The type of dairy operation (e.g., concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO), free range, conventional, or- ganic), could also impact the risk of Campylobacter in- fection in a zip code. A study by Rapp et al.  found that dairy cows at CAFOs were more likely to shed Campylobacter than dairy cows at free range operations in New Zealand. A study conducted in the Midwestern and northeastern regions of the U.S. found that conven- tional dairy operations had more Campylobacter-positive fecal and environmental samples, and higher proportions of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter isolates, compared to organic farms . However, a similar study by Sato et al.  found no statistically significant differences in Campylobacter presence or antimicrobial resistance be- tween conventional and organic dairy farms. The impact of the type of dairy operation on incidence of Campylo- bacter infections was not the focus of the current study, but deserves further attention.
Bioaerosol emissions from animal feeding operation (AFO) facilities are of increasing interest due to the magnitude of the emissions and their potential health effect on local communities. There is limited information about fate and transport of AFO bioaerosol emissions. In this study, concen- trations of airborne bacteria and fungi were measured at four ambient stations in four wind direc- tions surrounding an egg production farm through winter, spring and summer using Andersen six-stage samplers. Mean concentrations of ambient bacteria and fungi ranged from 8.7 × 10 2 CFU
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Ancillary information regarding animal inventory, feed consumption, growth rates of hogs, manure excretion and water usage gathered by the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) project were reviewed and synthesized to better understand N inputs and outputs from swine finisher houses using shallow manure pits. The average amount of feed consumed during a rotation was 181,200 kg barn −1 (n=3 barns per rotation; total of 4 rotations; ∼ 730 hogs per barn per rotation). Up to five different feed formulations were fed during a rotation with %N contents ranging from 3.4 to 2.2%N. Average N consumed per rotation per barn was 4970 ± 500 kg, as determined from farm records (tonnage delivered and delivery dates) and weekly analysis of feed samples from the barns. Assuming an average rotation length of 140 days, ∼ 35.5 kg N day −1 was consumed by the hogs in the barns ( ∼ 50 grams N per hog per day per rotation). Average net live weight gain per barn per rotation was 74000 kg, yielding a feed conversion ratio of 2.4 (kg of feed to produce 1 kg of NWG). Based on total live weight of hogs shipped, ∼ 2030 kg N was exported per barn per rotation as animal mass. The remaining N introduced via feed was excreted as urine and fecal matter (2940 kg N barn −1 rotation −1 ; ∼ 29 grams N hog −1 day −1 ). TAN content and pH of pit liquid was consistently higher ( ∼ 1885 ± 389.27 mg TAN L −1 ; pH 7.7) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (802 ± 72.78 mg TAN L −1 ; pH 7.9).
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The nutritional value of protein hydrolysates as flavor enhancers, functional ingredients, and precursors for protein synthesis depends on the composition of free AAs, small peptides and large peptides in the products, as well as their batch-to-batch consistence. At present, such data are not available for the commercially avail- able products of animal or plant hydrolysates and should be obtained with the use of HPLC and mass spectrom- etry. Only when the composition of protein hydrolysates is known, can we fully understand their functionally ac- tive components and the mechanisms of their actions. In addition, the net rates of the transport of small peptides across the small intestine are not known for all the pro- tein hydrolysates currently used in animal feeding. This issue can be readily addressed with the use of Ussing chambers . There is also concern that some animal protein hydrolysates, which contain a high proportion of oligopeptides with a high abundance of basic AAs, have a low palatability for animals (particularly weanling
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Background: Antimicrobial use for growth promotion in food animal production is now widespread. A major concern is the rise of antimicrobial resistance and the subsequent impact on human health. The antimicrobials of concern are used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) which are responsible for almost all meat production including swine and poultry in the US. With global meat consumption rising, the CAFO model has been adopted elsewhere to meet this demand. One such country where this has occurred is China, and evidence suggests 70% of poultry production now occurs outside of traditional small farms. Moreover, China is now the largest aggregate consumer of meat products in the world. With this rapid rise in consumption, the Chinese production model has changed along with the use of antimicrobials in feeds. However, the specific antibiotic use in the Chinese food animal production sector is unclear. Additionally, we are aware of high quantities of antimicrobial use because of reports of high concentrations of antimicrobials in animal waste and surface waters surrounding animal feeding operations.
Based on information presented in this review, it is evident that animal feeding operations and manure ap- plication practices contribute to the formation of bio- aerosols at greater concentrations than found in back- ground environments. As population centers grow and converge on such operations, there will be an increasing potential for exposure to airborne pathogens and mi- crobial by-products that are transported off site. Ex- posure to airborne bacteria, virus, fungi, and microbial by-products is not limited to inhalation routes because deposition on fomites, food crops, and water bodies and subsequent ingestion also represent transmission routes of concern. The ability to accurately quantify airborne microorganisms within and downwind from a source is important when evaluating health risks to exposed hu- mans and animals. However, the actual risk of exposure from airborne pathogens has not been fully recognized for a variety of reasons including choice of bioaerosol collection technique, analytical methodology, target microorganism, and dispersion and infectivity model inputs.
