The elderly population (the retired people whether from formal or informal sector that is, people who cease from work due to old age) need relevant adulteducation programmes to enable them adjust and cope with changing and challenging conditions of their lives and in order to feel they are still relevant in the society where they belong. The adulteducation programmes should be able to motivate the elderly person at this period of life and to have the feeling that he/she can still learn and acquire knowledge in order to continue to exist comfortably and flourish in the society even during this old age period. For an elderly person to say that he/she is too old to learn makes him/her shuns social responsibilities as active members of the society and loses the will to live (Osunde & Obiunu, 2005)
1. An evaluation of current levels and types of adulteducation programs within its region, including education for adults in correctional facilities; credit, noncredit, and enhanced noncredit adulteducation coursework; and programs funded through Title II of the federal Workforce Investment Act.
As an educator, why undertake such a study of social services? First, there is already much research and understanding in the adulteducation field that participation in learning activities may be hampered until other problems or stresses in learners’ lives are resolved. Social service agencies play a key role in helping learners overcome stresses related to employment, child care, housing, transportation, and health care, to name just a few. At the same time they are trying to help, however, social service agencies contribute to the stress that refugees and
In the mid-1970s, the University of Nottingham’s Department of Adult Educa- tion published a landmark collection: The University in its Region: the Extra- mural Contribution. In the opening chapter, on the origins of adulteducation in Nottingham, Alan Thornton described nineteenth-century Nottingham as ‘a radical sort of place’ (1977, p. 3). His claim had much to commend it: E.P. Thompson’s Making of the English Working Class (1963) is peppered with ex- ploits of the city’s radicals, from Jacobins to Luddites. In 1832 three men were hanged, and four transported, for their incendiary contribution to riots for elec- toral reform. In 1847 the city elected Feargus O’Connor – the only Chartist ever returned as a Member of Parliament. As late as 1885, the Riot Act was read – and police charged the crowd – when John Burns of the Social Democratic Federation stood for Parliament in Nottingham West. Beckett’s more recent (2006) account has nuanced this story of radical struggle – but Thornton took it for granted that the history of adulteducation in a region needed to be grounded in the social movements which democratised society and knowledge.
Dr. Noorie Brantmeier is a new Assistant Professor in the AHRD program. She earned her Ph.D. in AdultEducation and Human Resource Studies with a specialization in research methods from Colorado State University, a Master’s degree in Social Work from Washington University in St. Louis, and a bachelor’s degree in Social Work from Indiana University. Noorie has experience as a teacher in pre-K through doctoral contexts, as an external evaluator, social worker, non-profit trainer, grantwriter, consultant, and business owner. Her research interests have focused on culturally competent research with vulnerable and marginalized populations, service learning in domestic and international contexts, mixed methods research, and Native American Studies. Dr. Brantmeier will teach both undergraduate and graduate level courses and supervise theses and research projects.
In England, there is also a need for ‘parity of entitlement’ for ring-fenced funding for ESOL provision to be considered part of basic skills funding and workforce development arrangements. Many adult learners are looking for flexible ‘step on step off’ provision, yet the move has been to reduce flexibility by suppliers. As it currently stands, a single institution has to be responsible for awarding a qualification. This leaves little incentive for institutions to collaborate around credit accumulation and transfer. Making progress in this area would be a significant boost to flexible learning. For example, changes might support mixed modes of study through different providers to add up to a qualification – allowing a student to combine distance learning delivered by one provider with more traditional on-site provision through another. While government motivation for promoting regional/cross-sectoral strategic partnerships may initially be financial, there are further opportunities for adulteducation to be embedded in differing types of partnerships and delivered locally. That is particularly the case if it is to stretch out successfully into communities to reach more of the most disadvantaged, those who have become lost to education. Some examples might include:
This Brief, CERTIFYING ADULTEDUCATION STUDENTS: A Survey of State Directors of AdultEducation on Certificate Programs in Use, looks at certification systems in use across the country, as reported by state ABE directors, to validate student attainment in adulteducation and workforce skills programs. Conducted over six months in 2010, it presents the findings of a simple online questionnaire administered by CAAL senior advisor and policy analyst Garrett Murphy. Mr. Murphy was assisted in the survey’s telephone phase by CAAL Research Asssistant Bess Heitner.
International collaboration between higher education institutions have brought many benefits to adulteducation. Partnerships between different universities and research institutions have increased cross-border learning opportunities and intercultural understanding. While most Canadian universities are moving towards considering the strategic value and quality of such partnerships over quantity (AUCC, 2014), a main challenge has been building reciprocal and social accountable partnerships with international institutions. Reciprocity is an important factor in considering international collaboration in higher education. Internationalization of higher education has entered a phase of calling for respect for different cultures and multiple knowledge systems. Therefore, universities should increase their commitment in internationalization towards fostering cultural diversity and two-way flow of knowledge.
