Chlorophyll content in plant leaves is a good indicator for plant nutrition, photosynthetic capacity, growth and development  . Most traditional chlorophyll content diagnosis of vegetation was sampled and analyzed in the laboratory. Though the results are more accurate, it can’t meet the demand of fast and efficient precision agriculture because of time-consuming and high cost. In recent years, with the continuous development of hyper- spectral remote sensing technology, to monitor vegetation biochemical components in real-time, accurate and rapid has become possible. At present, the hyperspectral estimations of chlorophyll content of crops have been studied in corn  , wheat  , soybean  , cotton -, rice   and other crops. In the study of fruit trees, Zhu et al. analyzed the hyperspectral characteristics of apple leaves, and established a model for monitoring the pigment content based on spectral parameters . Li et al. researched the correlation between SPAD and chlorophyll contents of apple leaves and built the regression models between the Soil and Plant Ana- lyzer Development (SPAD) value and chlorophyll contents of apple leaves based on first differential spectral value . Liang et al. found that the estimation models, which leaf chlorophyll index (LCI), the combinations of 521 nm and 523 nm first differential value as variables, have the highest accuracy . Fang et al., Pan et al. constructed the quantitative relationship model between apple canopy chlorophyll content and canopy spectral characteristics parameters  . The above studies on chlorophyll content, the differential scale used in the transformation of the actual spectral data was the 2nd, there was no research on the different differential scale of spectral data transformation and the selection of the best differential scale. Taking Qixia County of Shandong Province as the study area, Red Fuji apple tree of full bearing fruit was selected to be the research object. The hyperspectral data and chlorophyll content of apple leaves were determined. The differential transformation of different window scales was done to actual spectral data. Sensitive wavelengths were selected and the models of spectral parameters were constructed. After comparison, the estimation model and the best first differential window of chlorophyll content in apple leaves were determined.
DOI: 10.4236/as.2019.106060 784 Agricultural Sciences growth. Chlorophyll in apple leaves plays an important role in photosynthesis   . The use of hyperspectral imaging technology to estimate the chloro- phyll estimation and distribution of apple leaves is of great significance for the nutrient distribution and precise fertilization of apple leaves . According to the characteristics of chlorophyll reflection and absorption of specific wave- length spectra, chlorophyll spectroscopy diagnosis of a large number of crops has been carried out at home and abroad. Curran  studied between the origi- nal spectrum and chlorophyll content and the spectral and chlorophyll content after first-order differential treatment. In contrast, it was found that first-order differentiation of the spectrum can well eliminate the influence of the back- ground environment or illumination on the spectral reflectance. Song Kaishan et al.  took the correlation analysis of the hyperspectral reflectance and chloro- phyll content of soybean canopy, and screened the sensitive band model with large correlation coefficient, and carried out the inversion estimation of chloro- phyll content. Shi Jiyong  studied the rapid and non-destructive detection of chlorophyll content in cucumber leaves with cucumber as the research object. The multi-linear regression model was established by using hyperspectral image information, and the chlorophyll content distribution map was drawn, indicat- ing that non-destructive testing was performed by hyperspectral image technol- ogy. Leaf chlorophyll content and distribution are feasible. Yu Keqiang  used hyperspectral imaging technology to visualize the nitrogen distribution of pep- per leaves, and obtained the inversion map of nitrogen distribution in pepper leaves. The results show that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used for nondestructive detection of plant nutrients. Spectral information can only reflect the concentration of nutrients, and can not reflect the spatial distribution cha- racteristics. Hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to obtain spectral in- formation and image information, and chlorophyll content distribution inver- sion    .
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Aiming at the problem of the low utilization ratio of water resource and ferti- lizers in apple orchard in loess hilly area, which is the result of both water shortage and improper fertilization, a field experiment of the regulation of water and fertilizers is carried out in a typical apple orchard in this area to make analysis of nutrients in apple leaves under different treatments of water and fertilizers. The results show that: in the experimental area: 1) the total ni- trogen content in apple leaves maintains at a low level of 1.87% - 3.17%; the total phosphorus content in apple leaves maintains at a low or normal level of 0.13% - 0.16%; and the total potassium content in apple leaves maintains at a deficient level of 0.46% - 0.64%; 2) the regulation of water and fertilizers has some effect on promoting the trees to adsorb both the total nitrogen and the total potassium, but it has no apparent effect on promoting the leaves to ad- sorb the total phosphorus. In the management of water and fertilizers in this apple orchard, the effects of the water and the fertilizers should be properly regulated to make full use of the limited water resource and improve the utili- zation ratio of the fertilizers as well, so as to achieve the three goals of saving water, saving fertilizers and improving quality.
