The aim of the study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of polyherbal formulation I and II in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic mice. Swiss albino female mice were used for the present study. Acute toxicity study was done on screened mice for 14 days. The mice were divided into five groups like normal, diabetic, formulation I and II treated and standard (diabetes treated with metformin). STZ 20 mg/kg body weight (bw) was administered intra-peritoneally to mice for the induction of type 2 diabetes. After the confirmation for diabetes, the mice were subjected to further in-vivo studies. The poly herbal formulations I and II (100 mg/kg bw) were administered orally to diabetic mice for 28 days. The poly herbal formulation I contains Eclipta prostrata (leaves), Syzygium cumini (seeds), Phyllanthus niruri (leaves) and formulation II contains Eclipta prostrate (leaves), Syzygium cumini (seeds), in the ratio of 1:2:1 and 1:2 respectively. Body weight and fasted blood glucose levels were monitored and recorded every week. The fasted mice were examined for the period of 28 days after which they were sacrificed. The blood and tissue samples were collected for analyses of biochemical parameters and for other related tests. Biochemical parameters like blood glucose level, lipid profile test and kidney profile test were done to confirm the efficacy of the formulations. Formulation I and II did not show any toxicity at the level upto 250 mg/kg bw. Based on the toxicity studies, dosage level was fixed to 100 mg/kg bw. Formulation I showed significant antidiabeticeffect than formulation II in STZ-induced diabetic mice. This might conclude that the polyherbal formulation I possess most efficient in antidiabetic activity when compared to formulation II and metformin.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the antidiabeticeffect of garcinol on streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats. Acute toxicity of garcinol was studied according to the guidelines of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Oral glucose tolerance test was used as a preliminary screening method. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After induction of diabetes, rats were treated with garcinol (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and metformin (100 mg/ kg) for 28 days. Blood samples were collected for estimating biochemical parameters. Administration of garcinol caused significant reduction in elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosyated hemoglobin and lipids in diabetic rats. Histopathological study revealed regeneration of pancreatic β cells in the garcinol-treated groups. These results indicated that garcinol showed significant antidiabetic and lipid-lowering effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.
It is evident from the table 1 that, treatment with acacia suspension alone has not influenced the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. Rabeprazole perse did not alter the blood glucose levels. However, rabeprazole pretreatment 30 mg/kg, p.o has not significantly altered the onset of antidiabeticeffect of glibenclamide and significantly enhanced peak antidiabeticeffect from 45.67 ± 2.02 % at 4 th hr to 54.27 ± 3.89 % at 8 th hr and duration of antidiabeticeffect was raised from 17 hrs to 22 hrs.
Non-diabetic rats have shown normal structure of the liver tissue. In diabetic control rats, the organ is seen Figure 1: Graphs representing the effect of the ethanolic extract of Crossandra infundibuliformis leaves and stems (ECILS) on serum parameters and lipid profile in Alloxan‑induced diabetic rats. (a) Effect of ECILS on blood glucose levels, (b) effect of ECILS on high‑density lipoprotein levels, (c) effect of ECILS on total cholesterol, (d) effect of ECILS on triglyceride levels, (e) effect of ECILS on albumin, (f) effect of ECILS on total protein, (g) effect of ECILS on direct bilirubin levels, (h) effect of ECILS on total bilirubin levels, (i) effect of ECILS on serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels, (j) effect of ECILS on serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase levels
Generally, it has been observed that hyperlipidemia is a complication associated with hyperglycemia. During study it was observed increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and decrease in HDL in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats as compared to normal animals. The EOOB and EOOR showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, Triglycerides and significant rise in HDL when compared with diabetic control group. The potent antidiabeticeffect of the plant extract suggests the presence of potent antidiabetic active principles, which produced antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats. The outcomes of lipid profile confirmed the potent antidiabetic activity of bark and root of Ougeinia oojeinensis.
