AbstrAct: Lucerne (Medicago sativa L. var. Palava), harvested at four successive dates over a 30-day period, was evaluated for chemical composition (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen-free extract, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin), amino acid contents and intestinal digestibility in dairy cows. Dry matter (r = 0.78), organic matter (r = 0.95), crude fibre (r = 0.91), neutral detergent fibre (r = 0.94), acid detergent fibre (r = 0.79) and acid detergent lignin (r = 0.48) presented positive linear correlation coefficients (r) with growth stage, whereas crude protein (r = –0.96), ether extract (r = –0.86) and nitrogen-free extract (r = –0.70) showed negative relationships. Total essential amino acid content decreased (r = –0.94) from 84.1 to 55.3 g/kg of dry matter with maturity, with r-values higher than –0.90 obtained between growth stage and contents of lysine, methionine, threonine and valine. With the exception of tyrosine (r = –0.68), r-values between growth stage and individual non-essential amino acids were all higher than –0.90. Total amino acid (r = –0.98) and nitrogen (r = –0.99) contents presented comparable tendencies with successive sampling times. Whereas no definite trends were detected for the amino acid composition of rumen incubated (16 hours) lucerne samples, the intestinal digestibility of total essential (r = –0.78), total non-essential (r = –0.58) and total (r = –0.69) amino acids as well as nitrogen (r = –0.99) decreased with growth. However, due to a small sample size (n = 4), most linear relationships between constituents and growth stage were insignificant. It can be concluded that, although limited in the sample size, this report presents information on the decrease in amino acid contents and intestinal amino acid digestibility as growth proceeds in lucerne (var. Palava) produced in the Czech Republic, which could be utilized in the feeding of ruminants.
RICHTER, M., TŘINÁCTÝ, J., KŘÍŽOVÁ, L.: Comparison of actual and predicted amino acid contents in the duodenal digesta of dairy cows. Acta univ. agric. et silvic. Mendel. Brun., 2010, LVIII, No. 5, pp. 313–320 In this experiment on three dairy cows with the ruminal and duodenal T-cannulas, the actual and predicted amino acid (AA) proﬁ les of the protein fraction ﬂ owed to the small intestine were com- pared. The prediction was calculated by two methods: with the use of mean published AA proﬁ le of microbial protein and of experimentally determined one. The actual AA proﬁ le of digesta protein was corrected for glycine (Gly) of bile origin. In comparison to the published AA proﬁ le of microbial protein the use of the actual one did not contribute to an improvement of prediction accuracy (mean prediction error: 7.36 vs. 7.54 %, respectively). Inaccurate determination of AA composition of unde- graded feed protein and the insuﬃ cient correction for Gly of bile origin were the probable sources of the residual variability.
ABSTRACT: Amino acid content before and after heat treatment was assessed in grain of six selected amaranth varieties and four species: Amaranthus cruentus, A. hypochondriacus, A. caudatus and A. hybridus, cultivated in the Czech Republic. High content of Lys and Arg was detected in both heat treated and untreated grains, as well as satisfactory content of Cys and lower levels of Met, Val, Ile and Leu. The latter three amino acids appear as limiting. Chemical scores of essential amino acids and essential amino acid index (EAAI) were determined. EAAI value of 90.4% shows the favourable nutritional quality of amaranth protein, which is almost comparable with egg protein. Heat treatment by popping at 170 to 190°C for 30 s resulted in decreased EAAI to 85.4%. Of the essential amino acids under study, Val and Leu contents decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The relatively high content of essential amino acids in amaranth grain predetermines its use as a substitution of meat-and-bone meals.
Disease suppression of Fusarium crown rot and the changes in free amino acid contents in mycorrhizal aspara- gus (Asparagus officinalis L., cv. “Welcome”) plants were investigated. Sixteen weeks after arbuscular my- corrhizal fungus (AMF; Glomus intraradices) inoculation, mycorrhizal plants showed higher dry weight of shoots than non-mycorrhizal plants, and AMF colonization level in a root system reached up to 73.3%. Ten weeks after Fusarium proliferatum (Fp; N1-31, SUF1207) inoculation, control plants showed 100% incidence and high sever- ity in the 2 Fp isolates. However, AMF plants showed lower severity than non-AMF plants in the 2 Fp isolates. Ten weeks after Fp (N1-31) inoculation, the increase in 7 constituents of amino acids (glutamine, arginine, aspar- tic acid, alanine, citrulline, GABA, glycine) in shoots, and 9 in roots (asparagine, arginine, threonine, serine, glutamine, citrulline, valine, GABA, histidine) occurred in AMF plants. From these findings, plant growth pro- motion and suppression of Fusarium crown rot occurred in mycorrhizal asparagus plants, and the disease toler- ance was supposed to be associated with the symbiosis-specific increase in free amino acids.