The aim of this study is to establish the estimation model of potassium con- tent in apple leaves by using vegetation index. A total of 96 fresh apple leaves were collected from 24 orchards in Qixia County, Shandong Province. The spectral reflectance of the leaves was measured by ASD FieldSpec4. The dif- ference vegetation index (DVI), ratio vegetation index (RVI) and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) were used to make the contour map through Matlab platform, and the combination of high correlation wavelength was selected to establish the random forest (RF) regression model of potassium content. The hyperspectral reflectance increased with the increase of leaf potassium con- tent. The correlation between DVI and the content of potassium is higher than NDVI and RVI. The optimal vegetation index was DVI (364,740), the correlation coefficient was 0.5355. The random forest regression model estab- lished with DVI selected vegetation index was the best. R 2 was 0.8995, RMSE
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Twenty percent of the protein spots identified success- fully were involved in photosynthesis. The induction of some photosynthetic proteins during the interaction be- tween apple leaves and M. coronaria may implicate light-sensing mechanisms in the induction of plant dis- ease defense signaling. A series of proteins related to photosynthesis were altered suggesting the dynamic in- fluence of pathogen on host photosynthetic machinery [20,21]. Some plants show a decrease in the activity of some Calvin cycle-related proteins, e.g., RuBisCO, fol- lowing pathogen infection [22,23]. The up-regulation of the RuBisCO at 3 day can be explained by the rapid defense response to the fungus. It is probable that patho- gens cause a gradual decline in the rate of photosyn- thesis in infected areas of the plants as the disease progresses . An up-accumulation of related proteins could be part of a defense strategy. At 6 day, the down- regulation of protein activity indicated that infection with M. coronaria possible inhibited the rate and extent of photosynthetic processes. This down-regulation of photosynthesis during pathogen infection may be caused by the large accumulation of hexose sugars, which leads to feedback inhibition of the expression of some photo- synthetic genes [24,25]. It is conform to the report by Xianping Fang et al .
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processes are competitive among each other and stress conditions (high temperatures, drought, frost, deﬁ cient or abundant nutrients, infection by pathogens, herbicide eﬀ ects) induce changes in the activity of the photosynthetic process. Use of photochemical energy decreases resulting in increased release of thermal energy, and especially ﬂ uorescence radiation. There is an inversely proportional relationship between the eﬃ ciency of photosynthesis and chlorophyll ﬂ uorescence. Upon UV-A excitation, the ﬂ uorescence spectrum of green leaves presents not only the red and far- red emission bands respectively centred near to 690 and 740 nm due to the emission of the protein- bound chlorophyll a in the chloroplasts of the subepidermal mesophyll cells, but also a maximum (430–450 nm) in the blue region and visible near to 520 nm (CHAPELLE et al., 1984). A complex description of the photosynthetic apparatus activity, including distribution of loss processes of photosynthesis into photochemical and thermal is provided by quenching analysis, the most widespread technique of measuring chlorophyll ﬂ uorescence. The quenching analysis is based on highly-intensive ﬂ ashes of a xenon lamp, so-called saturation light pulses. The measurement is usually carried out on leaves that were adapted to dark (for at least 15 min). Analysis of quenching kinetics for small regions can be used to diagnose distribution of the photosynthetic activity in leaves.
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Abstract: Conventional Techniques Such As Convolutional Neural Network (Cnn), Deep Neural Network Have Shown Its Own Footprints In The Field Of Image Classification With Promising Results. In The Past Decades, Classification Of Images Has Been Done With Varying Features Like Shape, Texture Etc. In This Paper, A Novel Approach Is Used To Classify The Leaf Images And Determine The Health And The Diseased Leaf. The Image Is Preprocessed By Extracting The Shape Feature And Classified The Leaves Of Apple As Healthy And Diseased (Rot Leaves) Using Two Novel Effective Approaches Gradient Boosting And Support Vector Classifier. We Have Collected 1813 Images Of Apple Leaves As Dataset And Out Of These, 70% Of The Data Is Used To Train And Remaining 30% Is Used To Test The Data. Our Algorithm Has Outperformed Other Traditional Techniques With Good Scale Of Accuracy(Gradient Boosting-87%, Support Vector Classifier- 91%). Strong Comparison Of Both Gradient Boosting And Support Vector Is Made And There Is Dominant Show Off Of The Confusion Matrix. Classification Of Healthy And Diseased Leaf Well In Advance Gives Nice Warning To The Producer Thereby Decreasing The Rate Of Diseased.
mium lined irradiation channel of the NIRR-1. The standard reference materials NIST 1515 Apple leaves was irradiated together with the Al-0.1%Au thin foil as the single comparator in the Cd lined irradiation channel at a preset thermal neutron flux of 5 × 10 11 n·cm −2 ·s −1 for 6 hours. The induced activities on the elements of interest in the samples of NIST 1515 Apple leaves were measured under the same counting conditions at the distance of 2 cm from the efficiency calibrated P-type GEM 30195 HPGe coaxial detector system after appropriate decay and counting periods.
