Analysis and Well Water

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Spatial analysis on drinking well water quality in eravur pattu divisional secretariat, Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

Spatial analysis on drinking well water quality in eravur pattu divisional secretariat, Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

human practices such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies and overuse. Ground water is the only source for irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes in Batticaloa District. The Independence Aquifer which underlies these geographical areas provides groundwater for these purposes. The families of these villages use individual and common wells - constructed a long time ago by governmental and non–governmental organizations. It caused the over exploitation of groundwater which led to negative impact on both quantity and quality of water availability (Jeyakumaret al., 2002). Recent reports of government and non- governmental organizations state that the rate of depletion of this aquifer is increasing and not sustainable, and also report that the quality of this aquifer water does not meet acceptable drinking water standards, in particular locations (RIWASH, project, World vision, Lanka 2012). Findings of previous community studies show that people in these villages suspect the quality of the drinking water and avoiding using water from some common wells for drinking purposes.The present study was carried out to find the quality of drinking water in the public and domestic wells in the means of physical and chemical parameters in the selected GN divisions (Koduwamadu, Pankudaweli and Veppaweduwan), Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka. GIS has been applied to visualize the spatial distribution of groundwater quality in the study area. Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for the spatial analysis and it is a powerful tool for representation and analysis of spatial information related to water resources (Rangarajanet al., 2009).
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Experimental analysis of convective heat transfer coefficient for  pool boiling of milk and water

Experimental analysis of convective heat transfer coefficient for pool boiling of milk and water

When a liquid is in contact with a surface maintained at a temperature above the saturation temperature of the liquid, boiling will eventually occur at that liquid-solid interface. Conventionally, based on the relative bulk motion of the body of a liquid to the heating surface, the boiling is divided into two categories; pool boiling and convective boiling. Boiling is a very effective and efficient mode of heat transfer, and it is encountered in various engineering applications. Khoa making is one of the important applications which involve boiling of milk with an aim of evaporating the large quantity of water present in it. Khoa is a heat dissipated milk product which forms an important base for the preparation of variety of milk sweets. The main objective of the project is to analyze heat transfer during pool boiling of milk and water in an aluminum pan of diameter 21.5 cm and thickness 1.2mm under closed condition for different heat inputs varying from 220 to 340 W. During heating of milk the evaporated water was condensed at the inner surface of the condensing cover which is separated through a pump system and analysis of heat transfer characteristics of the water and milk through pool boiling over a flat heater is carried. The Convective heat transfer coefficient for pool boiling of milk & water is investigated.
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Physiochemical and microbiological analysis of drinking water in educational institutes of hyderabad sindh near indus river

Physiochemical and microbiological analysis of drinking water in educational institutes of hyderabad sindh near indus river

In developing countries 80% of all sickness and diseases due to waterborne pathogens and inadequate sanitation system, reported by WHO. In developed countries 90% have adequate, proper managed and safe disposal, 95% of the population has access to clean and safe drinking water, according to UN report. In developing countries the situation is different. In developing countries at least 2.5 billion populations have no proper managed sanitation system and above half of these people have no access to safe drinking water by UN report (Cunningham 2005). For water distribution, Pakistan is also facing the problem of waterborne diseases due to lack of infrastructure facilities, poor water quality and improper manages sanitary conditions. Drinking water before human consumption must be treated and free from toxic chemicals and pathogenic microbes, recommended by WHO (Pak EPA 2005).But drinking water treatment is rarely done before consumption and no such international standard are perused for physical, chemical and microbiological limits of drinking water. Rural areas of Pakistan consists of 70% population has no proper water supply system. In Pakistan, urbanization also threatens to drinking water quality. Urbanization has increased from 31% to 34% in last few years in Pakistan. Safe drinking water availability reduced from 60% to 40% due to increase in urbanization (WHO 1976 report). Due to use of contaminated water 60% deaths occur in Pakistan (Hussain, 2007). Water filtration before distribution is almost non-existence and furthermore, WHO standards are not followed for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water, in Pakistan. This study was conducted for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water of Educational Institutes of Hyderabad.
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Comparative Analysis of RO Rejected Waste Water and Sewage Waste Water with Domestic Waste Water in Various Places in and Around Kumbakonam Town, Tami