Lannea coromandelica L. commonly known as Indian Ash tree, moya, wodeer, mohin, gudau belongs to Anacardiaceae family. This plant is of great economic value for wound healing, bone strengthening and stomach related diseases. In the present investigation the biochemical analysis of Lannea coromandelica L leaf galls induced by Odeniadiplosis odinae. Total soluble sugar, starch, total protein contents, amino acid contents, total phenolic contents, invertase activity, alpha amylase activity, auxin contents, IAA oxidase activity, peroxidase activity and polyphenol oxidase have been carried out in normal and induced leaf galls of Lannea coromandelica L. The results showed the changes in the metabolic activities of the plant.
Recent studies by Walde et al (2006) and Gyar and Ogbonna (2006) on food attributes of certain wild mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus flavus, and Macrolepiota procerus ) respectively showed the food nutrient and mineral values of these species. This study has also elucidated the very high food, mineral and amino acid contents of P.cervinus. A continued study of wild edible species of mushrooms should therefore be encouraged since this could lead to a plethora of information on the importance of these species of organic fermenters, as a good source of food. The results obtained in this study have shown that this species of mushroom. P. cervinus is a rich source of plant protein, carbohydrate, mineral irons and amino acids. P. cervinus species used in this study was obtained from the wild and this food attributes make it a very good bioresource.
with shoots in air and roots subjected to waterlogging or to O 2 deficiency have higher concentration of carbohydrates than plants grown in totally aerobic conditions. The higher carbohydrate level is presumably a consequence of reduced growth of the roots. The increase in carbohydrate level, therefore, results from reduced utilization in growth and/or accelerated breakdown of carbohydrates in anaerobic conditions. Free amino acids : There was a decrease in root free amino acid contents in all the maize cultivars during different periods of waterlogging (hypoxia) and also during post-hypoxia except Desla Brown in which the free amino acid contents during hypoxic and post-hypoxic conditions were almost identical to the control (Table 3). The observed decrease in free amino acids is likely utilized by stress system for the ultimate conversion into pyruvate during anaerobic conditions or as result of the damaged cellular integrity. The free amino acids may be lost in surrounding medium as observed in the wheat roots (Bertani et al. 1987).
Lens culinaris, a leguminous plant and a member of pulse group, is a major source of protein, which is the most essential requirement of life. Studies in the five different varieties of Lens culinaris L. in the present investigation has amply established that pesticide treatment has affected the morphological, physiological and biochemical characters of the plants and brought about genetic variability probably due to gene mutation. On the whole five different types of mutants namely, Chlorophyll mutants (Leaf mutants),Dwarf Mutants, Sterile mutants, Unbranched and Erectmutants and Ear ly maturing mutants have beens c r e e n e d o u t d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n s e c t i o n i . e . Morphological Studies. Due to comparatively lowerseed setting in chlorophyll mutants and dwarf mutantsas well as inconsistency in hereditary behavior ofUnbranched & Erect mutants and sterile mutants, it wasdecided not to carry out extensive biochemical studiesfor these mutants. On the contrary, the so called early maturing type of mutants have reflected comparativelybetter yield potential and early maturation of the plant.Nat u r a ll y t he y m a y p o ss ib l y le ad t o w ar d so m e important commercial varieties. Therefore, only theearly maturing type of mutants have been selected inthe present work for biochemical studies, namely, totalprotein, protein sub-fraction, amino acid contents and SDS-PAGE profile studies.
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4.3. Variations in the Mineral Element Contents of H. Rhamnoides ssp. Sinensis after Insect Damage Insect-damaged plants control the distribution of mineral elements according to the demands of different sections. The potassium content decreases significantly in the branches and cannot be sufficiently translocated to the leaves, which inhibits the synthesis of carbohydrates. A significant decline of zinc content may lead to the suppression of cell division and cell elongation, and a decrease in the manganese content in the top section can affect the rate of photosynthesis of the plants. In the present study, the copper content increased significantly in all sections, which could lead to an increase in the respiration rate and the consumption of nutrients and energy. However, changes in the contents of other elements resulted in the inability to provide the necessary nutrients and energy. The damaged sections could not heal in a short time and the capacity for insect resistance declined; therefore, the plants were susceptible to further damage, which could lead to the weakening or death of plants. 4.4. Variations in the Total Amino Acid Contents of H.
