The term ‘infrastructure’ is defined as the basic support system like permanent installation for undertaking agricultural marketing activities in any location to enhance the efficiency of the system (Sekhon and Rangi, 2007). Adequate market infrastructure helps in maintaining the quality of agricultural produce as well as in reducing the losses in handling. Trade infrastructure in the agriculturalmarkets connotes the basic infrastructure required for facilitating the trade of agricultural commodities. The main components of trade infrastructure are common covered auction halls, common open auction platforms, farmers’ market and the traders’ shops to facilitate the trade. Different categories of shops exist to cater to the arrival requirements. A different category also exists where small platforms (with no sheds) are provided for smaller transactions. A very important initiative exists in terms of creation of farmers’ markets (usually weekly markets), where small and marginal farmers have been provided space in the markets for direct marketing of their produce to consumers. Mostly, fruits and vegetables are traded in such markets; however, paddy, spices and some other commodities are also occasionally sold. This prevents the margin of smaller farmers being washed away in the long marketing chains.
Sudan has applied to join the World Trade Organization (WTO), and is currently negotiating its terms of accession to the organization. It started the negotiating process by submitting a proposal for accession. Sudan is currently undertaking reforms of its all commercial laws to bring all its trade-related laws, regulations and procedures into conformity with WTO requirements. The government of Sudan has also been implementing economic reforms since 1991 to restore economic growth and development. The modernization of the agricultural sector is one of the major areas of concern for these reforms. The liberalization of agriculturalmarkets and subsequent abolition of price controls and export taxes reduced Sudan’s trade barriers. This process should be further continued under the umbrella of the WTO after Sudan becomes a full member.
However, the role of technology adoption and adjustment of supply is of central importance with respect to securing adequate levels of agricultural production and achieving global food security. Consequently, recent studies stressed the role of market transparency and information flows for improving production decisions in agricul- tural markets (see UNCTAD 2011). Thus, market transparency can be understood in terms of parameters that, at least partially, are under control of public and pri- vate agencies. Governmental and non-governmental organizations then may enhance transparency by providing a greater deal and more reliable information on impor- tant determinants of price movements, such as indicators of climate change, interna- tional market conditions, government price stabilization schemes, weather forecasts, disaster relief programs, stricter food safety standards, insurance and alternatives (UNCTAD 2011).
15. Are recent events random – resulting from an unusual coincidence of different factors – or are there reasons to believe that the world is entering into a period of recurrent episodes of extreme price volatility? It is not possible to have a view on the appropriate policy responses to volatility without first exploring this question in some detail. In this context too, it is worth recalling that behind the expressed concerns about volatility is a concern about price levels, particularly the impact of high prices on the food security of the most vulnerable households and countries and of low prices on vulnerable producers. 16. Most agricultural commodity markets are characterized by a high degree of volatility. Three major market fundamentals explain why that is the case. First, agricultural output varies from period to period because of natural shocks such as weather and pests. Second, demand elasticities are relatively small with respect to price and supply elasticities are also low, at least in the short run. In order to get supply and demand back into balance after a supply shock, prices therefore have to vary rather strongly, especially if stocks are low. Third, because production takes considerable time in agriculture, supply cannot respond much to price changes in the short term, though it can do so much more once the production cycle is completed. The resulting lagged supply response to price changes can cause cyclical adjustments (such as the often referenced „hog cycle‟) that add an extra degree of variability to the markets concerned. Business cycle fluctuations in demand for agricultural non-food commodities (such as cotton) from rapidly growing, industrializing economies may also be contributing to increased volatility.
The agricultural Label announces for a food product of t specific characteristics, fixed as a preliminary, establishing a level of quality higher than the similar products, directly perceptible by the consumer. In 2000, one distinguishes two types of Labels: the Red Label, marks collective ministry for Agriculture, and the regional Labels presenting the more specific characters of a region. In 2002, the regional Labels were transformed into Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). A «quality consortium», collective structure gathering the various operators and holding the property of the schedule of conditions, manages each Label. The request for homologation of the Label is carried out by the National Commission of Labels and Certifications (CNLC) and becomes effective by joint decree of the ministers in charge for agriculture and consumption. An independent certification body approved for the products concerned must control the producers operating under a Label.
The major portion of agricultural produce of small farmers find its way into the hands of village money lenders and whatever remains in his hand is sold at a low price to petty traders who collects the agricultural produce form various such farmers and brings the same to the mandi for sale in his own account. Therefore, for small and marginal farmers, who bring their produce to Mandi for direct sale, a scheme of Hundred Percent PayBack' has been introduced. Under this scheme markets fee collected form such farmers will be paid back to the farmer in the form of rebate on purchasers of agricultural inputs like fertilizers,seed, pesticides, etc.