Comparative Analysis of RO Rejected Waste Water and Sewage Waste Water with Domestic Waste Water in Various Places in and Around Kumbakonam Town, Tami

a today’s scenario. Polluted water is liberated from any industrial places or which contains a high amount of hazardous compounds. This water is discarded into water bodies like river, lake, etc. If this polluted water is discarded directly into the water bodies it can causes serious effect on environment and human’s life. This type of water pollution can also affect the ecosystem adversely. So, analysis before release of water from industries is essential. The environmental quality is greatly focused on water because of its importance in maintaining the human health and health of the ecosystem. Many parts of the world are facing water scarcity problem due to limitation of water resources coincided with increasing population and low water resources etc., In the present study, different waste water such as RO reject waste water, Domestic waste water and Sewage waste water samples were collected from 10 different areas, radial distance of 5 km in and around kumbakonam, Tamilnadu, India. Then the various physico-chemical and microbial analyses were performed based on standard methods. The comparative results showed a more poluted quality is sewage water and followed by RO reject water and domestic waste water. The physicochemical and bacterial characters of the sewage water were unworthy. The sewage water recycling was necessary to minimize the water born diseases.
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Analysis of water quality of diverse sources of water in dehradun city

Analysis of water quality of diverse sources of water in dehradun city

Water quality is the measure of physical, chemical and biological properties of water. Water quality depends upon the ecosystem, geology and human uses like industry pollution, water bodies as heat sink and disposal of sewage. Water is getting polluted with the rapidly increasing population, industries and agricultural water demand as well as due to scarcity so it is required to treat the water to get better quality of water for drinking and to find a solution to secure the existing resources. According to an estimate total water resources in India which can be utilised are 2112 mham including 69 mham surface water and 43m ham ground water. The current work deals with the analysis of water quality of different water sources in Dehradun city for which water samples were collected from various sources present from the entire city for analysis. The water samples were tested in laboratory for different water quality parameters as per IS 10500:2012 (Drinking Water Specifications) to determine the suitability in quality with regard to its potable use. The main outcome of this current study will lead to the finding of the exact quality of the sources present in diverse locations of the city.
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Hydrological Analysis Of The Water Of The Euphrates River In The Area Of The Abbasa And Environmental Effects

Hydrological Analysis Of The Water Of The Euphrates River In The Area Of The Abbasa And Environmental Effects

with the amount of water that have been analyzed again when they arrive to the water purification plant in the area of the Abbasa, we find that the ratio of (PH) has remained the same as when she was in the river, as it amounted to (8.48 mg / L) in the year 2012, and that this indicates that something, it means that the amount of water Alambazl that goes back to the river have caused an increase in the base rate, as well as for the water purification process is not at the required level, which could affect the environmentally various human life and events. And varied the amount of salt concentration (TDS) in the study area are the other because the amount of salt has an inverse relationship the amount of water discharge, as Tertqa concentration ratio of salt in the dry seasons and down in the wet season (11 ) and this is evident through the hydrological analysis of water Abbasa Shatt in the study area, the varied during the year (2010) to about (921.5, 882.75 PPM) during the months of August and July while it was about (990 PPM) in October during the year (2011), but this ratio is different in a year (2012) as it increased the amount of salt concentration in the study area between (709-918 PPM) with the exception ofthe month of August which decreased the amount of salt concentration to about (580 PPM), while the figure rose during the month of September, reaching about (748PPM) in the filter station and not in the raw water, Table (5) . This is evidence that the concerned authorities the ability to use advanced scientific methods in order to maintain an appropriate amount of salts and valid for all Asthlakiat water rightsCation in the Euphrates River water is concentrated in the study area within varying ratios for the period (2010-2012), represented
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Physical chemical and microbiological analysis of pluvial water used for consumption stored in reservoirs of a rural area in the municipality of condeúba

Physical chemical and microbiological analysis of pluvial water used for consumption stored in reservoirs of a rural area in the municipality of condeúba

