockage or Clogging of drip irrigation System, Majorly the problem of clogging arises due to the precipitation of the salts, to rectify this problem Acidtreatment is Necessary, In the Acidtreatment the selected acid is injected in to the drip system via the Venturi or fertigation tank, Where the Acidulated water remains in the laterals for 24 hours and then that Solution is driven out by the means of fresh water.
The effects of acidtreatment on some soil properties were investigated to assess the fertility of soils in both acid and non-acidic media. Six soil samples were collected around the Benue State University Makurdi. Each of the samples was divided into equal halves, the first half was leached with 0.1M HCl solution then washed with deionised water until it tested negative to 0.1M AgNO 3 solution. Both soil samples were analysed; the soil pH in distilled
The more positive upturn in both N and C isotopic signatures after 192 h had lapsed cannot easily be explained. However, this does coincide with an increase in weight in the majority of the samples immersed in the different aqueous acid solutions. If a new precipitate or solid is beginning to form or settle out of suspension at this time, then perhaps the heavier isotopes are preferen- tially incorporated into this new mineral species. The appearance of this proposed solid in the solutions after 192 h is unusual in that it appears to form in both the samples treated with acetic acid and those treated with formic acid. All isotopic data for these experiments were acquired on the same day, and samples were run in a random order to prevent any systematic bias in the results, so these unexplained trends appear to be real. This may be due to calcium acetate and calcium formate precipitation within each solution. These are not evident in the XRD traces obtained; however, they may be present in quantities that are below the detection limits of the apparatus or may not be crystalline. Only fluorapatite and calcite are shown to be present using XRD, but it is unli- kely that any weight increase could be due to the re-pre- cipitation of either mineral. In order for the reactions to operate in reverse, the solutions would have had to approach a pH of 9 to enter the carbonate stability field (see Zeebe and Wolf-Gladrow 2001). The most likely explanation is the formation of calcium salts, as observed during the acidtreatment of vertebrate fossil bone sam- ples by previous authors (see McCrae and Potze 2007 and references therein), thus causing the observed weight increase in the dry powder residue post-treatment.
enhanced by acetic acidtreatment under hydrothermal condition for 2 h, possibly due to the fact that more Ru oxide species and fine structure were achieved. The treated sample could be used as potential catalysts for DMFC and this method may be applied in other PtRu catalysts. The influence of the concentration of acetic acid, other acid, the treating time on the catalytic ability of the commercial PtRu as well as the reuse of the Pt and Ru leached into the solution is under investigation in our lab.
Above conclusions suggest that stearic acid covered the sites with high surface energy on the calcite powder surface. Therefore, treating the calcite powder with stearic acid will reduce the particle-particle interactions and hence facilitate the dispersion of the ﬁller in some matrix. On the other hand, the surface treatment enhances the compatibility between the ﬁller and matrix leading to better mechanical performance of the composite.
has a favorable safety profile. Adverse effects are few and they are mainly mild to moderate. The incidence of adverse gastrointestinal effects with the new oral formulation is comparable with that of placebo; even with the older preparations, no strong evidence supports an increase in adverse gastrointestinal effects with the use of tranexamic acid relative to placebo. Thromboembolic events have not been reported in treatment studies, and to date, data from population-based studies do not support the increase in incidence of venous thromboembolisms with the use of tranexamic acid. Treatment of HMB with tranexamic acid seems cost-effective compared with no treatment or NSAIDs, but not when compared with LNG-IUS. Tranexamic acid is non-hormonal, easy to use when needed, and exerts its effect fast. Potential complications caused by surgical procedures can be avoided by favoring medical therapy for HMB.
In cryotherapy group 21 patients (70%) had “complete clearance”,06 patients had recurrence as shown in [Table 1] and [Bardiagram 1].In the Salicylic acid group 05 patients(16.6%) had “complete clearance”. 03 patients had“recurrence” .In 20 patients there was “no improvement” and 2 had “partial recurrence” as shown in [Table 2] and [Bardiagram 2]. As per the statistical analysis cryosurgery treatment is superior to the 40% Salicylic acidtreatment (P<0.001) Images of pre and post treatment of cryosurgery, 40% Salicylic acid are shown in figure 1a, figure 1b and 2a and figure 2b respectively.
RA has beenassociated with tumor genesis as well as tumor inhibition. Retinoic-acid receptor responder protein 1 (RARRES1, formerly TIG1) is another RA- inducible gene which is gaining notice as a tumor suppressor in many cancer types. Typical of tumor suppressors, RARRES1 is also often silenced in cancers by promoter such as hyper methylation [9, 10].
