Abstract: A number of diseases can result from abnormal gene expression. One of the approaches for treating such diseases is gene therapy to inhibit expression of a particular gene in a specific cell population by RNA interference. Use of efficient delivery vehicles increases the safety and success of gene therapy. Here we report the development of functionalized biocompat- ible fluorescent nanoparticles from para amino benzoic acid nanoparticles for efficient delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA). These nanoparticles were non-toxic and did not interfere with progression of the cell cycle. The intrinsic fluorescent nature of these nanoparticles allows easy tracking and an opportunity for diagnostic applications. Human Bcl-2 siRNA was complexed with these nanoparticles to inhibit expression in cells at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Our findings indicated high gene transfection efficiency. These biocompatible nanopar- ticles allow targeted delivery of siRNA, providing an efficient vehicle for gene delivery. Keywords: biocompatibility, nanoparticles, siRNA, cell uptake, endocytosis, gene silencing
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Abstract Some new Schiff bases have been synthesized from 4- amino benzoic acid and their thermal analysis have been carried out by TG technique. TG data of decomposition have been analysed for the kinetic parameters using Freeman-Carroll method. From the observed curves, various kinetic parameters such as order of degradation (n), energy of activation (E), frequency factor (A) and entropy change (∆S) have been evaluated. Further, thermal stability of Schiff bases have been determined, which is found to depend on the type of substituent present in the compounds.
2-Amino benzoic acid 1(5.0 g, 0.033 mole), dissolved in chloroform (100 ml), benzoyl chloride (50 ml) was added gradually, and the mixture was cooled into an ice bath. Pyridine ( 5.0 ml) was added dropwise with an aid of stirring. The reaction mixture was refluxed at 110°C for 10 hr. Reaction was monitored by TLC (CHCl 3 /cyclohexane, 6:4). Solvents were distilled under vacuum to give crystalline solid which on recrystallization from ethanol/hexane gave a colourless crystalline 2-benzamido benzoic acid (2C) (07.92 g, 90 %):M.p. 182-183°C. IR,n max / cm -1
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2.2 General procedure for the synthesis of Schiff’s bases of PABA (1-16) p-Amino benzoic acid (0.01 mol) and benzaldehyde (0.01 mol) were refluxed in ethanol for 3-4 h and the contents were then poured on crushed ice. The precipitated crude product was filtered, dried and recrystallized from ethanol. The later (0.08 mol) was refluxed with ethanol (0.74 mol) in presence of sulphuric acid for 3-4 h. The reaction mixture was then added to 200 ml ice cold water, neutralized with sodium bicarbonate solution followed by the extraction of ester with ether (50 ml). The ether layer was separated which on evaporation yielded the ethyl ester of PABA. The synthesized ester (0.01mol) was treated with hydrazine hydrate (0.02mol) in presence of ethanol and refluxed for 2-3 h. The reaction mixture was then cooled and resultant precipitate was filtered off and recrystallized from ethanol. Finally, a mixture of above synthesized hydrazide (0.1mol) and corresponding aromatic aldehyde (0.1mol) in ethanol was refluxed in presence of catalytic amount of glacial acetic acid for 2-3 h. The mixture was then cooled and poured in ice cold water. The Schiff’s base obtained was filtered and recrystallized from ethanol.
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molecules are arranged in a bimolecular layer with polar groups directed towards both sides. The non- polar part of Cefuroxime sodium is likely to be placed across the hydrophobic core of the membrane at critical micellar concentration (CMC) of Cefuroxime sodium. The Cefuroxime sodium may form the liquid membrane over the cytoplasmic membrane. Because of the liquid membrane formed by Cefuroxime sodium the transport of essential ions, glucose and p-amino benzoic acid may alter. The present study is designed so as to assess this hypothesis and its role in the anti-microbial activity of the study drug. Cellulose Acetate Microfiltration membrane has been specifically chosen as the site for formation of liquid membrane.