To study the antidiabeticeffect of the aqueous methanolic extract of Dolichandrone atrovirens leaf extract (DALE) and Dolichandrone atrovirens bark extract (DABE) were administered oral route, diabetes was induced in the male Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide to continue for 60 days. At the end of the experiment 24hours, urine was collected and noted the initial and final body weight (Fig.1) of the various group of animals. The collected urine is used to estimate the urine volume (Fig.2) urine
This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of PWT in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of PWT for 14 days caused a significant decrease in blood glucose levels. STZ, a highly cytotoxic agent of pancreatic β-cells (Elsner et al., 2000), induces diabetes by damaging the cells that causes reduction in insulin release. So STZ significantly induced hyperglycemia accompanied by hypoinsulinemia. It is reported that treatment of diabetic animals with medicinal plant extracts resulted in activation of β-cells and granulation returned to normal, showing an insulinogenic effect (Kedar and Chakrabarti, 1982). The possible mechanism by which PWT mediated its antidiabeticeffect could be by potentiation of pancreatic secretion of insulin from existing β-cells of islets, as was evident by the significant increase in the level of insulin in the extract treated animals. In this context, a number of other plants have been reported to have antihyperglycemic activity with a stimulatory effect on insulin release (Esmaeili and Yazdanparas, 2004; Sharma et al., 2006). Since the extract produced highly significant antihyperglycemic effect even in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in which most of the β- cells are damaged, it is likely that PWT might have extrapancreatic mechanism of action. From the results of the present study, it may be suggested that the mechanism of action of PWT may be similar to glibenclamide action. In diabetes, hyperglycemia is accompanied with dyslipidemia (Bierman et al., 1966; Garber, 2002), i.e.
Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of inflorescence of Borassus flabellifer extract in male wistar rats has been investigated. Antidiabetic potentials were studies by the orally administration of plant extract at the doses of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg in streptozocin-induced diabetic male wistar rats. Treatment of streptozocin-induced diabetic male wistar rats with the extracts caused a significant (p<0.01) reduction in the blood glucose levels when compared with control. The dose of 600 mg/kg showed a significant decrease in blood sugar (p<0.05) after 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours of extracts administration when compared to control normal saline. The highest activity resided at the dose of 600 mg/kg with mean percentage glycemic change of 39.50% after 8 hours of extract administration while the other two doses 150 and 300 mg/kg had glycemic change of 30.34% and 31.42% respectively after 8 hours of extract administration. The phytochemical screening revealed the presences of tannins, carbohydrate, terpenes, saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. This result suggests that the inflorescence of Borassus flabellifer extracts possess antidiabeticeffect on streptozocin-induced diabetic male wistar rats.
Though different types of oral hypoglycaemic drugs are available along with insulin for the treatment of type-2 Diabetes Mellitus, but they have significant side effects and sometimes they are found to be ineffective in chronic diabetic patients. Thus, there is an increasing demand of natural products with high antidiabetic potential and lesser side effects. Among these aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon (Doob Grass) has been used as an antidiabetic agent in traditional system of medicine in India. The aim of this study is to investigate the antidiabeticeffect of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon in streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats. For this purpose, experimental rats were divided into three groups: Group A, B and C namely; normal control, diabetic control and diabetic rat treated with aqueous extract of cynodon dactylon (500 mg/kg body wt.) respectively. Animals were subjected to induce diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin. Animals with moderate hyperglycemia, i.e. serum glucose between 200-350mg/dl were taken into consideration for administration of aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon. The whole experiment was performed for a period of 28 days. Our result concludes that aqueous extract of cynodon dactylon is able to reduce the fasting blood sugar in diabetic rats, and that the rate of fall of FBS was more in 3rd week of study while later in 4th week it achieves almost to normal range.
The antidiabetic plant extracts in the formulation may involve one or more compounds to decrease blood glucose suggesting that the natural constituents could act separately or synergistically to induce hypoglycaemic effect 22 . We also in our study have found more pronounced antidiabeticeffect for the formulation, in comparison to single drug extract at 90min. Intraday study have shown a rather more decrease in blood glucose level of both diabetic and normal rats, when treated with EELF, signifying the synergistic effect of the other ingredients of the formulation on the blood lowering effect of Salacia reticulate. Also, after chronic administration of the extracts at dose of 100mg/kg twice a day for two weeks on diabetic rats, we found that on the 9 th day the antidiabeticeffect of EELF was more than the EESR at the same dose showing the synergistic activity of ingredients on the antidiabetic activity of Salacia reticulate.