If Houle has been the most influential person in attempting to develop a new discipline of adulteducation, Malcolm Knowles, formerly executive director of the AdultEducation Association of the USA and professor of education at Boston University has probably been the most influential figure in the emergence of adulteducation as a field of professional practice. He borrowed the word 'andragogy' from Yugoslavia to refer to "... the art and science of helping adults learn" 24 which he contrasted with pedagogy which he refers to as "the art and science of teaching children". 25 He bases this distinction on four assumptions about the differences between childhood and adulthood The self-concept of the adult is different from that of a child. As people mature their self-concept changes from one of dependence to one of independence or self-directedness; the reservoir of experience which the adult brings to the learning situation is greater than that brought by the child; The developmental talks faced by the adult are different from those of the child and the bases are somewhat different; The adult approaches learning with a time perspective that is different from that of children. On the basis of these assumptions he argues that a new technology is emerging designed to help adults learn. In developing this new technology he does not see adulteducation as being limited to any single intellectual or philosophical tradition. On the contrary he himself draws pragmatically on several of the traditions and approaches which we discussed earlier and he sees the unity of the field of adulteducation emerging. from the development of an increasingly sophisticated technology for helping adults learn.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract: Societies include social classes or social groups with different levels of access to education, health care, housing, transportation, leisure, voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, quality neighborhood, living wages, and other goods and services. Some people think that the gaps among groups are considered as resulting from individual efforts and drive. Others believe that unequal access to resources stems from structural and institutionalized exploitations of one group by another, thus argue for social justice. Many believe that education can help tackle the structures that are the root causes of social and economic inequalities, thus lead to social justice. However, education for social justice has mostly been considered in the perspective of young children and youth. What is the meaning of social justice in the context of adulteducation? Reaching social justice has been a challenge throughout the history of the American society and remains critical in adulteducation. This paper reviews the concept of social justice and provides an overview in terms of its meaning for liberal, progressive, behaviorist, humanist, radical, analytic, and postmodern philosophies of adulteducation.
estimated that 180.000 further adults would participate in courses as result of the plan (Regeringen, Landsorganisationen i Danmark & Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, 2014). In the guidelines for the use of the grant, the following trends can be identified: 1) the teaching of general skills for adults was to be linked more closely to the teaching of vocational skills, and that the labour market training centres were to take care of this; 2) schemes and economic support for up-skilling to higher levels of education should be improved, so that for instance more adults could become skilled workers; 3) a number of fees paid by users of vocational training courses (either individuals or companies) were to be reduced in order to increase activity. This must be seen on the background of previous rounds of cutting public expenses, where the government had increased the participation fees for all types of adulteducation. However, the Growth Plan’s reduction of fees only applied to the vocational training courses, not to general adulteducation. Controlling public spending and improving labour supply thus led to vocational training being given priority by not only the government but also the social partners.
It can be reiterated that the use of electronic media/technology is surely the path to acquire and apply Knowledge in adulteducation. It is the path to perceive and manipulate things in the physical world? Indeed, these paths are part of what technology is. The use of technology excites people who want to uncover principles that all intelligent procedures must follow, not just those made of wet neural tissue (Salem, 2000). Just as psychological knowledge about human information processing can help make computer intelligent, theories derived purely by using computers suggest possibilities about methods to educate people better, according to Winston (2001). Said another way, the methodology involved in making smart programs may transfer to making smart people. It is perceived that rather than eliminating the jobs of qualified adulteducation faculty, it is in the best of institutions to undergo faculty development processes. Faculty development may justify the implementation of action planning, thereby yielding to education of the adults and educators.
The links between sustainability, education policy and social justice are under continuous construction and differ across socio-cultural and geo-political contexts. Investigations into these may be differently labelled as education policy, lifelong learning, eco-pedagogy, or social justice research, to mention just a few. Some links are also emerging from the work of adulteducation scholars in North America and Europe, whose different (and complementary) approaches to research can help to deepen our understandings both of the interrelations between sustainability, education policy and social justice, and of their worldwide relevance. We hope the contributions presented in this FOCUS issue will provide a basis for further scientific reflection on the role of education policy for the sustainable prosperity of individuals, their immediate communities, and society at large, in accordance with the principles of (inter-generational) justice. Specifically, the articles deal with the discursive potential of sustainability as a consensus-builder in otherwise contestable political processes (Suzanne Smythe), the sustainability of national policies in the context of prolonged absence of political consensus (Marcella Milana & Lesley McBain) and the need for rethinking top-down policy-making processes (Rosanna Barros), the links between education, work and the economy in multicultural societies (Susan Webb), and more – or less – democratic forms of governance (Carlos Tames Vargas). Bi-lingual abstracts introduce each of these contributions in more detail.