The role of surface activity has been studied in the mechanism of action of nitroimidazole like Tinidazole. Tinidazole has been shown to generate liquid membrane. In the present study the transport of relevant permeants (glucose, p-amino benzoic acid, and various ions such as ammonium, phosphate, calcium, sodium, potassium and chloride) through liquid membrane generated by Tinidazole alone, and in association with lecithin and lecithin-cholesterol mixture in series with supporting membrane has been studied. The results indicate that the liquid membrane generated by Tinidazole inhibit the transport of various essential bio-molecules and permeants in to the cell. The data indicate that modification in permeability of different permeants in the presence of the liquid membrane is likely to play significant role in the biological actions of Tinidazole along with the conventional mechanism of antibacterial action.
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General procedure: Then 2-Chloro 7-Nitro10H- Phenothiazine(III) was reacted with Para- amino benzoic acid(0.02mole) with different Aromatic Benzaldehyde In the Presence of Ethanol under refluxing for 4-8 hours then cool the reaction mixture, dried in vaccum dessicator and recrystallised by different solvents. Then final derivative is obtained 5-11 .
activity against both the bacterial cultures. Its derivatives viz . 5 was also active against both Gram + ve and Gram – ve cultures. Thus, fused molecules of 3-Hydroxy benzoic acid (5) having alkyl side chain was potential antibacterial candidate. In depth analysis of these compounds through structure activity relationship studies would provide further insight and can be an interesting topic of future studies.
atom of the azomethine group. On the other hand, it has been reported that organic compounds containing donor and acceptor groups linked through to pi-system delocalized exhibit promising nonlinear optical properties (Innocenzi & Lebeau 2005). We have been focused our attention on synthesis of push-pull organic molecules with no linear optical potential properties (Muñoz-Flores et al. 2008). In continuous with our research, we synthesized the title compound (E)-4-(4-fluorobenzylideneamino)benzoic acid by condensation of 4-fluorobenzaldehyde and 4-aminobenzoic acid. In the present article, the crystal structure of (I) is being reported as shown in Fig 1. The compound, (E)-4-(4-fluorbenzylidene- amino)benzoic acid (C 14 H 10 N 2 O 2 F), displays C 1 symmetry. The aromatic rings are not in the same plane, with a dihedral
Added acrylonitrile in the concentration range 0.5 to 2.5vol.% by keeping concentrations of oxidant,reductant,perchloric acid,hydrochloric acid and ionic strength fixed did not produce any precipitate due to polymerization of the added acrylonitrile on the pseudofirst order rate constants indicating absence of free radicals.
Medicinal plants are sources of important therapeutic aids for alleviating human ailments. The traditional use of medicinal plants leaf extract for diseases is quite common in developing countries like India. In a view to understand the scientific reason behind its medicinal value, an attempt is made in this study, to analyze major bioactive compounds present in the leaf extract from Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merrill (Family Asteraceae) by GC-MS. The major chemical constituents are 2-Tridecanone (CAS) (4.51%), n-(methoxyphenylmethylene) carbamic acid ethyl ester (1.65%), and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (13.68%). The presence of some of these constituents in the plant extract provides the scientific evidences for the antimicrobial, anti-tumor, and antioxidant properties of the plant. Further study is required to find out the specific phytochemical which is responsible for its medicinal value.
Schiff base ligand were synthesized by refluxing of 3,5 diiodosalicylaldehyde (0.01M) and 4-bromo-2,6-dichlorobenzenamine (0.01 M) in 50m1 ethanol on water bath for 4-5 hours in presence of 2-3 drops of glacial acetic acid. The reaction mixture was kept for overnight, where yellow color precipitate was obtained. It was filtered by whatmann paper, washed with distilled water then alcohol, dried in vacuum dessicator. Pure Schiff base was recrystallized from ethanol. The purity of ligand was checked by TLC.
