It is a well-known fact for us that during historically very short, but equal to centuries times, our people have consistently progressed in the path of national development, and through overcoming all the trials, it gained great achievements and triumphs. We have overcome a very difficult path till the process of achieving independence. After gaining independence we have witnessed major changes in our country, radical reforms have taken place in every area. Especially, particular attention has been paid to art, sports and education. It is possible to know from the grateful
Not only interactive art are pursuing multi-sensory interactions but also many other art forms. Multi-sensory interactions can mobilize the spectator's full attention, allowing the audience to fully engage in the appreciation of the works of art, thus better conveying the ideas and emotions of the art creators. Multi-sensory can also have another way of developing, presenting one sensory feature to another and causing sensory interoperability. For example, whether it is played by traditional instruments or by computer, the traditional music art works mainly provide auditory stimulation. Relying on computer technology, music can not only hear, but also "see". Myles, a musician and visual artist from the United States, was born with deafness. He and his team jointly invented the audiovisual visualization system AUDIOLUX ONE. AUDIOLUX ONE is a device that can display changes in sound with light. It consists of two parts, the controller and the LED strip. Through analysis, AUDIOLUX ONE can intelligently "translate" sound and music into light, color and motion . In this case, even if the user can not hear the sound and cannot experience the emotion of the music with the sense of hearing, the emotions contained in the music can be understood and visually stimulated. Combining this technology with virtual reality can create the artistic effect of sense-link. Although the art work "Empty Window" created by Chinese artist Huang Shi and Li Jingfeng, is not a virtual reality interactive work, this work is calculated by capturing the subtle movements of the audience, such as blinking or breathing, plus the acquisition of brain waves. And these actions are reflected on the work to complete the interaction. This work makes us realize that it is also feasible to “communicate” art directly through the brain. The five senses connect the brain, and the stimulation of the five senses can achieve the control of the brain in a certain sense. This kind of behavior may directly “introduce” the artist's thoughts into the brains of the audience through research. Achieve direct exchange of ideas. The rapid development of multi-sensory virtual reality technology has brought a fantastic experience to both artists and viewers, but sometimes too much sensory stimulation will make people lose their judgment, blur the boundary between the virtual world and the real world, and in the future it will become a challenge for artists.
Thus, the metaphor has its advantages, such as: allows to bring the figurative world of stories (their content) closer to the inner “Self” of the individual, reflects the conflict situations and pos- sible ways to solve them, is the mediator between the art therapist and the client, uses the stories as “assistants” in returning to earlier stages of indi- vidual development . Using the metaphor, it is easier for the client to express feelings, emo- tional experience, mood that is difficult to verbal- ize. The images chosen by the client determined by his /her conscious and unconscious motives; gives the therapist grounds for certain diagnos- tic conclusions; is a means of materializing the problem; allows the client literally to see from the side his /her problem and to find ways to solve it; adorns the language of the therapist and at the expense of it makes it more expressive and mem- orable for the client [21-23]. The work of an art therapist with a metaphor may not be limited to its reading, interpretation and comprehension. It is also closely related to color science. In partic- ular, using a Luscher color test, where interpre- tation of each color allows the art therapist to recognize the deep sides of the human psyche. A striking example of the use of metaphor is such a form of art therapy as bibliotherapy, in particular fairytale therapy as its kind. It has its advantages: metaphor depth (most accessible to perception), non-resistance, contains collec- tive unconscious experience of humanity, diver- sity, maximum psychological protection, relativity of good and evil, variability, tests make the hero stronger, wiser, uncertainty of place and time, uncertainty of mental restrictions .
His Latin American experiences –in Chile, Brazil, Peru, Uruguay, Ecuador: indeed, all over the continent– kept on increasing, turning Hirschman into the most “European” of United States Latin Americanists. As time went by, his ideas also began to spread to other areas of the mind, and his works gradually crossed the frontiers of a number of other disciplines, starting with economic science and ex- tending to moral and political sciences. As from the 1970s, after having been responsible for one of the greatest attempts to subvert the then prevailing theo- ries of development and one of the most amazing at- tempts at the self-subversion of his own theories, Hirschman ventured off in other directions. His new mental journeys led him to formulate original ideas not only on the economics of development but also on the history of ideas, on the links between econom- ics and politics, and, in his last essays, on art, joy, and the significance (not only economic but also po- litical) of sharing a banquet.
