In addition, POS was also found to significantly mediate the relationship between leadership styles and employee outcomes. POS mediates the influence of collaborative and authentic leadership on job satisfaction; the influence of authentic leadership on organisational commitment; the influence of authentic leadership on turnover intentions; the influence of authentic leadership on emotional exhaustion; the influence of collaborative and authentic leadership styles on cynicism, and the influence of collaborative leadership on cultural wellbeing. Overall, POS was found to be a consistent mediator of the influence of leadership styles on the employee outcomes tested here.
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The parameters used to measure employee relationship management were employee relationship management functions, while those used to measure employee outcomes were OCB and employee commitment (affective, normative and continuance commitment). The p- value was then utilized to see if the results were statistically significant. To be significant, the sig. value needs to be 0.05 or smaller. Data were collected with the use of self-developed and adapted questionnaires. Variables were examined with questionnaire items adapted from existing questionnaire models that have been tested and confirmed previously in other research works (Table 1). The questionnaire will be divided into three which are Sections A, B and C. The first section consisted of demographics which measured variables such as gender, educational level, and age. The second section measured the employee relationship management functions variables. The third section measured employee outcomes functions variables. Questionnaires were structured using the Likert scale ranging from strongly agree (6) to strongly disagree (1) which indicated the rate at which respondents gave answers as regards employee relationship management and employee outcomes.
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Study One was based on the limited existing literature, and involved semi- structured interviews with 15 human resources (HR)/line managers. It aimed to gain knowledge about the influence of job and terrorism stress on employee outcomes, and the role of resources in helping reduce/explain the detrimental consequences. Thematic analyses highlighted several themes which were highly embedded in the context of on-going terrorism. The main themes concerned job stress, terrorism stress, organisational support in the context of terrorism, and employee outcomes of stressors of job and terrorism. Study One pointed out that the population at large was exposed to terrorist incidents, had suffered losses, and was likely to be traumatized. It also indicated that the organisational support needed by employees in the context of on-going terrorism was distinctly different than that which is conventionally observed in the literature as perceived organisational support (POS). For example, employees in the terrorism context wanted organisations to provide physical security such as armed guards with bullet proof jackets. There was no existing instrument that could be used to specifically measure this.
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Positive affect seemed to play a key role in the relationship between HPHRP and both job satisfaction and OCBs, as it fully mediated the relationship between HPHRP and both outcomes. Thus, HPHRP are linked to employee outcomes because they have an influence on employee emotional responses. It is noteworthy that the correlation of HPHRP with job satisfaction (r =0.437) was much stronger than the correlation of HPHRP with positive affect (r =0.175). The fact that HPHRP explain more variation in job satisfaction than in positive affect is in line with AET. AET states that work features can have an influence on judgements of job satisfaction through two routes: a ‘non-affective’ route and an ‘affective route’. Hence, work features should be more strongly associated to job satisfaction than to affective experiences (Wegge et al., 2006). Another assumption of AET relates to the distinction between affect-based and cognitive-based behaviours. OCBs were found to be more strongly correlated with positive affect than with job satisfaction. This suggests that OCBs are indeed affect-driven which is again in support of AET.
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This paper explores the effects of ICT on multiple firm and employee outcomes. We contribute to the existing knowledge with a set of occupation-based indicators of job and worker flows that capture the relevant aspects of organisational changes in firms; these indicators include both the intensity (or depth) of these changes and the actual job content (i.e., the shares of interactive and routine occupations) in a firm. These measures are obtained using comprehensive, linked employer- employee data. By applying these measures in the analysis, we can build a bridge between two important but distinct strands of the existing literature that have examined the productivity, employment and wage effects of ICT on a firm’s employees.
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According to Podsakoff et al. (2003), having only one source of data might contribute to the major cause of common method variance. This problem can be solved by collecting the measures of the variables from different sources. This study, two sources of rating were employed, namely, an employee self-report and a supervisory report in order to evaluate in-role performance and OCB. The objectivity of self-report will be increased and another source of performance data can be obtained. However, it is a bit of a challenge in terms of identifying the variable (e.g., the supervisor’s and subordinate’s names) because it might reduce the willingness of respondents to participate due to the issue of anonymity or the loss of information when results from both sources fail to be obtained. In fact, multiple sources of ratings require more time, effort, and cost. However, all matters involved in getting multiple sources of ratings have been thoroughly considered.
