cataract development states that the oxygen free radicals damage proteins and cell membrane of the lens, and micronutrients with antioxidant capacity can protect the lens against these changes (9). Therefore, different aspects of diet may reduce the risk of cataract by reducing oxidative stress or systemic inflammation (2). The protective effect of antioxidants against cataract has been observed in animal and in vitro studies, yet this impact has not been well identified in human epidemiological studies (10). Many recent studies have examined the relationship between the risk of age-relatedcataract and at least one dietary antioxidant such as vitamin C (11), vitamin E (12), and carotenoids (5, 12, 13). However, apparently, none of these studies show a constant relationship between cataract risk and these antioxidants intake. Lack of this relationship may be a result of differences in the populations studied and also the methods used in these studies. Most studies evaluating the association of dietary factors with age-relatedcataract have been carried out in European and American countries (14). Little research has been done in this area in Asian countries, especially Iran with different lifestyle patterns and dietary habits. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the relationship between antioxidant macronutrients and micronutrients and the risk of cataract in people over 40 in Tehran.
Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions . More than 40% of low vision and blindness was caused by age-relatedcataract throughout the world, and the majority of peo- ple blind from cataract were found in the devel- oping world . Besides, the number of people blind from cataract is increasing due to chang- es in the demographic structure of populations, especially the increased life expectancy . Thus, it is important to identify the protective factors for age-relatedcataract and may help to enhance the quality of life for older people. Many studies had suggested that lutein and zeaxanthin or antioxidant vitamins, which are highly concentrated in fruits, may play an important role in cataract prevention [4-6]. Up to now, some researchers have done a lot of research on fruit consumption and age-relatedcataract risk and a number of epidemiologic studies have been published on this field. However, the results are not consistent. The-
Juronen et al.  investigated the associa- tion between GST polymorphism, smoking status, and senile cataract incidence in the cataract pa- tients. This study showed that in the GSTM 1-pos- itive phenotype, the susceptibility to senile cataract development was weekly associated in smokers when compared with non-smokers, but this re- lation was not statistically significant (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 0.79–3.67). Our study has demonstrated possible associations between GSTM 1 null geno- type and age-relatedcataract, also interactions be- tween GSTM 1 null genotype and smoking sta- tus. Also, we have found an additive effect of the
Strategies will be designed to identify all relevant studies for HRQoL among age-relatedcataract patients. We will search the bibliographic electronic databases like the Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, SCOPUS, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Health Technology Assessment database, MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Regis- try Platform (WHO ICTRP) systematically. For each database, we will use words and expressions from controlled vocabulary (MESH, EMTREE, and others) and free text searching. There will be no language or date restrictions for the literature search. Results will be managed using Covidence online software to facilitate automatic and manual removal of duplicate records, study screening and selection and record keeping. An example search strategy for EMBASE is given as Additional file 2.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May 2011 and December 2012 in the Ophthalmology Depart- ment of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China. All of the preoperative cataract patients who matched the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: patients aged 40 years or older; patients diag- nosed as age-relatedcataract(s) without other major eye diseases, such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, or diabetic retinopathy; and patients who had not previ- ously undergone cataract surgery in either eye. Cataract patients were excluded if they could not understand the questions, were unable to communicate, or had other serious systemic diseases that affected their quality of life (e.g., paralysis or mental disorders). All of the cataract patients had a complete ophthalmic and physical exam- ination before the operation. A total of 408 cataract pa- tients were identified as eligible for this survey. Seven cataract patients refused to participate, and 401 eligible patients completed the questionnaire.
Patients with age-relatedcataract and controls were re- cruited from the Eye Clinic at Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Mölndal, after informed consent. The Regional Research Ethics Committee in Gothenburg approved the study and the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki were followed. The studied subjects consisted of 103 patients with age-relatedcataract and 22 controls. Cataracts were classified as nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular using biomicroscopy performed by four different sur- geons. Patients with secondary cataracts, such as steroid-induced cataract, were excluded. Controls were either spouses or relatives to glaucoma patients, had glaucoma themselves or were recruited from the emer- gency ophthalmic clinic, with diagnoses such as vitreous detachment or blepharitis. Exclusion criteria for controls were previous cataract surgery, age <60 years or current lens opacities. The latter was evaluated by slit lamp biomicroscopy by one ophthalmologist only. Data on smoking (current/former smoking habits), hormones (current/former use of contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy), diabetes and age at menarche/ menopause was obtained for all individuals and age was reported at the time of sample collection (Table 1).