Brooks et al. (2017) to check the quality of the water in Nyanza region Kenya, matched concentrations of Escherichia coli qualitatively and quantitatively with the Colilert and the housing bag test (CBT) in the origins of water (well, river, rain) and drinking water stored in 35 homes in western Kenya. Within the shared quantification range, E. coli concentrations listed Colilert and CBT were similar and generated a significant coefficient of correlation of 0.896 with 95% confidence interval. Invik et al. (2017) in order to explore techniques to describe the microbial quality of the water wells in rural areas made use of the rapid test Colilert IDEXX, taking into account space-time, time series analysis, mapping and relative risk. Testing of Escherichia coli and coliform of public and private water wells were examined between 2004 and 2012 in Alberta, Canada. Overall, the assessed wells, 14.6% had total coliforms and in 1.5% of wells tested positive for E. coli. Baum et al. (2014) conducted a study to examine the relationship between microbial quality of drinking water and the source of water in the region of Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic, in which aimed to identify the presence / absence of E. coli. In his study he analyzed 409 families in 33 communities. The results showed that 47% of improved sources (rain, pipe, well protected) drinking water presented considered high risk to very high and therefore unsafe for consumption. However, the probed communities, you could see that still a large portion of households consume water contaminated by microbes, arising from improved water sources. Given the above and according to the quality of the water samples, sees the need for greater care in the use of this source of water, that despite being natural, depending on how this is captured and stored, there may be substances and pathogens to change its quality. For this, preventive and corrective measures can be used such as: perform cleaning of the roof and gutters before collection; always despise the first rainwater before storing it in reservoirs, which already helps in roof cleaning; make cleaning the tanks at least once a year; boil and filter the water before use; if necessary perform chlorination.
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Macroinvertebrates analysis and assesment water pollution of Baubau river, southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

Macroinvertebrates analysis and assesment water pollution of Baubau river, southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

City is most using potable water from river and groundwater as drinking water resources. However, rapid developments have deteriorated quality of drinking water sources in Baubau City, Indonesia. For determining water quality has been used Biotic and Polution Index to Macro invertebrates was collected at from May to September 2014 and at the same time, solid, pH, dissolved oxygen were analyzed. ndex (FBI), Belgian Biotic Index (BBI) and analysis show that score of FBI were 6.11, ; and water pollution index score on the station 1, 2, and 3 were . The macroinvertebrates was found, viz., Libelluidae, Palaemonidae, Gerridae, Viviparidae, Thiaridae. Meanwhile Corbiculidae The overall water quality of the Baubau River from up to lower was moderate to heavy IV).Water bodies are potentially hazardous to public health and that proper sewage treatment and river quality monitoring are needed to warn against hazards to public health.
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Comparative Analysis And Treatment Of Well Water In Ebonyi State Nigeria

Comparative Analysis And Treatment Of Well Water In Ebonyi State Nigeria

Water serves a lot of industrial and domestic purposes. Industrially, water is used in quenching organic reactions, removing inorganic salts, hydropower generation, cooling of engines, extinguishing fire, etc and in domestic use for drinking, washing, bathing, cooking, building, etc. Whichever case, the determination of the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of water is indeed necessary as to ensure water safety. Water laboratory is a useful place for the monitoring and analysis of water. This is achieved by isolation and identification of the mineral constituents and pathogens present in the water under investigation. So many scholars have investigated the water quality and some of their studies are reviewed. Water borne diseases claim a lot of lives every year in Ebonyi State but the water source responsible for such is not yet known. Originally, the sources of water supply in the Ebonyi state are rain, river/stream and pond water.
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Physicochemical and Microbiological analysis of Municipality Drinking Water

Physicochemical and Microbiological analysis of Municipality Drinking Water

Water of good drinking quality is of basic importance to human physiology and man’s continued existence depends very much on its availability (Lamikanra, 1999). The provision of portable water to the public by the municipality is necessary to prevent health hazards (Nikoladze and Akastal, 1989) A good knowledge of microbial and chemical qualities of raw water is necessary so as to guide its suitability for use. Thus, regular physico-chemical analysis of water at source must be carried out to determine or check the effectiveness of treatment process. This work is therefore, in an attempt to examine the different sources of drinking water in Kavali Municipality and compared with standard table water for conformity to
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Analysis of water quality of indoor swimming pools and its  related health hazards

Analysis of water quality of indoor swimming pools and its related health hazards

Water quality of indoor swimming pools and its related health hazards are studied in this research. Swimming is one common recreational activity these days and numerous swimming pools have been installed in hotels and apartments for the people to have their leisure time. But apart from recreational purposes the water quality of the pool is to be considered equally, as there are many health risks posed as result of being exposed to the swimming pools regularly. In order to determine the water quality laboratory analysis of five samples of indoor swimming pools in Abu Dhabi Emirate were collected and tested for the concentration of chlorine, copper, iron, zinc, sulfate and nitrate, The pH, TDS and temperature were also measured. Based on all the parameters, values were collected and observations were made to see whether any of the disinfectant exceeded the limits and maximum standards as regulated by the government. Chlorine content exceeded the maximum value out forward by the government and there are many health hazards caused as a result of ingesting and inhaling chlorine gas and its byproducts formed. Health conditions such as asthma, chronic respiratory illness, and skin and eye irritations and numerous other diseases are caused by the exposure to chlorinated waters.
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Comparative analysis of barite and hematite used in water based drilling fluid