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These results towards authentic leadership and its outcomes were consistent with the previously conducted research and support prior findings in other contexts. For example, in their research with a random sample size of 248 registered nurses working in hospitals in Ontario in Canada, Wong and Laschinger (2013) found that authentic leadership influenced job satisfaction, and furthermore, its finding contributed to literature in supporting the similar findings of Avolio and Gardner (2005). Another existing study also supported the findings of this present research. Laschinger, Wong and Grau (2013) conducted their research using secondary data from two studies conducted with registered nurses practising in hospitals in Ontario. They found authentic leadership significantly and negatively influenced emotional exhaustion and cynicism through workplace empowerment.
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Research on high performance work practices (HPWPs) has gained increasing attention during the past two decades (Delery and Doty, 1996; Sun, Aryee and Law, 2007; Takeuchi, Lepak, Wang and Takeuchi, 2007; Takeuchi, Chen and Takeuchi, 2009). A review of the literature indicates significant progress in understanding whether and how HPWPs contribute to firm performance (Appelbaum, Bailey, Berg and Kalleberg, 2000; Arthur, 1994; Bae and Lawler, 2000; Bartel, 2004; Batt, 2002; Guthrie, 2001; Huselid, 1995; MacDuffie, 1995; Sun et al., 2007). There is, however, little research on the relationships between HPWPs and specific work outcomes at the employee level (Wright and Boswell, 2002). A few studies have examined the direct effects of HPWPs on employee work outcomes (Ramsay, Dora and Harley, 2000; Harley, Allen and Sargent, 2007). However, they have rarely explored the underling mechanisms (Liao, Toyo, Lepak and Hong, 2009). The growing adoption of HPWPs and the consequent great impact of HPWPs on employees suggest that it is timely and important for researchers to understand the processes through which HPWPs influence employee outcomes.
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Finding that performance appraisal satisfaction does relate to employees’ affective commitment and intention to leave does present practical implications that need to be considered. Both affective commitment and intention to leave can relate to other outcomes which are of importance to organisations, for example both have been found to affect staff turnover (Griffeth, et al., 2000; J. P. Meyer, et al., 2002), which can save the organisations having to face the costs associated with staff turnover. Although research is needed to determine if these relationships do actually relate to other factors which are of importance to organisations, it does highlight that organisations may benefit from designing and implementing appraisal systems which employees are satisfied with. This in itself raises practical issues for organisations, in that how a system may be designed by senior management may not necessarily be what is carried out, as it has been found that managers often change the performance appraisal process in order to cope with day to day demands (IPM, 1992).
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understanding and managing performance within a predefined framework of planned objectives, standards and competence requirements. As such, as the overall objective, PM is identified as an attempt to verify how the organisation and its subsystems such as processes, units and employees contribute in unity at its highest level to reach the expected outcomes of an organization (Holloway et al. 1999; Castka, et al., 2003). So, it is necessary to recognize how PMP assists to the realization of Sri Lankan listed companies’ performance management.
The issue of adverse mental health outcomes of work conditions is of increasing importance. Workplace justice may be an appropriate intervention to reduce disparities in health outcomes (Gigantesco, 2011). Employee bur- nout is expensive, costing organizations not only money but also in lost productivity, lost work days and em- ployee disability claims as well (Spector et al., 2007). So, managers need to be aware of and respond effectively to dysfunctional behaviors (such as situations of unfairness even during the recruitments) and their effects on employee mental health. Employees’ subjective experience of injustice may lead to psychological (anxiety, stress disorders, cynicism, etc.) and physiological (e.g., blood pressure) responses that are likely to affect long term health. Anger and depression, which can be also associated with the experience of injustice, are among the well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In fact, empirical data from self-reported measures of fairness or justice have been demonstrated to predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To improve inter- personal relationships between superiors and employees could provide favorable changes and health risk de- crease. For example, it is possible to train the professional staff into interpersonal skills, using a psycho-educa- tional approach, in order to reduce mental ill-health in the workplace field. In the context of this point of view, the existence of high levels of justice was associated with a decreased risk of psychiatric morbidity (Gigantesco, 2011; Robbins, 2012).
