The study concluded that the cumulative dose of Celosea argentea extract could enhance overall sexual function and performance in male rats by increasing the level of testosterone. Thus, this study may prove to be an effective and safe alternative remedy in sexual disorders. However, further detailed studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of this plant extract in treating sexual disorders. This includes separation, purification and characterization of different chemical constituents of this extracts and testing the aphrodisiac activity of purified compounds.
The plant extracts were subjected for preliminary photochemical studies and aphrodisiac activity. The reports of photochemical studies showed the presence of steroids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, saponins, gums and mucilages. Amount these compounds; some of the compounds definitely possess aphrodisiac activity. It was found that an increased copulatory sexual behavior and mounting were observed in animals treated with plant extracts. Among the two extracts, as clearly indicated, aqueous extracts of Vigna mungo possess potent aphrodisiac activity as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts, intermission frequency, ejaculatory behavior and mating performance. 
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From many plants, numerous number of compounds scientifically proved for its Aphrodisiac activity, such as Yohimbine hydrochloride from the Yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) trees of West Africa, protodioscin from Tribulus terrestris, Icariin from Horny goat weed (Epimedii herba) from China, HV430 from Muira Puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides) a Brazilian plant, MACA ethanolic extract of MACA (Lepidium meyenii) from Andes, extracts of Ginseng (Panax ginseng) a plant from Korea, ethanolic extract of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) native to India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka, crocin and safranal from Saffron (Crocus sativus) native to the Middle East, phenylethylamine and N-acylethanolamine from cocoa Theobroma cacao native to tropical regions in South America and Africa and many animal origin compounds such as the triterpene alcohol ambrein form whale (Physeter catodon), cantharidin from Spanish fly (Lytta vesicatoria), bufotenine and its O-methylated derivative 5 methoxy-M,N-dimethyltryptamine from Bufo Toad (Bufo alvarius)  Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid derived from the bark of the P. johimbe  tree in Central Africa were also confirmed for their aphrodisiac activity.
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From the fruiting bodies, spores, and mycelia of reishi, various types of bioactive compounds have been identi- fied which commonly consist of proteins, peptides, tri- terpenoids, sterols, polysaccharides, steroids, nucleotides and trace elements [11, 12]. Ganoderma lucidum has shown various pharmacological activities which include antiviral (anti-HIV), hepatoprotective, anti-ulcer antibac- terial, anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, radio-protective, age promoting, analgesic, hypolipidemic, sleep promoting, cytotoxic, chemopreventive, antifibrotic, antiatherosclero- tic, antidiabetic, radical scavenging and antioxidative prop- erties [8, 11, 13–16]. In this study, we have evaluated the potential aphrodisiac activity of ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (GLE) in male Wistar rats.
Dhadhu Virthi Kuligai (DVK) is used in siddha medicine as an aphrodisiac and to improve functions of male reproductive. Adult wistar albino rats were used to evaluate aphrodisiac activity. Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was treated as control and administered with milk. Group II and III were treated with 100 and 200mg/kg b.wt of DVK Group IV was treated with Sidenafil citrate, 5mg/kg b.wt. Sexual behavioural parameters were observed on wistar albino rats. Latency (time) of first mount, number of mounts, latency of first intromission, number of intromission, latency of ejaculation, number of ejaculations and post ejaculatory pause were observed. Dhadhu virthi kuligai 200 mg/kg body weight showed moderate activity when compared to the standard group.
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The various parts of Phoenix dactylifera widely are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders which include memory disturbances, fever, in- flammation, paralysis, loss of consciousness and nervous disorders [11,12]. Suspension of Phoenix dactylifera date palm pollen (DPP) is an herbal mixture that is widely used as a folk remedy for curing male infertility in tradi- tional medicine. Date palm fruit suspensions improve the sperm count, motility, morphology, and DNA quality with a concomitant increase in the weights of testis and epididymis . However, there is no scientific research about the effect of DPP on sexual behavior in literature. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera pollen grain on the sexual behavior in male rats.