Comparative analysis of barite and hematite used in water based drilling fluid

For any type of drilling fluid, all five properties may to some extent, be manipulated using additive, however, the resulting chemical properties of a fluid depends largely on the types of mud chosen, and this choice rest on the types of well, the nature of the formation to be drill and the environmental circumstances of the well. (Baker Hughes, 2011). To ensure proper functionality, an appropriate drilling fluid is to be designed and selected. Understanding the factors effecting the working of the drilling fluid is very much critical. The drilling fluid is related with most of the drilling problems. If the drilling fluid does not perform the above mentioned functions and according to the expectations of the bore hole conditions, situations might arise leading to abandoning of the well. Also, the additives and chemicals used are expensive. So, it is to be kept in mind that the drilling fluid is maintained in a good condition and at a lowest possible expenditure.
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An empirical analysis on the industrial water pollution and economic growth in Algeria

An empirical analysis on the industrial water pollution and economic growth in Algeria

other hand, Mahmud and Jalil (2009) in China discovered that the turning point of the EKC is outside their experimental example period. Passing to the ECM, the value -0.51622 indicates that about -51.622% of last year’s imbalances in environmental degradation (BOD releases per worker) of the shock can change back into the long-term equilibrium in the present era. Judging by the income signs’ terms, they offer a strong proof for EKC in the short term as well, and it was statistically significant. Moreover, the EKC is assumed to be a long-term phenomenon. Furthermore, it is also a short-run situation according to the obtained results. The general outcome denotes that economic growth participates considerably in BOD releases per worker in Algeria, in the long as well as short-terms, with highly qualified proofs that releases will be reduced in the long-term with the increase in the growth. The other explanatory variables were insignificant in clarifying the short-term modifications in BOD releases per- worker in Algeria, especially the Exports (LnX) and Import (LnM), which did not exert a short term influence on BOD, and they only had long-run impact on environmental degradation, while Population growth (LnP) was statistically significant whereas negatively participates to the short term environmental degradation. According to CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests it can be said that the estimated ECM model is crudely stable. The Granger causality test indicated the presence of a uni-directional long-term causality starting from the economic growth to BOD emissions, however, the short- term causal relationship amongst economic growth and BOD emissions does not exist. This identical outcome was also found by the former researchers, such as Jalil and Mahmud in China, Maddison and Rehdanz (2008) in North America, Zhang and Cheng (2009) in China and Ghosh (2010) in India.
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Analysis of Arsenic from water by Spectrophotometric method

Analysis of Arsenic from water by Spectrophotometric method

color due to formation of heteropoly species containing both Mo(IV) and Mo(VI) that can be used for determination arsenic from water samples. This method is influenced by the phosphate species and other metallic ions presented in water sample that give the same color with molybdate reagent. The influence of these chemical compounds may be overcome by conversion of arsenic species to arsine (arsinization), evolved and trapped in solutions containing AgNO 3 and H 2 O 2 to

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Well Water Level Analysis Based on Barometric Pressure Effects and Earth Tides

Well Water Level Analysis Based on Barometric Pressure Effects and Earth Tides

To water level and corresponding barometric pressure data of Banqiao, Dahuichang, Huanghua, Fengzhen, Dadianzi, Sanhaodi 6 wells,(1)The hour value data of each well is checked that there must be 24 numbers per day, where the missing number are replaced by cubic spline interpolation and piecewise fitting values of general polynomials.(2) In the 5 main daily wave groups and 5 semidiurnal wave groups of the earth tide, considering the maximum amplitude of the 6 well water M 2 wave in the middle latitudes, it has the largest
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Bacteriological Analysis of Well Water Sources in the Bambui Student Residential Area

Bacteriological Analysis of Well Water Sources in the Bambui Student Residential Area

Water of good drinking quality is of basic importance to human physiology as well as indispensable to man’s con- tinued existence [1]. Domestic water is generally suppli- ed to homes through private wells or public water com- panies. Water supplied by public water companies is usu- ally safe to drink and does not pose a health risk. The quality of the water supplied by these companies is peri- odically checked. Water supplied by a private source is also usually safe to drink; however, it can be contaminat- ed by harmful bacteria resulting from faulty septic tanks, chemicals from a toxic spill that occurred years before, leaking underground storage tanks, or pesticides and fer- tilizers. The only way to tell whether the water is potable is to have it tested. Unavailability of municipal water supply (provided by CDE) and lack of community water
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BACTERIOLOGICAL and physicochemical analysis of drinking water samples in and around javaranahalli, Mandya, Karnataka