Background: Anterior chamber depth (ACD) is becoming a hot topic and plays an important role in correcting the refractive errors (REs) after cataract surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the ACD changes and their relationship with the REs after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in patients with age-related cataracts. Methods: One hundred forty-five eyes of 125 age-relatedcataract patients from the Department of Ophthalmology, Tangdu Hospital, China, were recruited. IOL Master was used for axial length (AL) and the IOL power calculation measurements, and the Pentacam HR device was used for the ACD and lens thickness (LT) measurements. Every patient underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification by a single surgeon using a single technique. Postoperative refraction results were obtained at 1 month. The appropriate formula used for the IOL power calculation was chosen depending on the AL, specifically the Hoffer Q (AL < 22.0 mm), SRK/T (22.0 mm ≤ AL ≤ 30.0 mm), and Haigis (AL > 30.0 mm) formulas.
Abstract: Background: There is no consensus on the association between dietary fruit intake and age-related cata- ract. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze the relationship between dietary fruit intake and age-relatedcataract risk. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Web of knowledge to identify all studies that assessed the association between dietary fruit intake and age-relatedcataract risk through January 1, 2016. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with random-effect model were used to com- bine the results. Publication bias was estimated using Egger’s regression asymmetry test. Results: Eight related ar- ticles met our selection criteria and contained a total of 6218 cases and 111093 participants. Our meta-analysis re- sults revealed that highest level of dietary fruit intake could significantly reduce the age-relatedcataract (RR=0.80, 95% CI=0.68-0.93, P=0.005; I 2 =47.5%, P
Thirty eyes of 26 patients undergoing lens phacoemulsifica- tion of cataract and implantation of a trifocal diffractive IOL (AT LISA tri 839MP; Carl Zeiss Meditec AG) for age-relatedcataract were enrolled in this prospective, consecutive case study. The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical principles based on the Declaration of Helsinki and its amendments, consistent with Good Clinical Practices and local regulatory requirements. Written informed consent was obtained from all study subjects, and the protocols were reviewed and approved by the institutional review board at the Peking University Third Hospital, where the study was conducted.
A few limitations of our study should be noted. The cur- rent study is descriptive in nature and thereby does not fully address potential explanatory factors for the hosp- tialization patterns. In addition, we are unable to measure temporal trends or seasonal variation in the use of other health services such as emergency department or physi- cian visits. We have counted each procedure in the numer- ator, although one person could have two procedures. However, it is exceedingly unlikely for an individual to have two cataract procedures at the same time, or within the same calendar month so this does not bias the meas- ures. The strengths of this study lie in its longitudinal base and large population size coupled with the use of a com- prehensive time series analysis approach applied to gen- der. These results improve our understanding of gender differences as well as overall trends in age-relatedcataract hospitalizations in Ontario.
Definition and grading of age-relatedcataract Definite ARC was defined as presenting visual acuity of less than 10/16 combined with any category of lens opacity which meets the fol- lowing criteria according to LOCS II: Cortical cataract was defined as opacity greater than or equal to 1/4 of pupil circumference. Nuclear opacities were graded and cataract was defined as greater than or equal to nuclear opales- cence grade 1.0. Posterior subcapsular cata- ract was defined as posterior subcapsular opacity greater than or equal to grade 1.0. Persons with previous cataract surgery per- formed after they were 50 years of age due to ARC referring to the questionnaire and eye examination were included for ARC prevalence estimation . Complicated or traumatic cata- ract was excluded.
promising role for EPHA2 as a target for antibody treat- ment in melanoma and enhanced the therapeutic effect as an agonistic antibody to EPHA2 . Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of EPHA2 induces apoptosis and abrogates tumorigenic growth of tumor cells . Recent studies have identified EPHA2 as a surprisingly abundant plasma membrane component in cells of the ocular lens . Mutations in EPHA2 have been shown to underlie inherited forms of cataract in humans [54, 55]. Common variants in EPHA2 have been associated with the much more prevalent age-related form of cata- ract. Dave et al. showed that mutations in EPHA2 accounted for 4.7 % of inherited cataract cases in South- Eastern Australia, and a rare variant rs139787163 was potentially associated with increased susceptibility to cataract, providing a link between congenital and age- relatedcataract . Furthermore, the cytoprotective and antiapoptotic function of EPHA2 in lens epithelial cells was abolished by the functional polymorphisms . These results indicated the potential role of EPHA2 in maintaining lens clarity during aging by promoting cell viability.
Concerns have been raised that participants in trials could be stressed  or even harmed [8,9] by provision of personal and/or of general study results . Possible emotional harmful effects include: reliving difficult moments, learning of being part of the “inferior” trial arm or being at higher risk for a health-related problem . The risk of such harmful effects was not great in CTNS because an effective surgical remedy is available for age-relatedcataract and the intervention is known to have essentially no side effects. However, the results of CTNS could have been cause of concern because of the increase in posterior sub-capsular opacities that was unexpectedly noted among those in the active treatment arm. In fact almost 20% of the participants expressed some concern: 2.6% of the participants answered that they experienced concern after receiving the results and 17.2% declared that they felt “both satisfaction and concern”.
