Objective: To determine common uropathogens and antibioticsusceptibility patterns with associated risk factors among adult diabetic patients attending at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Methods: A hospital based, cross-sectional study was conducted from April – July 2015. A total of 248 diabetic patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic UTI were investigated for common uropathogens. Clean catch mid-stream urine specimens were collected from each study subjects. Uropathogens were isolated and identified by using conventional standard techniques. Samples were cultured on Blood agar, MacConkey agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. AntibioticSusceptibilitypattern was determined on Mueller-Hinton using Kirby – Bauer disc diffusion method. The collected data and the result of the laboratory were analyzed using SPSS version 20.
Dominicus Husada 1* , Sugi Deny Pranoto Soegianto 1 , Indra Suwarin Kurniawati 2 , Adi Pramono Hendrata 2 , Eveline Irawan 2 , Leny Kartina 1 , Dwiyanti Puspitasari 1 , Parwati Setiono Basuki 1 and Ismoedijanto 1
Background: Diphtheria has been reported as an outbreak in some regions in Indonesia, most especially in East Java Province. Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and other antibiotics, single or multiple, has been reported in several studies. This study aims to evaluate the first-line antibioticsusceptibilitypattern of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antibioticsusceptibilitypattern of S. aureus in both inpatients and outpatients. The research proposal was submitted to Jimma University Medical Faculty Ethics Committee and ethical approval of the study was obtained. All inpatients and outpatients who came to the study hospital for medical help during the study period were taken as source population. Samples were taken from 323 patients who were selected by systematic sampling technique from the source population. A systematic sampling technique using independent sampling interval for the different departments was used to select the 323 patients included in the study.
Increasingly, multiresistant bacteria are being detected in environmental compartments with a high bacterial density . The source of these bacteria as well as the transfer of resistance between different environment compartments, require further investigation and should be included in risk analysis. The results obtained from this research will help in monitoring antimicrobial resistance in environment where there is a high usage antibiotic. However, healthy and preferably antimicrobial naive populations should also be monitored, to have a better overview of the spread of antimicrobial activity in a population. Besides this, it will also give a baseline data about the antibioticsusceptibilitypattern of some commonly used antibiotics used in poultry farm.
Background: Neonatal sepsis is one of the most common causes of neonatal mortality in the developing world. This study aims to determine the incidence, the bacteriological profile of neonatal septicaemia, their antibacterial susceptibilitypattern.
Methods: It is a prospective study, carried out in the tertiary care NICU of S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, from January 2014 to October 2014. Blood culture specimens were collected from neonates, identification of organisms, their antibioticsusceptibilitypattern detection was done.
Understanding the local antibioticsusceptibilitypattern in our setting could enable practitioners to select the appropriate medication necessary for effective treatment. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of CABUTI and the antimicrobial susceptibilitypattern at Tamale Teaching Hos- pital.
Harcharan Singh*, Meena Atray, and Pankaj Kumar Modi
Department of Pharmacology, RNT Medical College, near Court circle, Udaipur- 313003, Rajasthan, India ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine antibioticsusceptibilitypattern of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus in tertiary care center at Southern Rajasthan. Modified Kirby Baurer disc diffusion method was used for antimicrobial sensitivity testing of all samples. Maximum resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n=400) was observed against Methicillin (59%), Amikacin (53%) followed by other antimicrobial agents. Earlier Vancomycin, Linezolid and Pristinamycin were 100% sensitivity to MRSA. But results of this study shows that among MRSA isolates 13 % were found resistant to Vancomycin (VRSA), 12 % isolates found resistant to Linezolid and 9 % isolates Pristinamycin resistant. Pristinamycin was found sensitive in 75% of MRSA which were also Vancomycin resistant (VRSA) and Linezolid resistant (LRSA). The emergence of drug resistance and it’s dissemination in MRSA is worrisome. So we need to develop newer agents as well as slow down the spread of resistant strains by various measures.
Sowmya, S. and *Lakshmidevi, N.
Department of studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Urinary tract infection is one of the most commonly occurring infections among the patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study was focused on the antibioticsusceptibility of the UTI pathogens isolated from the diabetic patients. About 936 UTI organisms were isolated from 900 culture positive urine samples collected from the diabetic patients attending the government hospital. The incidence of UTI was recorded to 82% among the diabetic patients for the study period of two years from March, 2011 to February, 2013. Escherichia coli was found to be the major cause of UTI. About 10 different types of organisms isolated from the UTI samples were randomly chosen to test against the UTI antibiotics of dodecadisc rings of Hi-media with codes DE004 and DEO30 .The antibioticsusceptibilitypattern revealed that Serratia marcescens was sensitive to 91% of antibiotics tested against and was resistant to 9% of antibiotics followed by Proteus mirabilis (87% and 13%), Staphylococcus aureus (70% and 17%), Citrobacter sp. (70%
Over use or injudicious use of antibiotics may contribute in emerging of multi-drug resistant bacterial strain.