Working in the context of a comparatively prosperous publicly funded cultural sector (in relation to other countries), has meant the critical aspect of socially engaged art practice has had to shift a gear from direct action (to activate and empower individuals) to question the very nature and meaning of a socially inclusive agenda being applied to art. Rather than becoming the vehicle through which urban developers can market their social responsibility, do such projects as Emotion Map have the potential to demand a more thorough, democratic involvement of different people in the inevitable development of the ‘master-planned community’? This marks a shift in the focus of the critique to a questioning of the means of production, thereby unravelling the reason why the money is there
Abstract. The paper identifies and analyzes the characteristic features of the development of Tajik jewelry art in the late 20th - early 21st centuries. The author believes that at this time, after a long period of oblivion, there is a marked way to restoration of many lost and nearly forgotten folk traditions in Tajik jewelry art. This period of time can be distinguished as a transitional period in the history of Tajik jewelry artdevelopment. This issue carries a significant value in the history of Tajikistan because the jewelry art in the period from the 80ies of the 20th century to the early 20th century was previously not subjected to a dedicated study, which results in certain gaps in the research of modern Tajik jewelry art. Studying the characteristics of the development of jewelry art at the turn of the 21st century and of the problems faced by master jewelers (zargars) at that time will aid in the future to identify the most efficient ways of developing this industry and facilitate its becoming one of the export-oriented areas, taking into account that the Republic of Tajikistan possesses all the necessary natural resources.
sodium and fluoride concentrations, both sodium and free fluoride levels need to be operated below certain limits by applying certain preconditions in terms of flow, composition, and replenishment of the phosphate bath. Systematic studies have shown that a flow of >0.4 m/s parallel to the surface is optimal. And subsequent chemical treatments can allow the use of lower Fluoride levels. Even so, since aluminium generates seven times more sludge per square meter than steel, sludge and surface quality issues quickly develop when the aluminium panels passing through a conventional dip-phosphating process exceeds 20–30% of the total area treated. The amount of sludge begins to overpower a traditional zinc phosphate system’s filtration system, and shortens the effective useful lifetime of the pretreatment baths. A shift in the zinc phosphate from the dipping to spraying can increase the pretreated limit up to 80%. However, the box sections and other interior parts of the car body are difficult to access by spraying, and therefore not properly degreased and covered by the conversion layer. More focuses have been put on the development of the traditional dipping process. It should be noted that BIW are not exclusively constructed of any one metal. Even aluminium intensive vehicles (AIVs) may still contain some steel and other materials. In addition, manufacturers of AIVs may still frequently need to process conventional steel vehicles on the same paint line. Therefore, processing conditions are generally a compromise to provide adequate pre-treatment for all parts of the BIW assembly, not just set up for treating aluminium alone.
Having said that, remittances should not be considered as a panacea for (especially the macro-economic) growth and development in Albania. Indeed, some authors have argued that they have impeded macro-economic growth (Tendjoukian 2004), whilst others sound the alarm that the Albanian economy is too highly dependent on remittances (de Zwager et al. 2005). Their sustainability is dependent on many factors, including migrants’ age, legal status, marital status, position in the labour market, country of destination and years of emigration. Piperno (2005) for instance shows that Albanian migrants in Italy are sending home relatively large amounts of money, more so after several years of establishing themselves there, as compared to the previous years of emigration. In the case of Greece, Hatziprokopiou (2006: 208-9) also found that almost half of his respondents in Thessaloniki remitted regularly to their relatives in Albania. However, in his sample, the length of stay in Greece only slightly affected remitting behaviour. What was more significant was the higher tendency to remit amongst those who had a bank account in Greece, which perhaps reflects their immigration status and more secure position in the host society. But, as migrants regularise themselves in their host countries, they are able to bring their immediate families to join them, thus reducing the incentives to remit (most remittances are sent to wife, children, parents, siblings, relatives and friends in that order). Albanian migration is increasingly regularising and maturing, with higher levels of family reunion, as discussed earlier. There is thus reason to suspect that remittances will decrease in the future. In the absence of overarching and well-planned strategies, the sustainability of such ‘remittance economies’ (Skeldon 2006) cannot last long. Nikas and King (2005) point out that a sudden decline in remittances due to economic downturn in Greece as the main destination country for Albanian migrants, may have devastating effects for the Albanian economy. Thus a more active role should be played on the part of policy-makers in harnessing remittances to promote development (Ammassari and Black 2001), whilst recognising their nature as private transfers. This would fundamentally revolve around improving the macro-economic environment within which migration occurs (Black et al. 2007). Two main poles need attention in this context: the socio-economic (‘end of political cliquism and general extension of social trust among the population’) and the infrastructural (roads, utilities, telecommunications, enforcement of the rule of law) environment (Nikas and King 2005: 257). This is also closely related with the recommendation that governments should shoulder their responsibilities for socio- economic growth, rather than burden migrants with the task of substituting these services.