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system includes the growth hormones IGF-I, IGF-II, their corresponding receptors and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). This system has been extensively studied in mammals (reviewed by Stewart and Rotwein, 1996; LeRoith et al., 2001). IGF-I and IGF-II are conserved polypeptides that are expressed as pre-prohormones consisting of A, B, C, D and E domains, with the E domain removed by a proteolytic processes to yield the mature IGF-I peptide. IGFs have multiple functions and are necessary for normal development and survival controlled via endocrine and autocrine/paracrine pathways (Liu et al., 1993; Baker et al., 1993). Circulating levels of IGFs are primarily determined by their secretion from the liver under the control of the pituitary/growth hormone axis (LeRoith et al., 2001). Both IGF-I and IGF-II are synthesised locally in numerous tissues including skeletal muscle where an IGF-I splice variant is induced in response to mechanical stimuli (Yamaguchi et al., 2006). IGF-I expression in skeletal muscle has also been shown to respond to hormones (Bonaventure et al., 2002) while IGF-II mRNA expression is regulated by mTOR and amino acid availability in C2C12 myoblasts (Erbay et al., 2003).
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The skins from the surf smelt were treated with ethanol and followed by the removal of the noncollagenous con- stituents with NaOH. As a result, the yield of the lyophi- lized matter was about 8.6% on a wet weight basis. Next, the matter was extracted with acetic acid. As a result, collagen was successfully solubilized and the yield was approximately 24.0% on a dry weight basis (about 2.1% on a raw weight basis). In recent years, a trial has been aggressively performed to extract the collagen from the aquatic organisms to utilize it in industry and the colla- gens obtained from these organisms have been used in the food, cosmetic, and medical fields. In fact, our groups have reported the yields of collagens from marine organ- isms as follows: fish skin (Japanese sea bass, 51.4%, chub mackerel, 49.8%, bullhead shark, 50.1%, and ocel- late puffer fish, 44.7%) [7,10], purple sea urchin test (35.0%) , fish bone (Japanese sea bass, 40.7%, horse mackerel, 43.5%, and ayu, 53.6%) , edible jellyfish exumbrella (46.4%) , rhizostomous jellyfish meso- gloea (35.2%) , Callistoctopus arakawai arm (62.9%) , paper nautilus outer skin (50.0%) , cuttlefish outer skin (35.0%) , and common minke whale unesu , respectively. Recetly, some researchers reported the yields of fish skin collagen as follows: channel catfish acid-soluble (25.8%) and pepsin-soluble collagens (38.4%) , deep-sea redfish acid-solubilized (47.5%) and pep- sin-solubilized collagens (92.2%) , and grass carp pepsin-soluble collagen (46.6%) , respectively. On the other hand, the acid-soluble collagen from the bones of the surf smelt was only slightly extracted and the yield was only 0.8% on a dry weight basis.
the remaining ones, hence alternative metabolic functions related to the ammonium assimilation/dissimilation cycle  during ripening transition could be taking place in the wild germplasm. The alternative function and parallel performance of glutamate/asparagine in these genotypes would also contribute to identify more consistently the RILs genetic background, since one of them were more similar to the wild parent while the others performed as the cultivated Caimanta, which evidences gene segrega- tion and recombination during the selection process. Ad- ditionally, the lack of association among glutamate con- tent and fruit shelf life reported by  could also be ex- plained by this evident variability in ripening amino acids metabolism.
Multi-sequence alignment of insect defensin precur- sors (Figure 3) indicated that the signal peptide and propeptide region of these sequences are divergent. However, sixteen amino acids residues within the mature peptides are highly conserved, including a signature motif of six conserved cysteines and an additional ten residues (Ala60, Thr61, Asp63, Ser66, His76, Ala80, His82, Gly92, Gly93 and Arg104). A characteristic feature of all the mature peptides is the presence of an alanine residue and a threonine residue (−AT-) at the N- terminus. In addition, there are two basic residues (−RR- or -RK-) at the C-terminus of the mature peptide, except for the defensin A from Nilaparvata lugens, which pos- sesses an arginine residue and an asparagine residue (−RN-) at the C-terminus.
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well as higher activities of APX and SOD in the leaves, was found under low temperature stress (Lee et al. 2004). When tomato leaves are exposed to low temperature stress, sucrose contents are determined by photosynthetic rate, and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity is determined by sugar concentration (Artuso et al. 2000). That is, variations in photosynthesis are related to stomatal closure, leaf chlorosis, chloroplast malfunction, photo-inhibition or photo-oxidation, and sucrose metabolism. However, it is unclear whether physiological metabolic processes that depress the photosynthesis of mangroves have unique characteris- tics, in comparison with terrestrial plants.