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Consultation was to discuss current animal feed problems, and to develop a draft Code of Practice for Good Animal Feeding for consideration by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, as advice to FAO member countries. This draft Code covers good animal feeding practices, and adherence to Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) in the procurement, handling, manufacturing, storage and distribution of commercially-produced feeds for food-producing animals. Feed and feed ingredients should be obtained and preserved in stable conditions to prevent hazardous effects due to contamination or deterioration. When received, feeds should be in good condition and meet generally accepted quality standards. GMPs should be followed always [54,84] .
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and growth in cattle, small mammals and chickens when fed on organic food. But these reports were rather small in number and each from them had flaws that, from a strict scientific point of view, made them all fail to convince the expert workshops. Nevertheless the experts agreed that the experiments gave sufficient evidence to legitimate a thorough and large-scale animal feeding experiment, using parameters on several levels (chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and animal behaviour). Though research costs here might be less then those from epidemiology, they still are quite considerable, as they should cover several treatments, parameters and several generations of the animals.
Solutions to these problems are complex because of the social taboos and various religious sentiments attached to it. There are several attempts to relax the rules on slaughter ban but the states currently making their bans stricter. Farmers are poor and have fewer options. Thus, there is a need to find alternative way to manage these animals. The solution lies in maintaining the dairies adequately, creating huge Gaushalas with adequate space and funds, at appropriate locations, which can house thousands of such cattle and proper public and government cooperation. But keeping above points in view, majority of cattle found in Gaushalas are unproductive and uneconomical, thus for managing these animals, Gaushalas are mostly dependent on donations, charity and grants. These institutions are facing various problems on economic front due to lack of government support, delays in funding, less space and feed availability etc. In case of fodder supply in India, it is extremely scarce and the gap is very wide. During 2005-06 against the demand for green fodder, dry fodder and concentrates, we were able to meet only 38 per cent, 78 per cent and 37 per cent respectively (Hedge, 2006). The recommended ratio of veterinarian to veterinary institute is 1:5000 which is still not achieved (Yashada, 2006). Thus, these institutions need focused attention particularly to know and prioritize the problems faced by them so that they can be made sustainable. With this point of view an attempt has been made to study the various constraints faced by Gaushalas in certain areas of housing, feeding, breeding etc.
Feeding and nutrition of the dairy co w represents the highest cost in pr oducing a litre of milk and therefore is one of the most important factors in efficient dairy production. Nutrition is a key f actor in the overall performance, health, and w elfare of dairy cattle. In these respects, f armers, particularly within the organic and lo w-input sectors, must increasingly concern themsel ves with optimizing feed efficiency and nutrition. Given the high reliance of organic and lo w- input dairy cattle on forage resour ces and the various environments in w hich they are maintained, producers may ine vitably have to adjust methods for forage production and adopt grazing strategies for better pasture utilisation while broadening the inclusion of alternative feed resources and di verse swards into their system (Zollitsch et al., 2004). There are an increasing number of f armers seeking ways to reduce their costs of production by using less fertiliser and b y reducing the amount of purchased feed. In order to achieve this, some farmers, particularly from the organic or lo w-input sector, choose to grow diverse s wards with high proportions of different legumes, gr asses and herbs. Whilst there are man y benefits from mixing multiple species in leys, some farmers are not familiar with this pr actice and have reservations about their use compar ed to the typical grass leys or grass-w hite clover mixtures. In addition, innovativ e grazing strategies can also influence soil or ganic matter and performance of dairy cows in terms of energy utilisation and milk production. This technical note pinpoints some of the pot ential benefits of utilising diverse sw ards for low- input and organic dairy systems and r eviews the claimed benefits of a grazing s ystem called ‘mob grazing’ on soil organic matter and dairy cow productivity.