In this study, methanol extract showed its efficacy in controlling elevated blood glucose level and this antidiabeticeffect of methanol extract could be attributed to the different antioxidant phytochemicals, e.g., flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins available within the extract (Muhtadi et al., 2015). These antioxidants compounds available within the extract might exert individual antidiabeticeffect and/or participate in some sort of synergism. The presumed mechanism of action of these antioxidants was based on imitative action on the peripheral tissues by either titillation of reproduction process or discharging of pancreatic excretion of insulin β-cells. There might be some other mechanism, e.g., acceleration of the glucose discharge from the circulation by increasing filtering rate, renal secretion, and enhancing the discharge of glucose by unregulated metabolic process or integration into fat layer, a process which correlates the pancreas in producing insulin (Muhtadi et al., 2015).
The relevance of these findings to stimulate further research cannot be understated because the evidence can promote detailed investigation into the chemical constituents of Opuntia and their putative mechanisms of action in DM. Though actual molecular mechanisms of antidiabeticeffect in DM remain obscure, polysaccharide constituents of Opuntia sp. have been linked to beneficial effects in DM. For instance, Yang et al  suggested that the mechanism of polysaccharides found in Opuntia monacantha cladode hypoglycemic action might be similar to that of dimethylbiguanide – a conventional oral antidiabetic drug whose origins can be traced from the plant Galega officinalis [34, 35]. The hypoglycemic effect of dimethylbiguanide (Metformin) is mainly attributed to the inhibition of hepatic glucose output via the following proposed mechanisms: activation of APM-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through liver kinase B1 and decreased energy charge [36, 37]; the inhibition of glucagon-induced cAMP production by blocking adenylyl cyclase enzyme ; the increase of the AMP/ATP ratio by restricting NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase (complex I) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain ; and more recently, the reduction of lactate and glycerol metabolism to glucose through a redox change by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase . Scholars also suggest that unabsorbed Metformin accumulates in the gut mucosa of the distal ileum delaying intestinal glucose absorption [41, 42].
The present study showed that ethanol extract of Alstonia scholaris significantly reduced elevated blood glucose level in alloxan diabetic rats without showing any hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. Since alloxan effectively destroys pancreatic beta cells and causes persistent hyperglycemia, the mechanism of action of Alstonia scholaris might involve actions other than pancreatic beta cells insulin release or secretion. The antidiabeticeffect of the bark extract could be due to increased utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, improved sensitivity of target tissues for insulin or it may be due to improved metabolic regulation of glucose. Thus the present study showed that bark of Alstonia scholaris L. possesses anti diabetic effect in alloxan diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the antidiabetic activity of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Ageratum conyzoides. Streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia male adult albino rats were used to study the antidiabeticeffect of Ageratum conyzoides aqueous extract (at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg respectively). The diabetic rats were housed in metabolic cages, for the whole period of the experiment. Body weight was evaluated at the beginning of the experiment and on days 7, 14, and 21 afterward. Water intake, food intake and urine excretion volume were also estimated. At the end of the experiment the rats were sacrificed and serum insulin concentration, total serum proteins and hepatic glycogen content were estimated. Lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and triglycerides (TG)) were also assessed. The results showed significant effect of stimulating body weight growth at the doses of 200, 300 mg/kg. The effect of the extract on the food, water intake and water excretion showed a significant decrease in the 200 and 300 mg/kg extract treated groups. In treated rats, both doses (200 and 300 mg/kg) induced a significant reduction in serum glucose and the Area Under the glucose Curve, with concomitant increases in serum insulin and protein levels. Furthermore, A. conyzoides treatment improve lipid profile by increase HDL and reducing triglycerides and LDL at 200 mg/kg. The present study clearly indicates that Ageratum conyzoidesaqueous extract leaves exhibited significant antidiabetic activity and supports its uses in traditional medicine.
Alocasia genus plants have been reported for their antihyperglycemic effects. Rhizome extract of Alocasia macrorrhizos has been shown to have an antidiabeticeffect in alloxan- induced hyperglycemic mice.  Antidiabetic activity of leaf and stem extract of Alocasia indica has been shown in streptozotocin diabetic rats.  To alleviate elevated blood glucose levels during impaired glucose metabolism with easily affordable and available drugs, we had been experimenting with various local plants and formulations for their blood glucose lowering effects. [5-17] As such, it was of interest to determine the antihyperglycemic activity of whole plant extract of Alocasia fornicata.