2000mg/kg, extract was administered orally to rats as per the OECD guidelines no.425. The different dose were selected 1/20 th , 1/10 th , 1/5 th of the lethal dose were taken as effective dose for the study. In prolonged immobilization-induced stress model, parameters like Mount latency, number of mounts, Thrusting were recorded simultaneously by two investigators with light provided by a 40-watt red lamp. Alcoholic extract of Trianthema decandra showed Aphrodisiac activity in a dose dependant manner. The medium and high dose treated groups have shown a significant increase in the number of mounts, thrusting and decrease in the latency. The results suggest the Aphrodisiac activity of aerial parts of Trianthema decandra and may be attributed to elevation of Testosterone, Adrenergic, Cholinergic & Dopamine levels elevation.
In India, the plant is considered an aphrodisiac; it is ornamental and bears red flowers which have a high value in the Indian flower market. Micropropagation is being used extensively for the rapid clonal propagation of many fruits, nuts and ornamental trees  . Therefore, the present study was performed to verify the folklore claim of aphrodisiac activity of Crossandra infundibuliformis (L.) on ethanol induced testicular toxicity in albino wistar rats.
for the Androcare was conducted as per as OECD guidelines No. 425 upto the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The aphrodisiac activity was evaluated in various experimental animal models like Effect on fertility in mice, Effect on sperm properties in mice and Sexual behavior on prolonged immobilization stress in rats. The polyherbal formulation, Androcare even upto the dose level of 2000mg/kg. It has not produced any lethal effect. In Effect on fertility model, Androcare only 200 & 400 mg/kg dose treated groups but not 100 mg/kg dose had shown a significant increase in litter size but no effect on M/F ratio. Androcare was tested for its effect on sperm properties with different dose levels and all doses (100,200 & 400 mg/kg) have shown a significant increase in spermatogenic activity with scant intertubular spaces between the tubules. Sexual behavior in prolonged immobilization stress induced model, a significant increase in number of mounts and thrusting and decrease in mounting latency were recorded with Androcare 200 & 400 mg/kg treated doses only but not with 100 mg/kg treated group. The present investigation revealed that the polyherbal formulation, Androcare was found to possess aphrodisiac activity.
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Orally administered ethanol (300 mg/kg) and aqueous (300 mg/kg) extracts of Hybanthus enneaspermus (L) F. Muell were evaluated for its aphrodisiac activity in sexually inactive male rats both in a single dose regimen and in a chronic regimen as a daily dose for 28 days. Mount and intromission latency and number of mounts, intromissions and ejaculations were the parameters used for assessing sexual arousal and performance. Following a single dose administration, the aqueous extract produced a decrease in the mounting and intromission latency, with an increase in the ejaculatory and intromission frequency. In the chronic model, both the alcohol and aqueous extracts increased the number of mounts, ejaculations and intromissions with decrease in the mounting and intromission latency. Treatment with aqueous extract also elevated the testosterone levels in sexually inactive male rats. The findings suggest that H. ennaespermus may exert aphrodisiac activity in sexually inactive male rats.
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Research during past two decades has an unfolded focus on impotence. There are a number of prescription drugs which may act as sexual stimulant and enhancing the sexual desire and activity, the use of medicines have not shown significant improvement in treating sexual disorders, at the same time there are large number of side effects. These include arrhythmias, suicide tendency, mental confusions and tremors etc. The use of synthetic aphrodisiacs results in the dilatation of blood vessels in other parts of the body causing head ache and fainting. Other side effects include facial flushing, stomach upset and blurred vision. Thus, there is a growing need to look for aphrodisiacs more of natural plant as opposed to synthetic compounds. In this regard, we undertook the present studies on Nelumbonucifera which has been known as aphrodisiac. Still there has been no methodical study, to validate this activity. Taking the male sexual dysfunctions in to consideration, the current studies in aphrodisiac activity on Nelumbonucifera white variety is intended to look for safe and powerful aphrodisiac. We have studied the crude drug powder for their in vivo aphrodisiac activity on wister albino rats.