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The tribologists have proved, that minera l oil based lubricants have no significant biodegrability, h igh toxicity and cause significant environ mental pollution. Because of mo re restrictive environ mental iss ues and regulation, industrialists are co mpelled to increase the ecological friendless of their products [6, 7]. For the last thirty years, the tribologists have been trying to prepare such type of lubricants, which are environmentally friendly and having tribological propert ies equal or superior to those based on mineral o ils. Because of high load carrying abilities, h igh viscosity inde x, e xce llent friction coefficient and harmless to the aquatic organisms and surrounding vegetation. These attributes make vegetable oils highly suitable to be used as lubricating oils. [8, 9]. In th is article we have investigated the antiwear properties of benzo ic acid in rape seed oil and sesame oil at different temperatures.
Phthalides are a group of secondary metabolites or phytochemical compounds classified under lactones 1 . Phthalides are known to provide health benefits by stimulating and/or inhibiting various enzymes in the body 2 . Studies have shown that these compounds can help lower blood pressure, provide an anti-inflammatory function, improve circulation, rid the body of toxins such as uric acid crystals, inhibit malignancy and offer a calming effect 3-4 .
Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (500mg, 5.8 mmol) and N, N′- carbonyldiimidazole (1.035 g, 6.38 mmol) were dissolved in acetonitrile (5ml) and the solotion was stirred for 0.5h, then added dropwise into 5 ml of an acetonitrile solution of 4- aminobenzoic acid (1.59 g, 11.6 mmol). This solution was then added dropwise to 5 ml of a trifluoroacetic acid solution in acetonitrile (727 mg, 6.38 mmol) which was stirred for 1h. The resulting mixture was dried, then diluted with ethyl acetate, washed with water, then dried in vacuo. The residue was purified by colunm chromatography (CH 3 OH/CH 2 Cl 2 ,
The crystal packing (Table 1) consists of the above-mentioned strong carboxylic acid hydrogen bonding in the plane of the molecule. This is coupled with C(methylene,phenyl)—H···O(carbonyl) interactions [C(6) & C(8) motifs] forming planar chains. One weak (methyl)C8—H10B···π interaction (labelled in Figure 2) crosslinks the planes of molecules, which are approximately parallel to the (-1,-1,2) crystal plane. This weak interplanar interaction is consistent with the difficulty in obtaining adequate non-twinned crystals.
the solvent yielded a yellow oil which consisted of the two products (3) and (4). 4-(Trimethylsilyl)benzaldehyde (3.135 g, 62.7%) was obtained by distillation in vacuo (391 K, 0.01 mbar). 4-(Trimethyl- silyl)benzoic acid (0.562 g, 10.3%) crystallized from the residue of the distillation.
The molecular structure of the title compound, (I), is illu- strated in Fig. 1 and selected bond distances and angles are given in Table 1. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings of the benzoic acid moiety and the tolysulfonamide moiety is 34.7 . The C8—N1—S1—C5 torsion angle in the
The synthesized 4-[2'-(5'-nitro)imidazolyl] benzoyl(N-Me) amino acid derivative was characterized by IR, NMR and Mass spectral data. By this studies find the structure- activity relationship and to optimize the structure. The synthesized amino acid derivative i.e., 4-[2'-(5'-Nitro) imidazolyl] benzoyl N-Me) leucine was to be confirmed by spectral analysis.
The adiabatic compressibility values decrease with increase in molarity of 4-amino-2- hydroxy benzoic acid in 50% alcohol(Table-2 and Fig.2). The decrease in adiabatic compressibility values with increase in concentration may be attributed to increase in number of compressible molecules. Table 2 and fig. 3represents plots between acoustical impedance and molarity of solutions. It shows the trend of general increase of specific acoustic impedance with concentration at a given temperature. As the strength of intermolecular attraction increases the ultrasonic velocity also increases, consequently the acoustical impedance value also increases.
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