BACTERIOLOGICAL and physicochemical analysis of drinking water samples in and around javaranahalli, Mandya, Karnataka

The clarity of water is an important determinant of its condition and productivity. Turbidity in water is caused by suspended and colloidal matter such as clay, silt, finely divided organic and inorganic matter, plankton and other microscopic organisms. All the samples studied in the present study were clear, odourless and free from turbidity. P H is the measure of intensity of acidity or alkalinity and the concentration of hydrogen ion in water. P H of water is very important as it plays a role in the growth of flora and fauna of water body and also indicates whether the water is safe for drinking and irrigation purpose. P H levels of water samples above 8.5 affect mucus membrane and or water supply system. P H of all the water samples tested was within the range of BIS (1991) guidelines. Our study is in accordance with the studies of Dinesh and Rajesh, (2013) who also reported P H of the drinking water sources in Tembhurkheda and Jarud region, Dist.Amaravati, MS, India in the range of 6.83 to 7.34. Alkalinity is important factor in determining the ability of water samples to neutralize the acidic pollution. The alkaline nature of the water could be attributed to the buffering properties of some inorganic substances (Kang et al., 2001). All the samples tested in the present study had alkalinity values in the range of 310 to 500 and within the permissible limits of BIS (1991) guidelines. Radhakrishnan et al. (2007) have reported the alkalinity of bore well waters in the range of 250-730 mg/l in Sivakasi. However, Priscilla et al. (2013) have reported the alkalinity of the drinking water samples in the range of 22 to 256mg/l in their study.
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Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Well Water in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State

Physicochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Well Water in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State

Water samples were collected from twelve (12) different areas located within the metropolis using a 50 cl sterile plastic container. The collected samples were analyzed within 6 hours of collection time. The method employed in the collection of samples is random sampling technique. Three (3) wells were randomly selected from each of the towns that make up the local government area. A formal introduction is made to the household owners as an undergraduate with purpose of collection explained which is basically for research. With permission granted, water sample is drawn from the well into a sterile 50 cl plastic container [5].
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Chemical Analysis and the River Mura water Quality

Chemical Analysis and the River Mura water Quality

In order to protect settlements and agricultural land from flooding in the flat part of the river’s basin and in order to facilitate construction and intensive farming, the River Mura and its three major tributaries were continuously regulated in the past. The consequences of urbanization, primarily dispersed basin settlement, and a large proportion of agricul- tural land has caused excessive nutritive substances (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) in the water, and a significant hydro-morpho- logical burden on most water bodies. Organic pollutants can also be present in the surface water. The hydro morphological burden on the surface water of the River Muras’ basin and the burdening of the envi- ronment with heavy metals, organic matter and nitrogen and phospho- rus compounds that plants don’t take-up had an influence on the quali- ty and quantity of groundwater in aquifers. Therefore from the environmental point of view, lowland alluvial forests, old overgrown channels, river islands, gravel deposits, and the erosive areas in river channels, are extremely important because they not only represent a habitat for existing endangered species of animals and plants, but also provide long-term infiltration of surface water in the soil, the allocation of high water over more surface area, and the chemical-intensive proc- esses, (micro) biological degradation of nitrogen and phosphorus com- pounds, together with other dangerous chemical substances in the wa- ter. Reduction of flood risks and human health, the environment, economic activities and cultural heritage, safer care for residents when drinking water, ensuring the biodiversity of the River Mura area and its wetlands and river basins are, thus, the most important objectives of water management [1-6].
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Physicochemical and Microbiological analysis of tube-well water from Noakhali district, Bangladesh

Physicochemical and Microbiological analysis of tube-well water from Noakhali district, Bangladesh

To isolate specific pathogenic bacteria, the samples were enriched separately with alkaline peptone water (APW) for plating in thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar (TCBS) media, with GN (Gram-Negative) Broth for plating in Salmonella Shigella Agar (SS) agar, with Enterobacteria Enrichment Broth- Mossel for plating in MacConkey media. 1 ml of water from each sample was added with 3 ml of respective enrichment media. All the samples were then incubated at 37°c for 24 hours. After overnight enrichment, the samples were plated in MacConkey, TCBS and SS agar plate separately. All the plates were incubated at 37°c for 24 hours. After overnight incubation, the plates were observed for selective pathogens. For the confirmation of Escherichia coli, red/pink colonies form MacConkey agar plates were plated in eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) agar plates and for the confirmation of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, standard biochemical tests were performed from the yellow and green colonies in TCBS media respectively.
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