In this retrospective cross sectional study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of invasive bacterial disease causing etiologic agents and their antibioticsusceptibilitypattern in a rural town in Bangladesh from January to September 2018.
Resistance studies have found increases in the resis- tance to cipro ﬂ oxacin, cefazolin, and gentamicin in bacter- ial keratitis cases that are caused by gram-positive organisms. 8 Recent data are lacking regarding the bacterial pro ﬁ le and its antibioticsusceptibilitypattern of bacterial keratitis in Saudi Arabia. Hence, this study aims to iden- tify the causative organisms, predisposing factors, and antibiotic pro ﬁ le of bacterial keratitis in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) as agents of UTI exists and needs verification. The present study therefore aimed at investigating patients with signs and symptoms of UTI seen at two tertiary hospitals in Enugu state Nigeria and within Enugu metropolis, for Staphylococcus species UTI, determine its prevalence, epidemiology and antibioticsusceptibilitypattern of the staphylococcal isolates to commonly used antibiotics in the study area.
Antimicrobial resistance has been recognized as an emerging worldwide problem. The effect could be severe in heavily populated developing country such as India where there is no strict monitoring program regarding the use of antibiotics. In Enterobacteriaceae antimicrobial resistance in E.coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram negative pathogen causing to UTIs in humans. Antimicrobial drug resistance is on the rise worldwide with regional differences in the frequency of occurrence [4, 5]. Many bacteria are eligible to form of biofilms, which are defined as matrix- enclosed microbial population adherent to each other and to surfaces or interfaces . The microbes have evolved other mechanisms to evade antimicrobial therapy and probably the most important among them is the ability to either form or live within a biofilm . The present study was undertaken to determine the antibioticsusceptibilitypattern and biofilm producing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC).
Generally, pathogens in hospitals are resistant to multiple antibiotics due to increased selection pressure of antibiotics. Surveillance studies have been conducted to monitor antibioticsusceptibilitypattern in pathogenic bacteria to help clinicians when using empirical treatment for infections. Studies from USA, Europe and most other countries have shown better susceptibilitypattern for pathogens isolated from UTI against SXT (Szczypa et al., 2001; Mazzulli et al., 2001; Sahm et al., 2001; Gordon and Jones, 2003; Bonsu et al., 2006). But in this region of the world SXT has shown poor activity (Tankhiwale et al., 2004; Akram et al., 2007). A reason for this lack of sensitivity may be that in the past, SXT has been extensively used in this region. Among the 116 E. coli, 94 (81%) strains were resistant to SXT. Hence, SXT cannot be recommended as an empiric therapy for the treatment of UTI in Pakistan.
Appendix III: Minor assent form
Project Title: Antibioticsusceptibilitypattern of bacterial uropathogens causing urinary tract infections in Nakuru Level 5 Hospital, Kenya
We are doing a research study about urinary tract infection. A research study is a way to learn more about people. If you decide that you want to be part of this study, you will be asked to bring 10 ml of early morning urine specimen. You will give a urine specimen in a clean sterile bottle, which will be examined for the presence of bacteria and other indicators of urinary tract infection.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10 (24.50 %), Staphylococcus aureus, 6 (15.00%), Proteus vulgaris, 2 (5.00%), Proteus mirabilis, 5 (12.50%), Klebsiella pneumonia, 2 (5.00%), Coagulase negative Staphylococci, 2 (5.00%), Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 (2.50%), Enterococcus cloacae, 1 (2.50 %). While twenty (20) isolates, Escherichia coli, 8 (37.5 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosia, 5 (25%), Staphylococcus aureus, 4 (18.75 %), Proteus vulgaris, 2(12.5 %), Coagulase negative Staphylococci, 1 (6.25%) respectively were isolated from non pregnant women. Urinary Tract Infection occur more in female than male, and it is also rampant in pregnant women. The antibioticsusceptibilitypattern shows that Ofloxacin and Nitrofuratoin are the best antimicrobial agent used in treating bacteriuria in this study. The antibioticsusceptibilitypattern on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus spp shows that quinolone with percentage susceptibility responses of 89.23%,
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections. Antibioticsusceptibilitypattern of uropathogens varies due to inappropriate use of antibiotics. The current trend of antibioticsusceptibilitypattern of uropathogens is necessary for appropriate therapy of UTIs. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of urinary pathogens in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2019 to December 2020 at Kodagu Institute of Medical Sciences, Madikeri.
Staphylococcus species, 7 showed growth of H. influenzae, 5 showed the growth of fungi 32 showed
Now taking into consideration the antibiotic sensitivity of the MRSA which constitutes 58.33% of all the isolated pathogens we determined that it has developed complete resistance against penicillin as tested in the samples collected from cases and controls, next in the list is Cotrimoxazole and Erythromycin to which it shows only 2.85% sensitivity. The sensitivity of the organisms increased with higher order antibiotics with Vancomycin, Teicoplanin and Linezolid having 100% sensitivity followed by Rifampicin, Netilmicin and Clindamycin.
