and the depth of submergence (METCALF & EDDY Inc. 2003). (Hiras, Manariotis, & Grigoropoulos, 2004)has given a detailed analysis of performance of a conventional RBC in removal of organic and nitrogen matter treating municipal sewage. In some designs, air is added to the bottom of the tank to provide additional oxygen in case of high-strength influents.(PaDEP, 2016) has provided a practical example of implementation of RBC for a town and the operation instructions for it. It demonstrates the operation procedure that works efficiently for an RBC. This method needs lesser space, cost and energy for operation compared to ASP with an efficiency of about 80 to 90% due to high contact time and high treated effluent quality and the stability of the process remains even in fluctuating hydraulic and organic loading producing low sludge collectible in clarifier. The process is relatively silent compared to dosing pumps for aeration with no risk of channelling. RBC mechanism of sewage treatment holds flexibility to be combined with novel approaches in treatment. (Zha, Ma, & Lu, 2018) has experimented combination of RBC and anoxic filter to study the energy efficiency of the combination. The energy and parametric removal efficiency arethe factors that influence the cost benefit ratio of various treatment methods and their preference over each other. Fly nuisance and odour restrict wider preference of conventional RBC for treatment. Banana leavesact as a bio media for attached growth system with provided oxygen. The characteristics of banana leaves and the role it plays in treatment of waste water is studied. Cheaply available banana leaves being a biological material, provide a bed for attached growth system with abilities to reduce fly nuisance and odour observed in conventional RBC.
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The results of proximate analysis of banana leaves before and after fermentation are shown in Table 1. From the result, it could be seen that the percentage of organic matter in the substrate (banana leaves) outweighed the percentage of all the other components. This signified high degradation potential of the leaves (Ariane, 1985). The result also showed that the moisture and ash contents of the substrate before and after fermentation were almost equal while the organic matter of the substrate has significantly decreased after fermentation. This may be connected to the fact that during microbial degradation (fermentation) of biodegradable substance, only the organic content undergo degradation (Airehrour, 1994). In addition to the decrease in the percentage of the organic matter content after fermentation, there was also a drastic decrease in the percentage of C and N after fermentation. The decrease in the percentage of carbon content, C(%) may be attributed to the utilization of the of the carbon content of the substrate during the formation of methane (CH 4 ) and also as source
Dried banana leaves were collected from a banana plantation within the campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife and cassava peels were collected from Tonkere, a village very near to the University Teaching and Research farm. Fertilizer grade urea was used as the Non protein Nitrogen source. Dried banana leaves were chopped into lengths of about 2-3cm using a forage chopper to aid compaction. The chopped leaves were mixed with the cassava peels (fermentable carbohydrate source) at varying inclusion levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% of the total silage diet. Urea solution (30g/l H 2 O) was sprinkled on the silage mixture before they were packed,
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The mixture of stone banana leaves and CMC powder reinforced by gum arabic is expected to produce a bioplastic having good physical, mechanical and thermal properties in accordance with bioplastic standards of Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 7188.7: 2016. Characterization tests for bioplastics from granulated stone banana leaves and CMC- reinforced powder include: physical properties (density, water absorption and biodegredable properties), mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and elongation) and thermal properties with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). It is hoped that this bioplastic will have the advantage of bioplastics already on the market, with cheaper price, practical, environmentally friendly and can create new job opportunities.
Symptomless banana leaves (Musa spp.) were obtained from banana trees at a banana farm in Balik Pulau, Kg Perlis, Pulau Pinang; banana trees from small garden near Bakti Permai hostel and banana trees near School of Biological Science plant house, Universiti Sains Malaysia main campus, Pulau Pinang. Young and healthy leaves were sampled and only one banana leave was chosen from the tree of which the estimated age of the banana plants were below six months. The samples were placed in plastic bags and brought to the laboratory to be processed. All the banana leaves were washed thoroughly under running tap water for 24 h and dried before isolation of endophytic fungi.
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A new proposed product has been successfully developed and produced into a low cost and environment friendly microwave absorber. Agricultural wastes are utilized very eﬃciently and eﬀectively for development of pyramidal absorbers with least amount of chemicals added in it. By eﬀective utilization of a high carbon content material ‘coal’, the performance of banana leaves has been greatly enhanced in the low frequency ranges of 2 to 12 GHz in addition to high frequency ranges making it a better and improved microwave absorber. The average reﬂection loss for pyramidal microwave absorber of mixture of banana leaves & coal 0 to 20 GHz is − 45 . 2 dB which is almost comparable to commercial absorbers, also keeping the surroundings clean and pollution free. For future works, further new best ﬁller materials with high carbon content can be added to the basic material for enhancement of microwave absorption. REFERENCES
Table 1 showed the use of various packing materials by respondents. 85 per cent of respondents used banana fibers and leaves for proper packing of all dags. Sugarcane leaves were known as very important packing materials. Sugarcane leaves were spread in the bottom and top of the dags. Banana leaves were treated as the most useful material to keep leaves in safe but banana leaves were not available in much quantity. Therefore, betelvine cultivators used sugarcane leaves for packing dags. 15 of respondents faced the scarcity of banana leaves and fibers. Branches of mulberry tree were used to make ring which was at the bottom and top of the dag. 100 per cent of respondents used mulberry branches forming round packages. For maintaining proper shape of the dags, dags were tied by jute or plastic rope. 24 respondents 43.33 per cent, used jute string tying dags. 24 respondents, 40 per cent, used plastic rope for tying a dag. None of respondents used bamboo basket for packing betel leaves during the whole year.