For addressing the issue of adulteration and counterfeiting of the sources of origin for the edible bird’s nests (EBNs), a preliminary study of elemental characterization for their geochemical markers was performed. This study aims to characterize the elemental profiles as geochemical markers and evaluate the relationships between these markers which could be used for the verification of the geographical origin of EBN in Malaysia. EBN samples from house and cave nests that represent a range of geographical and environmental characteristics were analysed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The method was validated by analysing the Standard Reference Material SRM-1515 (Apple Leaves) and SRM-1573a (Tomato Leaves) of NIST. A total of 18 elements were determined. The results showed a statistical analysis of one way ANOVA has proven that there have a significant different elemental profiles in both EBN, clearly V, As, Ba, Sc, Sm and Th were not detectable in the house EBNs. Therefore, initial finding could be concluded that those elements can be identified as the key elements for geochemical marker to differentiate the type of EBN. Furthermore the differnces probably due to natural presence of those elements as well as regional or location and seasonal variation factors affecting the dietry habits of the swiftlets.
The optimal conditions for detecting Apple mosaic virus were assessed by determining relative concentrations of viral coat protein in different tissues (leaves, flower petals, dormant buds, and phloem) in five selected symptomless Apple mosaic virus-infected apple trees of two cultivars at different terms during the vegetation period. Relative concentrations of Apple mosaic virus were calculated as the reciprocal value of the Apple mosaic virus coat protein titer determined by ELISA. The highest relative virus concentration and therefore the highest reliability of virus detection was obtained with young leaves in April before flowering. The reliability of the detection was proved by repeating tests of 80 apple trees of four cultivars in the two subsequent years. The presence of Apple mosaic virus was tested in young apple leaves before flowering taken from 472 apple trees from selected orchards of the Czech Republic. The association of the out- come with climate is also discussed.
Scab epidemics during summer are driven by conidia produced only on apple leaves. In this situation, antagonists present in the phyllosphere may interfere with conidia of the pathogen during sporulation or infection. Within the EU-funded project REPCO, more than hundred fungi were isolated from sporulating scab colonies and tested on apple seedlings for their potential to reduce sporulation of the pathogen. Since the aim of the study was to contribute to the development of a biocontrol product, only candidates were selected which fulfilled a range of additional criteria considering major constraints in development of biocontrol products. The best antagonists were applied under orchard conditions during two growing seasons. The antagonist H39 significantly reduced sporulation of V. inaequalis after most applications. However, in a few cases no effect was found.
‘Gyzyl Ahmedi’ apple variety; chestnut of Gabala; water- melon of Sabirabad; melon of Kurdamir; pomegranate varieties of Gekchay; potato of Gedabek; white onion of Hovsan Village (Baku Suburb); ‘White Shany’ and ‘Black Shany’ varieties of grapes; almond, olive, ‘Khar Tut’ variety of mulberry and fig cultivated in Baku Suburbs for centuries; citrus plants, tea and vegetable of Lankaran; hazelnut, walnut, attar of roses and persimmon of Zagatala; apricot, peach, apple and walnut of Ordubad; quince and cherry plum of Agdash; cherry, crab/sweet cherry (merry) and tomato of Khachmaz. It is possible to develop this list. Unfortunately there are enough GMo FP in this unique land
697 | P a g e visited results on the top in the form of a ranked list. Individual have to go through the results and get the best possible he is looking for. The most relevant result may vary from individual to individual. Like for example, a school going child may search “Apple” and expect the results of the apple fruit and a college going student may search “Apple” and expect the top results of the Apple Inc. Thus, the results of such ambiguous queries should be obtained in the clustered format and then the individual will find it easy to search is relevant domain. This paper attempts to get results in the form of clusters.
The present study is based on secondary data as well as primary data. The secondary data has been collected from government official records, various published reports, books and journals Primary data has been collected from the field survey through interview schedule. On the basis of high apple production, three blocks viz. Imam Sahib, Chitragam and Shopian blocks has been selected randomly from District Shopian. Respondents belonging to apple industry have been selected from each selected block on the basis of 15 per cent of the total orchardists which amounts to 200, comprising of 61 respondents from Imam Sahib block, 77 from Shopian block and 62 respondents from Chitragam block. In these blocks, selling price of apple “grade A” was worked out in order to find out the variations in selling price between different regions. In order to compare the selling price between different regions, average price of three varieties was worked out.