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As shown in Figure 3, the layout of the new framework differs from the framework Cohen et al. created in 1996. We based the outcomes of Table 2 on different levels of analysis, and it, therefore, makes sense to create a framework that considers findings and belonging levels of analysis. The framework is therefore split up into three levels; the organizational, team and individual level. We adjusted the factors used by Cohen et al. (1996) to fit new findings and we divided the factors over the levels of analysis where they belong, concerning findings from the literature. In the framework, sub-categories on the left side together form the factors leading to successful SMTs. The individual factors all contribute to overall success of SMTs via several relationships with the dependent variables on the right side. Those individual relationships are shown by means of an arrow with indicated sources of inspiration. Taken together, the factors on the different levels lead to successful self-managing teams, it is the combination that creates the success. Relationships between different factors on the left side exist too, some sub-categories indirectly lead to effectiveness without a direct link. These categories received sources of inspiration next to the independent variables. Thus, factors are related and together reinforce their effect on successful outcomes.
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In today’s rapid changing business environment where the customer have become more conscious and intellectual and where the demand from customers for banking products and services is increasing day by day it become very difficult for the manager to satisfy the customers. In order to satisfy the customers and meet the customers requirement bank personnel are trying to find out the means for the same. In the last decade time, many studies were done by observing and understanding the customer needs and their satisfaction. Each and every banking industry has identified two important versions which help in improving their performance in all respects. One is providing them best services and products and second is offering intellectual employees to satisfy them. It has been found that directly or indirectly in order to achieve the above two objective companies need committed and engaged employee who can serve as a pillar for companies and help in their growth. Therefore, employee engagement has become the major concern in every organization. Companies need to ensure that, in philosophy and practice, they acknowledge the importance of the manager in retaining employees. A highly engaged workforce is the sign of a healthy organization, whatever its size, geographical location and economic sector. Today companies have recognized that highly engaged workforce can increase innovation, productivity and bottom line performance resulting in increasing customer satisfaction.
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The analysis results of Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicate a significant difference between contract type of the banker and their level of job satisfaction. In table 2, mean rank of long-term contract (296.6) seems to have a higher level of employee satisfaction as opposed to short term contracts (196.8 and 179.1). Bankers employed on short-term contracts experience lower levels of satisfaction. The results are rational because bankers with short-term contracts are not entitled to various benefits that accompany their positions of work; for instance, group life insurance, and pension fund, among others (Jawando & Adenugba, 2014). The employers seem to place insignificant interest on human needs of short-term employees and seem to be treating them only as labor, a factor of production. Therefore, the sense of mutual commitment and partnership between the short--term contract employee and the employer is lacking (Srivastava, 2013). Such employees are bound to experience lower levels of job satisfaction due to lack of deserving consideration from the employer such as equity and fairness (Callea, Urbini, Ingusci, & Chirumbolo, 2016). On the contrary, the favorable working conditions of long- term contact employees can lead to increased levels employee satisfaction because employers will often consider long-term employees for promotions, wage increments, training and promotion (Pavlopoulos, 2013).
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When these findings are brought together with the analysis of the relationship between corporate governance and HRM practices, the outcomes generated in the various corporate governance forms are what we might have predicted. From the perspective of employees, the predominant HRM practices in the public sector and listed PLCs did not give them influence and control over their work, job security or enough time to perform their jobs (Table 2). So it is not surprising that job satisfaction, organisational commitment, trust and the quality of employment relations were low. By contrast, in organizations serving the interests of owner-members or the public, although employees tended to feel that they did not have sufficient time to do their jobs, they felt that they did have influence and control over their work; and in partnerships and self- proprietorships, employees were being consulted, given enough time to perform their jobs, adequate training and job security. Thus, there are lessons that might be learned in terms of the HRM practices that are most likely to deliver desirable employment relations outcomes in organisations operating under alternative forms of corporate governance. But what is perhaps most interesting is the fact that despite the absence of formal HRM practices in partnerships and self-proprietorships, it would appear that as a consequence of their relatively small size and high degree of mutuality of interests in the long-term performance of these establishments, employees are experiencing the employment relationship in a way that generates the positive outcomes that formal HRM is ideally designed to deliver.