Specificity in origin relates to subtype diversity Once a multi- or bi-potent precursor cell has chosen to generate further differentiated progeny, such as neuronal or glial precursors in the neuroepithelium, how is neuronal and glial subtype heterogeneity established? During telencephalon development, GABAergic interneurons and oligodendrocyte precursors migrate from ventral regions into dorsal territories (Fig. 1C). However, not all oligodendrocyte precursors originate at ventral positions, but rather originate in various telencephalic (and spinal cord) regions. This was beautifully demonstrated by Nic Kessaris (University College, London, UK), who used a rich collection of mice expressing the Cre recombinase in specific regions of the developing brain [and spinal cord, see Fogarty et al. (Fogarty et al., 2005)]. Kessaris and colleagues’ fate-mapping of the progeny of cells from the Nkx2.1-expressing medial ganglionic eminence (Fig. 1B) (which they mapped by crossing a Nkx2.1::Cre line to a reporter line) confirmed that all oligodendrocyte precursors in the dorsal telencephalon and the cerebral cortex originally derived from ventral sources at most embryonic stages. However, their numbers dwindled at late embryonic stages, until only 4% of all oligodendrocytes were labelled in the postnatal and adult brain. Indeed, the converse fate-mapping experiment, using Emx1 to drive Cre in the dorsal telencephalon (Fig. 1B), revealed that oligodendrocytes originating from dorsal regions take over around birth, when 30% of all oligodendrocytes are derived from dorsal precursors in the cortex, reaching 50% at later stages. Thus, oligodendrocyte precursors from ventral regions dominate at embryonic stages throughout the telencephalon, while regional sources of oligodendrocytes take over postnatally (see also Ivanova et al., 2003; Spassky et al., 2001). A similar scenario occurs in the subplate and marginal zone, where transient sources of neurons function during development, while other neuronal subtypes take over in the adult cortex. However, by using the Cre-lines to ablate specific oligodendrocyte precursors, Kessaris showed that each population of oligodendrocyte precursors can compensate for the other, and, so far, no oligodendrocyte precursor that has a region-specific origin has been observed to have a specific function. As ventrally derived precursors generate probably both interneurons and oligodendrocytes (He et al., 2001; Yung et al., 2002), the ventrally derived precursors might be bipotent neuro-oligo precursors, while the dorsally derived oligodendrocyte precursors may be glial-restricted precursors. This would explain why the number of bi-potent oligodendrocyte precursors drops postnatally (Belachew et al., 2003) and would predict that most oligodendrocyte precursors maintain their bipotent fate in the Emx1-Cre-depleted oligodendrocyte precursor pool.
This newfound focus on the therapeutic benefits of expressive art has mainly been studied in mental health, pediatric, and occasionally geriatric settings for clients living with chronic illness or who are survivors of abuse (Cardinale, Malacari, Broggi, Savignano, & Fisher, 2014; Gross, Hayne, & Drury, 2009; Gunnarsson & Eklund, 2009; Kato & Morita, 2010; Katz & Hershkowitz, 2010; Lev-Wiesel & Liraz, 2007; Patterson & Hayne, 2011; Perruzza & Kinsella, 2010; Symons et al., 2011; Veltman & Browne, 2002; Wesson & Salmon, 2001; Woolford, Patterson, Macleod, Hobbs, & Hayne, 2015). An interesting theory involves the idea that art employs visual thinking or imagery, thus engaging the client on a deeper symbolic level, which facilitates verbal expression (Christiansen, 1999; Gunnarsson & Eklund, 2009; Lev-Wiesel & Liraz, 2007). Life experiences, both positive and negative, may be more easily communicated through art, as it is believed to reduce the social demands of an interview while making the client an active participant in the process (Gunnarsson & Eklund, 2009; Lev-Wiesel & Liraz, 2007; Wesson & Salmon, 2001). This can have important implications for the profession in the ever- changing contemporary health care environment.
Extreme Programming, the agile method I focus on in this book, is particularly adept at achieving technical successes. XP programmers work together, which helps them keep track of the nitpicky details necessary for great work and ensures that at least two people review every piece of code. Programmers continuously integrate their code, which enables the team to release the software whenever it makes business sense. The whole team focuses on finishing each feature completely before starting the next, which prevents unexpected delays before release and allows the team to change direction at will. In addition to the structure of development, Extreme Programming includes advanced technical practices that lead to technical excellence. The most well-known practice is test-driven development, which helps programmers write code that does exactly what they think it will. XP teams also create simple, ever-evolving designs that are easy to modify when plans change.