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Livestock and poultry operations that feed large num- bers of animals are common in the USA. Facility cap- acity varies greatly by region, and it is not uncommon for facilities to house 1,000 swine with multiple barns at a single site, feedlots to house 50,000 cattle, and poultry houses to house 100,000 hens. Other countries with large agricultural sectors such as Canada, Brazil, Denmark, Germany, Poland, and Australia often have similarly sized operations. Facilities with a large number of animal units (i.e., exceeding an arbitrarily established threshold of species-specific animal numbers) are frequently referred to as concentrated/confined animal-feeding operations (CAFO). Confinement facilities housing fewer animal units than the species-specific thresholds are considered animal-feeding operations (AFOs); the “AFO” classifica- tion may also be used in a more inclusive sense to refer to both CAFO and confinement facilities below the thresh- old(s). There is primary research that suggests livestock fa- cilities that confine animals indoors for feeding can represent an occupational hazard for workers [1-3]. The health effects are primarily associated with respiratory sys- tem function. One systematic review of the topic was pub- lished by some members of our group in 2010 . The conclusions of prior reviews often differed, likely mainly due to differences in evidence used. Some reviews in- cluded indirect forms of evidence, including correlations or extrapolation from topics with similar issues (e.g., find- ings from studies of communities near coal industries were considered evidence for findings of communities near AFOs). Other differences arose perhaps because some reviews excluded papers from consideration based on a potential for bias.
The considerable amount of detritus in their guts has shown that P. segnis is also an opportunistic deposit feeder, just as reported by Prasad and Neelakantan (1988) for Scylla serrata and for P.pelagicus (Josileen 2011). The detrital energy assimilated by the crab population is thus converted partly into body tissues (Macintosh 1984). Many portunids also consume small quantities of macrophytes. The adults of Necora puber (Linnaeus, 1767) are found to consume plant material (brown algae) even by preference (Choy 1986). Grapsid, xanthoid, majid, potamid, and portunid crabs (in portu- nids particularly juveniles) have also been reported to consume plant material (Hill 1976; Paul 1981; Jewett and Feder 1982; Williams 1982; Rosas et al. 1994). In the present study, the stomach contents of juveniles and of sub-adult crabs contained semi-digested plant material, like remains of seaweeds and sea grasses mixed with sand, mud and gravel. Josileen (2011) and Patel et al. (1979) have reported the presence of fair amounts of organic matter mixed with sand, mud, gravel, and other bottom particles, which indicates the species’ bottom feeding habits in its bottom habitat.
It appears, therefore, that although consistent and informative QoL assessments appear to be possible by employing skilled interpretation of behaviour expressed at the whole animal level, each such assessment may be most reliable when applied to a short timeframe. Thus, in order to undertake lifelong QoL assessments repeated short timeframe assessments would probably be required. Even then, the hindrances to long-term QoL assessments noted above would question the level of objective support for, and therefore the credibility of, many of the conclusions that may be drawn on a lifelong basis. A further impediment is that, except at the extremes, there is lack of precision in the criteria that are currently used to distinguish the categories on the QoL scale to which an animal could be assigned (Anonymous 2009). It follows that until these problems have been overcome, they would hinder the utility of the lifelong QoL concepts as proposed by FAWC (Anonymous 2009) when applied to animal welfare codes, regulations and laws, and to labels designed to guide consumer purchases of animal-based products. At present, therefore, their value in the practical management of animals would be limited so that reliance on the minimum standards and recommendations for best practice outlined in codes of practice or welfare will continue to be necessary and worthwhile.
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The result indicated that S. intermedius from Agbura landing site, has great preference for parts of crustacean (39.47%); parts of fish (33.19%) and parts of insect (14.93%). Also, parts of plant (4.31%) and pepper seed (3.33%) were observed as primary food items in the study. The result is in line with Ayoade et al. (2008); Omondi and Ogari (1994), who recorded plants materials in the food of Schilbe mystus. Although, parts of plants and pepper seed were shown as primary food items (i.e., IFS ≥ 3%), the authors thinks otherwise. This is because parts of insect which is the least preference in terms of animal origin is ~3.5 fold higher when compared to parts of plants and ~4.5 fold higher when compared to pepper seed. The stomach also contained sand/ mud particles, which is in line with Omondi and Ogari (1994) however, they suggested that the sand/mud particles were probably ingested accidentally with other food materials. Allison and Sikoki (2003) also reported sand particles in the stomach of Parailia pellucida (Schilbeidae) from Nun River but did not consider sand particles as food.
purposes h ave been highlighted ( Du mont & lason 2000). The n-alkane method used in this thesis has proven to be an effective alternative for i ndividual herbage intake estim ation, but it had not been tested previously in Argentina when this project was designed. The use of controlled-release devices (CRD, Captec®) inserted into the rumen of the animals was preferred in this thesis, since it minimised i nterference with normal animal behaviour and management. One of the key issues about the CRD is the assumption of a relatively constant release rate of dotriacontane (C32) and hexatriacontane (C36) after a stabilization period of seven days. Specific studies to test the accuracy of CRD or com pare it with other methods, has shown that this device provides a satisfactory means of delivering an accurate, daily dose of n-alkanes ( Dove et al. 2002; Hendricksen et al. 2003 ; Molina et al. 2004). Though a local calibration with total faecal collection when possible is advisable, some studies were based in the release rate provided by CRD manufactu rers ( Realini et al. 1 999; Garcia et al. 2000 ; Kennedy et al. 2003). At least two findings seem to indicate an adequate performance of the method i n this thesis. Firstly, close agreement with the theoretical energy requirement for the actual level of performance (Chapter 3 and present study) , and secondly, a similar release rate to that suggested by manufactu rers and the esti mation from a si ngle test with C R D inserted in a rumen fistulated animal (Chapter 2 ) .