Geyenaphro’ a polyherbal formulation, used in the treatment of sexual inertia, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. The present study was aimed at investigating the aphrodisiac effect of ‘Geyenaphro’ in male and female albino rats in comparison with L- dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). 2-3 months old sexually inactive male and female rats were used for the study. In male rats, latency for mount, intromission, ejaculation and number of mounts, intromission and ejaculation and in female rats, number of lordosis and rejection were observed as parameters of assessment of aphrodisiac activity. ‘Geyenaphro’ significantly enhanced sexual activity in both male and female rats, both in single dose (100 mg/kg, orally) and chronic dose study (100 mg/kg /day orally for 28 days). ‘Geyenaphro’ was found to be superior to (L-Dopa) in male rats and equipotent in female rats.
Evaluation of Aphrodisiac activity: Aphrodisiac activity was assessed by oral administration of methanolic extract of Cicer arietinum seeds. A total of 18 sexually sluggish male wistar rats were selected and housed separately. They were randomly divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I received 1ml distilled water and served as control, group II received methanolic extract low dose (200mg/kg) and group III received methanolic extract high dose (400mg/kg). The drug/vehicle treatment was continued for 13 days. Fifty minutes after the drug/vehicle administration on day 14, the animals were placed in a glass cage (40x50x40cm). After an adaptation period of 10min, a sexually receptive female was presented to the male by dropping into the cage 13 . The following sexual behavioral parameters were recorded.
INTRODUCTION: Libido refers to a fluctuating state of sexual motivation in all organisms wherein there exist constant fluctuations in sexual arousal, desire, reward and inhibition 1, 2 . Sexual motivation is altered by internal, factors like circulating steroidal hormones and feedback from sexual stimulation; external factors, such as the presence of sexually relevant incentives; and by the cognitive processing of these factors that provides variations in sexual arousability and expectation of sexual reward 2 . Female sexual dysfunction is defined as disturbance in sexual functioning involving one or multiple phases of the sexual response cycle or pain associated with sexual activity 3 .
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Alkaloids have been shown to have ergogenic properties by inducing vasodilation of the blood vessels which consequently result in erection 18 . Therefore the alkaloid content in the ethanol extract and methanol fraction of L. dulcis root may be implicated in the increased aphrodisiac activities through same mechanism. Saponin have been indicated as acting as a nitric oxide donor, inducing the relaxation of smooth muscle corpus cavanosum through the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway 24 .
This paper presents a review of plants identified from various ethno botanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey with aphrodisiac activity. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction (ED) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of sexual (or) erectile dysfunction various natural aphrodisiac plants potentials are preferred. This review discuss about aphrodisiac potential of plants, its botanical name, Common name, family, part used and references, which are helpful for researcher to development new aphrodisiac formulations.
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The aphrodisiac activity obtained from the present study with sildenafil citrate and testosterone is similar to the results reported in earlier studies 15 . The fourteen days treatment with their drugs increased number of mounts, number of ejaculations with decrease intromission interval. The ethanolic extract treatments have shown no considerable and significant activity. However in aqueous extract treatment group the potent male aphrodisiac activity was observed linear dose dependently. The fourteen days treatment, significantly increased number of mounts, number of ejaculations, ejaculation latency, inter intromission interval, and also latency of first intromission indicates that its possible beneficial effects in coping up premature ejaculation, reduced amount of time record for the sexual stimulation and also tendency to reduce post ejaculatory intervals with increased copulatory efficiency. The saponins present in the aqueous and ethanolic extract of this plant might have assisted in stimulating an increase in the body natural endogenous testosterone levels by raising the level of leutinizing hormone (LH). This LH released normally by the pituitary gland helps to maintain testosterone levels: as LH increases so does the testosterone. The increase in testosterone seemed to have translated into the male sexual competence observed in this study suggests that the aphrodisiac action may be mediated through a change in the blood testosterone level. 16
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In an attempt to evaluate the acclaimed aphrodisiac activity of ethanol leaf extract of Piliostigma thoningii, twenty (20) male wistar albino rats were weighed and grouped into four study groups (A-D) of five animals each. Rats in group A (control) were administered with 1ml of distilled water orally while those in groups B, C, and D were given same volume orally, corresponding to 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively for 21 days. Sexual behaviour parameters were monitored in the male rats for 3 days after administration by pairing with a receptive female (1:1). The male serum testosterone concentration was also determined. Cage side observation on the animals revealed prospective behaviours by the receptive female rats and pre- copulatory behaviours by the extract-treated male rats. The extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P < 0.05) increased the frequencies of mount and intromission. In addition, the ejaculation latency was significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged. The latencies of mount and intromission were reduced signifi-cantly (P<0.05) whereas ejaculation frequency increased. The extract also reduced the post- ejaculatory interval of the wistar albino rats. Computed percentages of index of libido, mounted, intromitted, ejaculated and copulatory efficiency were higher in the extract- treated animals than the control whereas the intercopulatory interval decreased significantly. The extract also significantly (P<0.05) increased the serum testosterone content of the animals. Data from this study suggest that the ethanol extract of Piliostigma thonningii leaf enhanced sexual behaviour in male rats.