Similar to the results of the ALADIN trial, a significant treatment effect was first appreciated in the experimental group relative to the placebo group by day 4; there was subsequent steady improvement thereafter. On the last day, the TSS of patients in the treatment group had improved by a mean of 5.72 points (P , 0.001). Further, there was significant improvement in all components (pain, burning, paresthesias, and numbness) measured by the TSS. Confirm- ing the beneficial relationship between ALA and subjective relief, the SYDNEY Trial showed significant amelioration in the mean change of positive and negative sensory symp- toms by the NSC metric (P , 0.05), although there was no significant improvement in perceptions of weakness. Patients rated the global efficacy of ALA as very good or good in a significantly greater proportion of participants in the 600 mg per day treatment group relative to placebo (P , 0.01). Significant improvement in NIS scores (2.7 points, P , 0.001) was also observed. The distal latency of the sural nerve was significantly shorter in the ALA group than in the placebo group (P = 0.017); however, no other significant effects on nerve conduction were identified. Of 120 participants, seven given placebo and one taking ALA Table 2 Placebo-controlled trials studying the safety of parenteral and oral alpha lipoic acid in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy
colon cancer and also its progression. Some studies showed low levels of folic acid in neoplasms. A study in Michigan in United States showed that Folic acid prevents cancer cell growth through block epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR] signaling and pathway-dependent growth. It should be noted that an overgrowth of cells in the gastrointestinal tract is a central and a main event in the carcinogenesis and tyrosine kinases particularly EGFR play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation. On the other hand there is evidence stating that a major role for EGFR is played in colon cancer. For example, over-expression of EGFR in neoplastic cells of colon also increases the activity of EGFR in colonic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis, adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. In this research, the amount of changes in the level of gene expression was measuredand the activity of EGFR that was induced by folic acid and it was observed that the expression and activity of EGFR reduced affected by folic acid (39). Another study (40) evaluated the effect of folic acid on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor gene expression in colon cancer cell line. IGF-I receptor plays a critical role in colon cancer creation and its progression. This receptor has an anti apoptotic role, which is coupled with some intra-cellular pathways such as phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase as a tyrosine kinase receptor. High expression of this gene can also be observed in primary tumors and colon cancer derived cell lines. Increasing the serum level of IGF-R is accompanied with adenomatous polyps even in upgraded adenomas. The results showed that folic acid can reduce the expression of this receptor which is folic acid dose-dependent, and also it is induced by decreasing in activity of promoter of IGF-I gene receptor.
Organic material can increase pH value of water sample from 2.4 to 7.2. The analysis shows that organic material with 50 g and 100 g weights can reduce sulphate content in water sample but the concentration value exceeds the international standard (WHO standard 500 mg/L ; Europe standard 250 mg/L) [26, 27]. Organic material with 50 g and 100 g weights can also reduce sulphur content in water sample. Similarly 200 g of organic material with retention times 15 and 30 minutes also can reduce sulphur content in water sample. However, retention time more than 30 minutes would increase the sulphur content after treatment. Based on all the results, the best parameter is 100 g organic material with retention time 75 minutes. The parameter has pH value 6.3 that comply with Environmental Quality Act 1974 including for effluent industry and effluent domestic . Sulphate and sulphur contents of this parameter were 1300 mg/L and 834 mg/L respectively. The reducing of these two anions shows that the reaction has occurred between organic material and water sample.
The authors thank CBMM for providing the niobic acid used in this work, the Conselho Nacional de Desen- volvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), the Coor- denadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal do Nível Su- perior (CAPES), the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Espírito Santo (FAPES) and the Fundo de Apoio a Ciên- cia e Tecnologia da Prefeitura de Vitória (FACITEC) for financial support.
Abstract Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is commonly used for conditioning the glass ceramics either prior to cementation or for intraoral repair in prosthetic and restorative dentistry. The present study offers a review of chemical properties of HF used, highlight the possible hazardous effects of this agent, and to recommend the treatment approach for potential risks. Available published information documented in PubMed, Medline, and Picarta literature databases was reviewed. Additional information was derived from scientific reports, medical and chemical textbooks, handbooks, product infor- mation, manufacturers’ instructions, Internet web sites of the HF manufacturers. No report was found on the incidence of the hazardous effects of HF in dentistry. Reports from other fields presented incidences of acute and chronic symptoms in exposure to HF. While acute symptoms include skin or nail burns, chronic ones involve systemic toxicity, eye injuries, inhalation and ingestion-related symptoms that can be even fatal. HF can be harmful and particularly aggressive to soft tissues, but symptoms may not be apparent immediately after exposure. The hazardous effects are not based on the pH
A specific quantity (100 mg) of developed gel was taken and dissolved in 100 ml of Neutralizing Phthalate Buffer pH 5.4. The volumetric flask containing gel solution was shaken for 2 hr on mechanical shaker in order to get complete solubility of drug. This solution was filtered and estimated spectrophotometrically at 305 nm and 208 nm for salicylic acid and urea using Neutralizing Phthalate Buffer pH 5.4 as blank 4 .