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The Food Feeding System consists of a feed belt with the drive system. The Storage unit had Actuator is connected to the controller for feeding the ration to cattle. Both the Actuator and drive System to start up at a pre-specified time, thus feed falls on the belt is taken to the cattle and automatically services to the feeding area Before Beginning of each new feeding cycle, the controller automatically left across the belt and residual feed is cleaned by the Scrapper in the Starting position. Here IR sensor is used to detect the Start and ending position of the belt.
but also influences biogeochemical processes in the soil. Manure management refers to all activities, decisions and components used to handle, store and dispose of faces and urine from livestock with the goal of preserving and recycling the nutrients in the livestock production system IPCC, 2006a (Montes et al., 2013). This includes manure accumulation and collection in buildings, storage, processing, and application to agricultural land (Montes et al., 2013). Animal manure is a nutrient resource containing most of the essential elements required for plant growth and can be a significant source of N in both intensive and subsistence farming systems (Montes et al., 2013). Application of manure to agricultural land has manifold benefits as it maintains and improves soil quality, such as soil organic matter (SOM), the soil microbiota, water- holding capacity and increases crop yields (Diacono and Montemurro, 2010). Recycling of on-farm nutrients including animal manure on agricultural land is a key principle in organic and low external input farming systems. It aims at closing nutrient cycles at farm level and contributes to SOM reproduction at the same time (Gattinger et al., 2013, 2012; Leithold et al., 2014). Despite the benefits of animal manure, its management poses a substantial risk to the environment due to the gaseous losses of NH 3 and N 2 O (Pardo et al., 2014;
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The WHO infant feeding guidelines have changed considerably since the studies in this issue were carried out. In light of new evidence, operational experiences and increased availability of ARV both for prophylaxis and treatment, one may ask how relevant the results in the present papers are to current and future PMTCT programme implementation. Recent guidelines have a broader approach than the 2001 version. The protection of maternal prenatal and postnatal health, viral load and CD4 status have been included in addition to HIV-free survival of the child . The infant feeding recommen- dations are also dramatically altered. Despite such radi- cal changes, it remains a legacy of the decade that the 2001 guidelines became extremely influential as they coincided with the large scale roll-out of the PMTCT programme, and were fundamental in the training of a generation of postnatal PMTCT counsellors. It is most probable that the ambiguous policy on breastfeeding launched in these guidelines will have long lasting reper- cussions for public health efforts on infant feeding in sub-Saharan Africa for years to come. It may take years for national programmes and health services to over- come the confusions created in the wake of the WHO ’ s 2001 infant feeding recommendations. It may take even longer to return breastfeeding to its social position as
Animal husbandry signifies as the second largest economical activity and provides employment and economic support to rural families. Many of the important tasks in animal husbandry are performed by women besides their responsibilities as home makers but the role of dairy farm women is not recognized as economic contribution and they remain as unpaid labour. This study emphasized the analysis of participation of dairy farm women in animal husbandry occupation. The study was conducted in Shimoga district of Karnataka. Data were collected from 120 farm women using structured interview schedule. The participation was observed more in the aspects related to milking, feeding, health care and management, breeding and less in finance management.
Rotational paddock grazing is a system of grazing management where livestock are grazed on a rotational basis within a large number of smaller units called paddocks. Typically a paddock may be utilised for 1-3 days before the stock are moved on. Rotational paddock grazing is a more intensive management system and requires higher capital costs in fencing, water supply infrastructure, and access routes. It is often carried out on a 20-30 day cycle and allows the farmer to more accurately match the nutritional demands of the livestock with the availability of forage (Matthews, et al. 1999). Under this system, herbage intake and animal performance have often been related to variations in daily herbage dry matter (DM) allowance (Hodgson 1990; Clark & Kanneganti, 1998; Matthews, et al. 1999). Rotational paddock grazing also ensures that stock do not regraze the same area of land on a day by day basis and this can help reduce the parasitic worm burden that livestock can suffer from (Ketzis, et al. 2006). Rotational paddock grazing offers an additional advantage in the management of the grassland on a farm in that it is possible for the farmer to close up small areas of grass for conservation (i.e., silage or hay) where grass growth has exceeded livestock requirements; this helps to maintain herbage quality and nutritive value in the paddocks that continue to be grazed.
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