Community-acquired pneumonia causes great mortality and morbidity and high costs worldwide. Empirical selection of antibiotic treatment is the cornerstone of management of patients with pneumonia. To reduce the misuse of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, and side-effects, an empirical, effective, and individualized antibiotic treatment is needed. Follow-up after the start of antibiotic treatment is also important, and management should include early shifts to oral antibiotics, stewardship according to the microbiological results, and short-duration antibiotic treatment that accounts for the clinical stability criteria. New approaches for fast clinical (lung ultrasound) and microbiological (molecular biology) diagnoses are promising. Community-acquired pneumonia is associated with early and late mortality and increased rates of cardiovascular events. Studies are needed that focus on the long-term management of pneumonia Aim- To study the Antibiotic succeptibility pattern of CAP. To find out the most common bacteria causing CAP in hospitalized patients. Method & Materials - The present study was carried out in 50 patients of community acquired pneumonia admitted to GMERS Sola Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, from April - 2012 to March 2015. The diagnosis was based on acute illness of fever and cough with clinical signs of crepitations and/or bronchial breathing along with radiological evidence of pulmonary consolidation. Results- After studying the 50 cases of adult community acquired pneumonia it has been stated that Streptococcus pneumonia is the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia (22%) Next to it is Gram- negative bacilli ( 22%) and Staphylococcus aureus (12%). Among Gram-negative bacilli Klabasiella and E-coli were common ( 8% each).Inspite of all possible diagnostic methods like sputum gram-stain, culture, blood culture and invasive procedure like bronchoscopic aspirate, no organism were detected in 44% of cases. Pleural effusion were noted in 7 cases i.e. 14%.Streptococcus pneumonia is the causative agent in 3 cases out of 7 i.e. 42.8%. Conclusion-80% of the patients were improved. 8% were expired and 12% had slow resolving pneumonias. The mortality in the present study was 8%. The decrease in mortality is due to early hospitalization and vigorous therapy with broadspectrum antibiotics.
different morphological characteristics and biochemical tests i.e. motility, colony shape & colour, texture, gram staining, changes on triple sugar iron (TSI) agar, oxi- dase, citrate, indole and urease tests. The frequency of isolated uropathogens was E. coli 73%, C. freundii 9%, S. aureus 4%, P. aeruginosa 4%, M. morganii 3%, Pro- teus spp. 1%, Streptococcus spp. 1% and C. albicans 1% while 4% isolated was normal flora with no signifi- cant growth. The identified microbes were processed for the determination of antibiotics susceptibility using different antimicrobial agents mentioned above. E. coli isolates showed highest sensitivity to cefoparazone 80.2% followed by amikacin 50%, imipenem 42.7% and aztreonam 27.1% while it was more resistant to norfloxacin 84.4%, cefepime 82.2%, tobramycin 81.2% and ciprofloxacin 76%. Citrobacter freundii was more sensitive to imipenem, tazocin 41.6% each, gentamicin and amikacin 33.3% each, while it was more resistant to tobramycin 100% followed by cefoparazone 83.3%, aztreonam, ceftazidime 75% each and cefepime 58.3%. Morganella morganii was more sensitive to tazocin 100% followed by gentamicin, ceftazidime 75% each and amikacin 50% while it was 100% resistant to az- treonam, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, tobramycin and cefoparazone. Results showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to amikacin 60%, gentamicin, cefepime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin and tobramycin 40% each. Streptococcus spp. showed sensitivity to cefepime 100% while it was resistant to the rest of the tested antibiotics i.e. gentamicin, amikacin, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, tobramycin, cefoparazone, Imipenem, tazocine and ceftazidime 100% each. Pro- teus spp. showed sensitivity to amikacin, aztreonam, cefobid and ceftazidime 50% each. It was 100% resistant to gentamicin, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, tobramycin, cefoparazone and tazocin. S. aureus was sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin 50% each, while it was resistant to cefepime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, cefoparazone and tazocin 100% each. S. epidermidis was also isolated but its growth was less than the significant growth 105CFU/ml.
Antibioticsusceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method on Chocolate agar 30 . .
In 100 mm Petri dish plates, 6 discs were kept at a distance not more than 24 mm apart.
The isolates were tested for its susceptibility to Ampicillin, Ceftrioxzone, Azithromycin, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Cotrimoxazole, and Rifampicin. Make a lawn culture on the chocolate agar using direct colony suspension and incubate at 37 0 c for 24 hours 87 . Next day the zone of inhibition was measured by holding the petri plate a few inches above a black background illuminated with transmitted light.