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Organisational outcomes were extrapolated from the results of practice improvements, model of care changes and policy initiatives under the assumption that outcomes would deliver team or service efficiencies. In his research into clinical board membership and health service performance in the National Health Service (NHS) Veronesi found a statistically significant pattern linking the number of clinicians on hospital boards with superior Healthcare Commission (HC) quality ratings.  The researcher concluded that a 10% increase in clinicians on boards had positive consequences for HC ratings and hospital outputs and outcomes. In her research that mapped AHP leadership on top management teams (TMT) Boyce cited numerous potential roles for AHP to enhance organisational outcomes. She concludes that the impact of AHP on organisational effectiveness will be maximised by having strong leaders in executive positions.  In a study of child welfare workers, leadership behaviours were associated with higher readiness for organisational change and resulting improved operational performance. 
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Employee engagement is a key operational metric for hospitals that can lead to increased productivity, better outcomes, and improved patient satisfaction. A Deloitte consultancy study revealed that although 90% of executives appreciate the importance of employee engagement, fewer than 50% understand how to address this issue (Berson, 2015). According to Harpst (2014), hospitals with high levels of employee engagement recover value-based incentive payments in higher amounts than those with a less engaged workforce. Evidence suggests that higher engagement levels can return $1.17 for every dollar at risk in value-based purchasing payments (Press Ganey, 2015). Based on the correlation between employee engagement in hospitals and its influence on essential performance indicators and financial outcomes, a quality improvement project in an urban academic medical center set out to improve organizational focus on frontline engagement levels and related performance metrics. The initiative resulted in an evidence-based Nurse Manager’s Employee Engagement Toolkit (NMEET).
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Kinnie et al.(2005) have found a positive relationship between satisfaction of HR practices and affective commitment of employees. It is considered that the satisfaction with HR practices leads to more affective commitment, more involvement and ultimately better business results. This link can be explained by the social exchange theory (Blau, 1965). The social exchange theory suggests that social reciprocity is the basis of the exchange. There are two distinct types, namely social exchange and economic exchange. Economic exchange refers to the employee that displays a ‘one good turn deserves another’- attitude. Social exchange refers to a relationship that looks to the future and behaviours that go beyond the standard tasks and is not converted into a reward. Satisfaction with HR practices can be experienced by employees as commitment towards them and eventually be answered with, for example, affective commitment.
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Krueger and Rouse (1998) study focused on the effects of workplace education training on turnover outcome variables. They expressed how recent policy pronouncements have called for more private-sector training. It was, however, expressed in this study that on-the-job training data has been unreliable because of the diversity in the many training programs offered across various industries and organizations. Again, this study primarily focused on standardized job training programs offered by two midsized companies with respondent samples comprised of (N=800) employees located in the state of New Jersey. In supporting the data analysis, the researchers used data from the firm‟s administrative records along with completed instruments. The questionnaires were distributed to employees at the manufacturing plant. Krueger and Rouse stated that “representatives of the manufacturing company stressed that frequent absenteeism and tardiness were common employee problems” (p. 66). Along the same lines, there was an expectation that there would be an increase in employee turnover if training was not provided by the employer. The analysis showed that sample respondents who participated in the organizational training were less likely to leave the company when compared to those who did not receive company training (Krueger & Rouse, 1998). The conclusion of the study revealed employees who had not received organizational training did leave the organization, voluntarily. However, Krueger and Rouse also stated that, “Participants were less likely to be laid off or discharged, suggesting that the training may have an effect on employee behavior or that the employer valued these employees more highly” (p. 80).
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out of the workplace and one allowing them to remain at their desks. To this end, it may also be interesting to examine how utilization of online and onsite CSEV opportunities are perceived by supervisors and peers, and how it affects team dynamics, such as when an employee takes time away from the workday to engage in CSEV opportunities. Interactions with performance are certainly possible, such that usage of CSEV benefits may be perceived negatively for lower performers in a way that does not occur when higher performers take time out to engage in this type of behavior. Often, CSEV offers opportunities to meet people outside of the immediate organization in which one is employed. Examining how online vs. onsite CSEV affect people's personal and professional networks would be fruitful.
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