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title compound, (I), dl-valine exists as a zwitterion, as observed in the crystal structure of dl-proline with succinic acid (Prasad & Vijayan, 1993). However, the zwitterionic form of amino acids in similar crystal structures remains an uncommon feature. The carboxylate and the amino group are coplanar, with the former twisted by 10.7 (2) from the plane,
ranges were 2.68-2.81 and 2.63-2.77 respectively. The isoelectric point (pI) range was 5.13-5.81, showing the samples to be in acidic medium of the pH range. In the amino acid scores based on whole hen’s egg glutamic acid (Glu), proline (Pro) and glycine (Gly) had scores greater than 100% in all the samples; arginine (Arg) was limiting in soldier termite whilst serine (Ser) had the least scores in others. On provisional amino acid scoring pattern, the limiting AAs were valine (Val) in ST (0.909), SWL (0.884) and SWP (0.875); Threonine (Thr) in bee brood (0.940) and Lysine (Lys) in SB (0.909). EAA scores based on pattern for pre-school child (2-5 years) showed that the samples would supply the required EAAs for this category. Generally, statistical calculations showed that no significant difference existed among the samples in most of the parameters determined.
The tanning industries are especially large contributors of chromium pollution in India. Two types of effluents are discharged during the tanning process: vegetable tanning, which does not contain chromium, and chrome tanning, which contains chromium (Manivasagam, 1987). Leather processing requires large amount of chemicals like sodium chloride, chromium sulphate, calcium salts, ammonium salts, sodium sulphide, acids, alkalis, fat, liquor, and organic dyes. However, one of the major emerging environmental problems in the tanning industry is the disposal of chromium contaminated sludge produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment (Amita et al., 2005). Fish is generally appreciated as one of the healthiest and cheapest source of protein and it has amino acid compositions that are higher in cysteine than most other sources of protein (Akan et al., 2012). Fish is a commodity of potential public health concern because it can be contaminated by a range of environmentally persistent chemicals, including heavy metals (Soliman, 2006; El- Morshedi et al., 2014). The present investigation was to assess the protein and amino acid content in brain and muscle of Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to three different sublethal concentrations of chromium.
This work measured the surface amino acid and carbohydrate content of 45 upland cotton samples for comparison with color measurements +b, Rd, L,* a*, and b*, obtained from HVI and a portable spec- trophotometer, in order to investigate correlations between fiber surface non-cellulosic materials and cotton fiber color. While spectrophotometers do not measure and report the cotton rating components of Rd and +b directly, most measure and report the more universally accepted, three-dimensional color spaces, such as L*a*b* (or CIELAB) (Rodg- ers et al., 2013). L* is a measurement of lightness (or greyness), a* is the measurement of greenness to redness, and b* is the measurement for blue- ness to yellowness (Rodgers et al., 2013). A more universally recognized cotton color measurement standard is desirable, so the cotton surface amino acid and carbohydrate levels should be compared to the L*a*b* values as well; especially since resul- tant dyed goods are measured in L*a*b* (Aspland and Williams, 1991; Thibodeaux et al., 2008; Xu et al., 1998). Finding correlations between these conventional spectrophotometer measurements and cotton surface chemicals is also of use because the technological advances in handheld spectropho- tometers (which include measurements of the full visible spectrum) have made it easy to assess cotton color cheaply and easily outside of the laboratory (warehouse, field, etc.).
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The amino acid composition of matured stems of Opuntia dillenii is shown in Table 1a and 1b. Arginine and leucine exhibited the highest values as regards to the essential amino acid profile of the matured stems of Opuntia dillenii. The high leucine estimate is in agreement with the observations of [31, 32, 33] in other plants. Leucine enhances the stimulation of protein synthesis in muscles  while arginine is an essential amino acid for growth and development of infants. L-arginine as a precursor of nitric oxide plays a key role in nutrient supply, improvements in oxygen circulation and blood flow via the action of nitric oxide on vascular endothelial smooth muscles, and relaxes blood vessels . Lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine and phenylalanine estimates were 4.06, 3.22, 3.54, 4.42 and 3.78 g/100g respectively. These outlined essential amino acid estimates were similar to the reports of Ogungbenle and
The ALT and AST levels were both important amino transferase in mitochondria of fish, and their activity is closely associated with the metabolism of amino acids (Chien et al., 2003). In present study, serum ALT and AST activity in fish fed mixture protein were obviously higher than those fed the control diet. It indicated that transamination were obviously active in diet NLM, LLM and HLM. It could be inferred that even adding Lys and Met, the amino acid balance in mixture protein is still worse than in FM, and may lead to a series of amino acid metabolic disorders, however, it may not serious because the survival rate was relatively higher in all dietary treatments without significant difference. In addition, a significant lower TG concentration was observed in fish fed HLM diet than thoes of fish fed NLM and LLM diets. It is possibly showed that supplement of amino acids reduced the fat metabolism as an energy consumption, which is beneficial to weight gain (Regost et al., 1999). However, serum GLU levels, as well as ALP activity were not significant differences among dietary groups, all the experimental fish appeared healthy and actively feeding which seems to suggest that any nutrient imbalance in the test diets did not cause a serious metabolic or immune system malfunction during the experimental period. High survival (>96%) and acceptable growth performance (WG>599%) of the fish observed in the present study seems to further support this observation that the fish were relatively healthy.
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