The visual artists expressed frustration with their art training at Makerere University because they had to adhere to strict guidelines and focus on an art product, which stifled their creativity. The art they practiced for community development was much more meaningful to them, as Justin explained, “when you mention things like storytelling, I never saw that at the university because at university the main focus was really at producing and coming up with a product…So the kind of work we are now focusing on is that kind of art that brings out that inner feeling of somebody.” Lilian was grateful for her training at Makerere where she learned techniques that sped up her work, but she said there are times when the artist needs to slow down and reflect on the work being created. Faisal who is committed to bringing artists to the realization that meaningful art for the spectator is art that touches them personally. Faisal said in a frustrated voice that, “most of the artists they have come from Makerere… there’s no creativity in all this art… The local average person doesn’t understand that. It’s beautiful but he doesn’t associate himself with that painting.” I began to see that imagination in the creative process of art and development is also part of learning about the relationships and responsibilities that artists and developers have in relation to community members.
As with many of FACT’s endeavours, the Collaboration Programme was launched before a long-term strategy had been developed and this can perhaps be seen as beneficial to the project. Although its origins were in the Video Positive festival, the Collaboration Programme has been fully integrated into the organisation and has lasted far beyond Video Positive itself. The purpose for which it was introduced to Video Positive instilled an ethos of prioritising the local community and ensured the organisation’s relevance to them, but it also placed community arts and the production of artworks at the heart of the Collaboration Programme vision. The Collaboration Programme for Video Positive created artworks that were displayed in the public realm, such as on big screens in shopping areas, and this innovative use of the public art concept, together with increased numbers of visitors to the city, encouraged investment by key stakeholders which included the city’s residents. The Collaboration Programme, as with its parent organisation, has been particularly adept at positioning itself within reach of a number of different funding opportunities across several sectors, and this has enabled relationships to develop with a number of regular funders. For FACT, the Collaboration Programme remains a valuable part of its offer because it provides both the traditional education package that is expected of museums and galleries, but also runs schemes that appeal more widely to the charitable sector. This allows FACT to develop, through its exhibition programme, a “critical context of languages, technologies, philosophies and artistic processes” 493 whilst also satisfying the criteria of its regular funders, such as the Arts Council England (ACE).
Companies develop in the similar manner in every new market, including Lithuania. For instance, the largest com- panies in Lithuanian information technology market started their operations from assembling computers. Later they started to provide higher value added solutions for com- puters, while some of them started to diversify their activi- ties by entering the businesses which are not related to the information technologies but which are based on the same sales or marketing techniques. At last, the leaders of the sector turned their companies into the holding-based struc- tures and vertically disintegrated the operations, so that every new company can improve their unique competitive advantages. The possibilities to adapt the new fundamen- tals of strategic management art highly depend on whether they can directly be applied to the development structure of the company.
The interpretation of art since ancient times is “art originates from life and higher than life”. That is the source of art is life practice, reflects the social life is also a miniature, which in turn social environment, life practice experiences influence the performance of art. That is the source of art comes from life practice and also reflects a microcosm of the social life; in turn, the social environment and the practical experience of life influence the performance of art. For example, our ancestors performed and recorded people's day-to-day production, life activities and celebration, ritual activities in the form of painting and dancing. China's ancient ritual activities stem from their ignorance and fear of nature. To increase admiration and mystery of God through the ritual activities, with some of the props, such as animal bones, feathers, animal carcasses and some physical action to disperse the fear of spiritual, all of this is the first manifestation of the art, and also the prototype stage of a combination of sport and art. Sports and art were derived from living and production practice of social life and have changed in form and content along with the progress and development of human. For further origin, sports and art can not be separated from the people’s production, life and practice; in this sense, sports and art are the same.
the meaning of oriental teachings in artistic portrayal, as also to C. G. Jung’s psychoanalytical research based on the psychology of the day. Vint also alludes to the development of artists’ compositional diagrams based on larger (psychological, etc.) systems that are mentioned in the art history of pre-Reformation Europe. Considering the above, it is pos- itively amazing that several important texts did appear in the 1980s, which were translated and annotated by Linnart Mäll (1938 -2010). This success is due largely to the Looming Library series, although the Eesti Raamat publishing house also produced several important works. 50 However, dealing with oriental religions was generally not tol-
The art, sport education, society and community development will really be helpful if we all decide to make small changes in our teaching pedagogy with the help of higher management authorities like small projects, medical aid usage, disaster management to be taught ,financial inclusion, clean society, garbage, water conservation, tree plantation along with teachers. with the particular officials so the problem identification, solutions to it can be studied by the students along with theory will definitely work for real social and community development through the teacher –student centric study and overall development .
Carole Kunkle-Miller (1978) made a theoretical review highlighting the use of art therapy with retarded adults and she finds out that for the moment being there were not so many studies regarding the mentioned topics. Ludkins-Katz (1972) cited by Carole Kunkle-Miller (1978) underlined the following stereotypes regarding the population topics: they are not able to concentrate, they are constantly repetitive and incapable of growth, and so one. Furthermore, the author underlines that the art is involved in the development of the retarded individual