The Snapshot (c) shows the Weight Entering Activity. In this user has to add the weight of the apple manually. As per the research and statistics for standard weight of a particular species of apple the ideal number can be considered to be 70-80 grams. In this case it is considered to be 75-80 grams. After entering the weight the user has to click on submit button to proceed further.
Determining the effect of fruit consumption on weight is difficult, since most studies have considered fruit and vegetables together [22, 23]; further, most studies have been conducted in adults. Although the association of fruit and vegetables consumption and weight or weight loss is inconsistent , the recommendation is to in- crease fruit and vegetable consumption in the diet to help manage weight [1, 18]. The single study that has examined apple intake and weight loss was a randomized controlled trial of overweight adult females ( n = 411) who consumed three apples (300 g), three pears (300 g), or oat cookies (60 g) per day for 12 weeks. Groups consuming either ap- ples or pears lost 1.21 kg, compared with the group con- suming cookies that lost only 0.88 kg .
After choosing the right variety for the location and applying cultural practices with the aim to prevent or slow down disease development, sanitary measures are the third key stone in disease management in organic orchards. The fact that crop rotation is not possible in fruit growing, makes that disease problems tend to accumulate during the lifetime of an orchard, and often determine the economic decision when to grub and replace the orchard. Cutting out the parts of the tree that are infected by Nectria galligena and other wood rots is common practise for both integrated and organic growers. The positive effect of reducing the ascospore inoculum of apple scab in spring by mulching and shredding fallen leaves, or even taking out the fallen leaves from the orchard has been demonstrated repeatedly in integrated orchards. This sanitation results in 50-90% less diseased fruits than a fungicide program without sanitation. (e.g. Triloff 2006, Creemers unpublished.) The natural leaf degradation proceeds in organic orchards faster that in integrated orchards. Nevertheless most organic growers try to further improve the leaf degradation by shredding and mulching leaves during winter, or digging them in with their mechanical weeding equipment.
Total RNA was prepared according to K UNDU (2001) as follows: the leaves of apple (Malus domestica Borkh) or indicator hosts (Nicotiana occidentalis 37B for ASPV or Chenopodium quinoa for ASGV) were ground in a mortar and homogenised in extraction buffer (1:10, 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.8 containing 200 mM LiCl, 20 mM EDTA and 1% SDS). The extract was centrifuged at 10 000 rpm for 5 min, 500 µl of supernatant were removed, 5 µl of proteinase K (20 mg/ml) added and incubated at 37°C for 1 h. The homogenate (500 µl) was mixed with an equal
The Vf locus, derived from the crabapple species Malus floribunda 821, confers resistance to five races of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab disease. In our previous research, the Vf locus was restricted to a BAC contig of ⵑ290 kb covered by five overlapping BAC clones. Here, we report on cloning of the resistance gene(s) present in the Vf BAC contig using a highly reliable and straightforward approach. This approach relies on hybridization of labeled cDNAs to amplified inserts of subclones derived from BAC inserts, followed by recovery of full-size transcripts by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A cluster of four resistance paralogs (Vfa1, Vfa2, Vfa3, and Vfa4 ) was identified in the Vf locus. Vfa1, Vfa2 and Vfa4 had no introns and are predicted to encode proteins characterized with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and transmembrane (TM) domains. However, Vfa3 contains an insertion of 780 bp at the end of the LRR motif, resulting in multiple truncated transcripts. Comparison of Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa4 paralogs revealed a high degree of overall homology in their deduced amino acid sequences, while divergences were mainly restricted within LRR domains, including variable LRR units, numerous amino acid substitutions, and several residue deletions/duplications. Differential expression profiles among the four paralogs were observed during leaf development. Vfa1, Vfa2, and Vfa3 were active in immature leaves, but slightly expressed in mature leaves, while Vfa4 was active in immature leaves and was highly expressed in mature leaves.
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Microsoft Word for the text-based IBM PC, and in informing the work of Apple in developing their GUI operating system. This work led to the unsuccessful Apple Lisa in 1983, and the massively successful Apple Macintosh in 1984 [Fig. 5]. This is the point in time, January 1984 – 21 years after its conception, at which the computer mouse first enters into the public consciousness 6 . And it was a public that at first took some time to become accustomed to such an unusual object.
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