From a scientific standpoint, many historically “powerful” aphrodisiacs may have had such strong results due to mere belief or their powers by users, while nowadays, because of science, many foods are considered to be helpful in your sex life because of the nutrients, vitamins and minerals which they contain. Many herbs have been scientifically proven to increase sexual desire and much more. Plants which possess ability to boost sexual performance and virility include the following; Almonds, Asparagus, Avocado, Banana, Coconut, Dates, Garlic, Mango, Mushroom, Olive, Onion, Sesame seeds, Parsely, Wheat grass, Mints, Aloe, and Celery among others . Apart from medicinal plants, several other drugs of metal and mineral origin are also described in ayurveda for their spermatogenic and virility activities. These include varatika (calcium), gold, etc, Animal products such as meat soup of cock, peacock, swan or sparrow; semen of crocodile, etc. have been reported to possess aphrodisiac activity  (Figure 1-10).
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38), penile Cream/Oil (n= 31), herbal products (n= 30), other (n=10). Among other 06.94% polyherbal formulation, asparagus racemosus, curculigo orchioides, tribulus terrestris, fadogia agrestis & dactylorhiza hatagirea, jordan creams oil, vimax pills, ozomen penis massage oil, marijuana and bhang, japani oil, grass oil, vaajikarana therapy, minyak lintah tapa, duroil, vigrx plus, semenex, instant performer pills were commented as aphrodisiacs. Among 144 responders who had knowledge about aphrodisiacs, 55 responders (38.19%) had used aphrodisiac once or more than once throughout their lives while 89 (61.81%) responders had never used aphrodisiacs throughout their lives. The following results pertain to only those participants reporting use of aphrodisiacs. The extent of use of different aphrodisiacs were as following: sildenafil (n=39), verdenafil (n=6), tadalafil (n=7) yohimbine (n=15), Amphetamine (n=7) mephamphetamine (n=8), ketamine (n=7), pramipraxole (n=3), alkyl nitrites (n=11), paroxetine (n=11), fluoxetine (n= 4), penile Cream/Oil (n= 4) herbal products (n= 3), other (n=2). Among other 2% jordan creams and oil, duroil, vimax pills, instant performer pills, vigrx plus, semenex, vati-iln, vaajikarana therapy were used as aphrodisiacs. Approximately 50% (n=27) users were between 21-30 years. While 24% (n=13) were between 15-20 years, 22% (n=12) were between 31-40 years, 3 % (n=2) were between 41- 50 years and 2% (n=1) were between 51-60 years Amongst the aphrodisiac users, only 9.78% (n=9) had used aphrodisiac for erectile dysfunction while 90.22% (n=46) responders had used aphrodisiacs for other purpose. Among recreational users 28 responders (30.43%) has used to enhance sexual performance, 22 responders (23.91%) had used for curiosity or experiment purpose, 18 responders (19.57%) had used for increase penis erection, 12 responders (14.13%) had used to impress sexual partner and 2 responders (2.17%) had used for other purpose like anxiety and hard core sex. Amongst the aphrodisiacs users, majority of the users (90.22%) had acquired drugs without prescription from various places like pharmacy stores, internet, drug dealers, sex partners and friends. While 9.78 % responders had a prescription for the aphrodisiac drugs b: purpose like anxiety, hard core sex. Amongst the aphrodisiac users, 83.64% users had experienced positive outcome like enhanced erection (36.36%), longer lasting erection (27%), however 16.36% responders had reported no