In the present study, the antidiabetic and antihypertensive effect of DZ was studied in the model of STZ induced diabetic and L-NAME hypertensive rats. Diabetes mellitus is a disease due to abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism, STZ, which was a specific cytotoxic agent for pancreatic b-cells, has been confirmed to have a diabetogenic action and the intensity of the damage were graded according to the dosage used (Mythili et al., 2004). The mechanism by which STZ brings about its diabetic state includes impaired glucose tolerance and loss of b-cell sensitivity to glucose (Arulmozhi et al., 2004), which make cells less active and lead to poor glucose utilization by tissues (Junod et al., 1969; Elsner et al., 2000). Chronic inhibition of NO synthase by administration of L-NAME was associated with induction of hypertension, hypertrophy, cardiac remodeling (Baylis et al., 1992; Ulker et al., 2003), and renal functional alterations (Sharifi et al., 2005; Pereira et al., 2004). Our study STZ and L-NAME-treated rats reflected by glycosuria, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinaemia, polyphagia, and polydypsia and also significantly increased blood pressure when compared to normal rats. Treatment with DZ significantly reduced the plasma glucose level and blood pressure in STZ and L-NAME induced diabetic hypertensive rats. It was already reported that the phenolic compounds reduces blood pressure and prevent target organ damage in hypertensive rats (Jalilietal.2006). DZ was a phenol acting as an antioxidant by scavenging both chain initiating and chain propagating free radicals. This effect directly indicates that part of the antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive activity. DZ possesses various pharmacological activities including cardiovascular protection, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti- cancer activities, and so on (Shukla and Singh 2007). It is evident that DZ supplementation significantly decreased blood pressure in STZ and L-NAME treated groups.
0.05) the secretion of insulin. None of the animals treated with extract showed any visible serious symptoms of toxicity; however, there were mild signs of respiratory distress, diarrhea, and convulsions. This indicates that aqueous extract of Alkanna strigosa may not cause any toxic effect on the body. The hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract on the diabetic rats were observed within 2 h, continued for about 8 h, and lasted to the end of the experiment (30 days). The average value of insulin was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the untreated diabetic rats compared to the respective control rats, as shown in (Table 3). On other hand, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in the mean value of insulin in diabetic group treated with aqueous extract of Alkanna strigosa compared to the untreated diabetic rats during the entire period of the study. The insulin mean value in diabetic rats treated with metformin (Group V) was found to be closely similar to that in the untreated diabetic rats given only normal saline (0.5 ml/kg). Of note, the insulin mean value significantly reduced in the diabetic rats treated with metformin (Group V) relative to the control rats. Furthermore, the diabetic rats experienced significant increased (p < 0.05) in the mean value of glucagon when compared with the control rats; whereas the mean value of glucagon in the diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of Alkanna strigosa (Group IV) or metformin was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of the untreated diabetic rats. The insulin mean value was not significantly altered in the normal rats treated with the aqueous extract (Group II) relative to the control rats.
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism whose prevalence is rising globally. The hypoglycemic property of raw Allium cepa has been established by several authors, and this study, was carried out to investigate the effect of heat on the hypoglycemic property of Allium cepa. This is against the backdrop that Allium cepa is mostly consumed boiled in Africa and several parts of the World. 40 Wistar rats were used for the study and diabetes was induced in 35 of them using single intraperitoneal dose of 40mgkg -1 of alloxan monohydrate. There were eight groups (n= 5). Group one and two served as the control groups, group three is insulin and group four is metformin. Group five to eight were treatment groups. Result showed the following reduction at 400 mgkg -1 (raw- 57.2%; boiled- 41.3%). At 600 mgkg -1 , (raw-30.9%; boiled-20.9%). It is therefore concluded based on these findings that boiling Allium cepa reduced its hypoglycemic potential and hence its effectiveness in ameliorating hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus. In the same experiment, insulin at (40 µgkg -1 ) and metformin at (50 mgkg -1 ) show plasma glucose reduction of (52.7%) and (12.3%) respectively when compared with the control. Result shows that heat reduces hypoglycemic property of onions.