Materials and methods: A total of 32 patients underwent phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia for visually significant cataract. Preoperative pupillary diameter was measured 3 days prior to surgical procedure under mydriatics (tropicamide 0.8%, phenylephrine hydrochloride 5%). Intraoperative pupillary dilatation was achieved by 1% intracameral lignocaine solution alone. Effective phacoemulsification time (EPT), total surgical time, and final pupillary diameter were recorded at the conclusion of surgery.
As the supporting element, haptics are crucial to main- taining the position of the IOL. Various haptic designs have been compared in terms of the position stability of IOLs. Haptic designs of single-piece versus three-piece IOLs are often compared because these are the most commonly used types. Single-piece IOLs have soft and broader haptics that are manufactured from the same material as the optic, usually hydrophobic or hydrophilic acrylic, whereas three-piece IOLs have rigid haptics that are composed of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). Clin- ical studies comparing these haptic designs have yielded conflicting results regarding their position stability in the capsular bag, the most-recommended site for IOL fixation in an uneventful cataract surgery.
Results The mean age of the study participants was 69 years and cataract was iden- tified in 122 men. The age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for cataract for men in the highest vs lowest quintile of tibia lead level was 2.68 (1.31-5.50). Further adjustment for pack- years of cigarette smoking, diabetes, blood lead levels, and intake of vitamin C, vita- min E, and carotenoids resulted in an OR of 3.19 (95% CI, 1.48-6.90). For patella lead level, there was an increased risk of cataract in the highest vs lowest quintile (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.88-4.02), but the trend was not significant (P=.16). Blood lead lev- els, more indicative of short-term exposure levels, were not significantly associated with cataract (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.46-1.72; P=.73).
As a major structural protein component expressed in the lens, alpha A-crystallin (CRYAA) is considered critical for the maintenance of lens transparency . Many studies showed that CRYAA was related to the pathogenesis of ARC, including a study conducted by our research group [6–8]. The chaperone-like activity of CRYAA enables it to protect other crystallins against thermally induced inactivation or aggregation . In addition, CRYAA can trap aggregation-prone denatured proteins, an action that is thought to delay the develop- ment of ARC . Although previous research demon- strated that the levels of CRYAA decreased in the nuclear capsule of ARC patients compared to those of controls , the mechanism underlying the downregula- tion of CRYAA in the lens was unclear.
As described above, our data indicate that changes of the expression levels of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the lens epithelium might be involved in cataracto- genesis. Many other issues could also be involved in cataractogenesis, such as during the developmental timing process. Additional underlying risk factors and clinical appearances are also important in cataractogen- esis. Because the cataractogenesis process is quite different between age-related and congenital cataracts, the regula- tory factors may differ accordingly. More interestingly, we also found that the reduction of the two soluble crystallin proteins in the lens epithelium was significantly greater in the congenital cataract than in the age-relatedcataract group. The results indicate that the differences in reduc- tion of α-crystallin might be one of the contributing factors to the variety of cataract presentation. Because of the highly reduced expression of α-crystallin in the lens epithelium of congenital cataracts, the fiber cells differen- tiated from these lens epithelial cells may lack α-crystallin. Thus, the dramatic changes in cell shape and length of these differentiated fiber cells, which closely rely on an intact cytoskeleton, would be adversely affected . In addition, α-crystallin is required for the stabilization of the microtubules, actin, and intermediate filament cytoskel- eton structures . All these changes could promote cataract formation.
In conclusion, our research is the first to conduct a microarray screening for oxidative stress and cell apop- tosis associated miRNAs in HLECs. The selected miR- NAs were further validated by clinical samples from age-related nuclear cataract patients, which suggest that miR-34a-5p, miR-630 and miR-335-3p might be poten- tial regulators of cataract formation. Among them, miR- 630 and miR-335-3p are first reported in the field of cataract research. Further mechanism research is needed to identify these miRNAs’ target genes and functions and these miRNAs may serve as molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of age-relatedcataract. Table 3 Genes targeted by at least two miRNAs in the cluster
time in this group (55-65) has been increased. De- cline of hand function with rise of age, is clearly presented in the other researches. (5, 7, 8, 9, 10) Age-relate changes muscle strength, sensibil- ity, touch/ pressure threshold, neuromuscular, In coordination, visual, hearing, nerve conduction velocity , skin receptors, sensory perception and central processing . these changes affects on hand function .(11,12,13,14,15,16,17)