The Certificate in AdultEducation is a program offered by the University of New Brunswick. The Certificate in AdultEducation can be completed as a stand-alone certificate or used as a first step towards a Bachelor of Education, AdultEducation degree. It is designed for mature learners who have at least one year (or equivalent) of full time paid or volunteer experience in educating, training, or counseling adults. The Certificate prepares learners to be adult teachers, trainers, or counsellors. It provides basic skills and knowledge of the techniques, methods, and philosophy of adulteducation.
other hand, as Giddens declared that the individual is regarded as an agent capable of making causal interventions, then the social system might be regarded the outcome of the human action. In this regard, any social change in a social system might be occurred by this human action as the agent individuals of the society. That may form an “infinite action” concept in a society and its structures through praxis. Besides, when it is thought that education is a social system and praxis in a society, then the members of this social system have an impact on social structures and constructions through their social actions and could easily cause social changes in any social context of life and transform the sociology of educational structures and constructions through the organized human action, then the individual in that society becomes a social actor. Hence, in general each education system in particular adulteducation are supposed to be transformative and liberating, democratic, humanist and egalitarian, not hegemonic and patronizing of the dominant culture in industrialized societies of the world and their structures. Gramsci, for example, recognized the significance of that dominant culture in these societies, Freire also highlighted a similar principle in colonized countries of the third world as well. Then, education is more likely to be affected by social forces than to be a force for change, but should be vice versa.
The national report presented by Yemen at the regional meeting in Hammamat, Tunis, indicates a number of ministerial decrees in 1998, 1999, 2000 dealing with women and girls’ right to education, the social status of women, women’s economic rights, as well as a national strategy for the advancement of women (2003-2005). The focus of most of these decisions has been on closing the gender gap in education, concentrating on women’s literacy in rural areas, and designing literacy and educational programme specifically for women. In this context, therefore, the AdultEducation and Literacy body has so far established 44 literacy and adult training centers for women. The aim of the programmes delivered at those centers, in addition to providing women with basic literacy, is to provide them with the necessary skills to improve their economic status through a number of vocational and life skills training programmes. Also in response to the national strategy for women, an adulteducation curriculum specifically for women was designed and books published dealing with basic literacy in two stages; post- literacy; health and disease prevention; family planning, pre- and post-natal health; women’s health and nutrition.
great deal of 'continuing education' with 'vocational' education is supplied by these colleges. However. in the Federal Republic of Germany, further education deals with 'adulteducation', 'continuing education' and also 'vocational re-training', and is actually determined as all kinds of continuation or even resumption of researches after finalization of the 1st educational period of differing timeframe as well as, as a rule after, taking full- time work. lt is actually for adults of every age group and also academic credentials, as well as might be 'vocational' or even 'overall'. Frirthci education is, thus, supplied mainly for adults of all ages at post-secondary levels; it features comprehensive programs developed to keep such experts as legal representatives, physicians as well as developers up-to-date in their areas. It likewise consists of several assortments of level programmes created particularly for adults, occupation therapy and guidance for job adjustment solutions, and programs of non-credit training courses. Thereby, additional education is actually dealt with as education for the experts as well as for those looking for guidance for professions.
In addition, the refugee crises in Europe have highlighted debates over the role of adult learning and the best way for rapid inclusion into society and working life. In Norway, more attention is placed on the importance of informal learning and qualifications that encompass different competencies. Innovation is also prized because Norway has long traditions of incorporating culture and learning into workplace practices. In summary, there are three main challenges that Norway faces in emphasizing education as key tools. The first 1) is the lack of labour and competence, the second is 2) social equalization and inclusion, and the third 3) is the need for innovation and economic growth. These challenges are the social context that has set the agenda for adult learning strategies in Norway. Norway seems to follow international strategies, but national challenges make that task slightly difficult. In Norway, the importance of voluntary sector in adulteducation has declined for the last 15-20 years. In many ways, the vo- luntary sector has existed separately from the official Norwegian educational policy, which is a pity because they organize many different learning activities, both formal and non-formal (Stenøien & Tønseth, 2017).
This paper has focused on the key issue of professionalization of adulteducation careers in Botswana. The em- phasis and the comments seemed to betray at the same time a concern that adult educators acquire a set of “flexible” skills that would allow them to adapt to a changing employment situation and to develop new venues for adulteducation in varied institutional and sectoral settings. In fact, when comments about present weak- nesses of professional associations and potentials of the University are put side by side, it becomes evident that the network of alumni of UB training cycles constitutes at present the closest thing to a broad professional asso- ciation available and its own infrastructure the best approximation of facilities for continuing professional edu- cation. Stakeholders concurred that professional associations are currently weak in Botswana and made proposi- tions for more passionate activity on their part.