Boopalan et al., have studied the thermal and mechanical properties of banana and jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. In addition to increase the mechanical properties, jute fibres was hybridized with banana fibres. Impact, flexural, tensile, water absorption and thermal tests were carried out on these hybrid composite samples. This study indicates that the addition of up to 50% by weight banana fibres into jute/epoxy composites shows enhancement in the thermal and mechanical properties and decreasing moisture absorption capacity .
For transmission and host range studies, mechanical inoculations were carried out by extracting banana tissues infected with CMV in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 containing 1.0% sodium sulphite (1:2W/V). The infectious sap was applied to healthy Commelina sp, Nicotiana glutinosa, Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo and Chenopodium spp in addition to banana. Leaves of the inoculated plants were previously dusted with 400 mesh carborandum. For control treatment carborundum dusted leaves were inoculated with phosphate buffer alone. Inoculated plants were maintained in the greenhouse at 25-30ºC for 30 days and the plants were inspected daily for symptom development. The inoculated plants were serologically tested using CMV antiserum.
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The most destructive nematodes in the subtropics are the burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) and the lesion nematode (Pratylenchus goodeyi). These nematodes reduce plant growth by damaging the root system causing the plant to topple. Lesion nematodes prefer cooler temperatures and are regarded as being more prevalent in some subtropical areas. Both nematodes cause characteristic red-black lesions in the root cortex (outer section of the root) and only by actually extracting them from the damaged roots and examining them under a microscope is it possible to identify which one is present. Monitoring for damage and treatment methods are the same for both species (Figure 65). Other nematode species such as root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) and spiral nematode attack the root system, but only root knot nematode occasionally causes economic losses in subtropical banana production. Photos are found in
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The banana plant is a large perennial herb with leaf sheaths that form trunk- like pseudostems. The plant has 8 - 12 leaves that are up to 9 feet long and 2 feet wide. Root development may be extensive in loose soil in some cases up to 30 feet laterally. The inflorescence (blossom stalk) becomes through the focal point of the pseudostem. Blossoms create in groups and winding around the primary pivot. It takes about 60 - 90 days for the fruits to be mature after the first flowers appear. Each bunch of fruits consists of variable numbers of "hands" along a central stem. Each "hand" consists of two transverse rows of fruits. The fruit quality is determined by size (finger length and thickness), evenness of ripening, freedom from blemishes and defects, and the arrangement of the clusters. Quality standards may differ in various markets (Internet sources; extento.hawaii.edu).
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Plant pararetroviruses integrate serendipitously into their host genomes. The banana genome harbors integrated copies of ba- nana streak virus (BSV) named endogenous BSV (eBSV) that are able to release infectious pararetrovirus. In this investigation, we characterized integrants of three BSV species—Goldfinger (eBSGFV), Imove (eBSImV), and Obino l’Ewai (eBSOLV)—in the seedy Musa balbisiana Pisang klutuk wulung (PKW) by studying their molecular structure, genomic organization, genomic landscape, and infectious capacity. All eBSVs exhibit extensive viral genome duplications and rearrangements. eBSV segregation analysis on an F1 population of PKW combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis showed that eBSImV, eBSOLV, and eBSGFV are each present at a single locus. eBSOLV and eBSGFV contain two distinct alleles, whereas eBSImV has two struc- turally identical alleles. Genotyping of both eBSV and viral particles expressed in the progeny demonstrated that only one allele for each species is infectious. The infectious allele of eBSImV could not be identified since the two alleles are identical. Finally, we demonstrate that eBSGFV and eBSOLV are located on chromosome 1 and eBSImV is located on chromosome 2 of the reference Musa genome published recently. The structure and evolution of eBSVs suggest sequential integration into the plant genome, and haplotype divergence analysis confirms that the three loci display differential evolution. Based on our data, we propose a model for BSV integration and eBSV evolution in the Musa balbisiana genome. The mutual benefits of this unique host-patho- gen association are also discussed.
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Several pests and diseases were found to pose serious problems to the banana growers. According to the sampled farmers, the major banana pests in Embu County are nematodes (26%), banana weevil (26%), banana thrips (24%) and moles (21%). This observation concurred with Wachira et al. (2013) who reported that nematodes, banana weevil and thrips are among the major pests limiting banana production in many growing regions in Kenya. Nematodes, particularly R. similis, damages the feeder roots of secondary and tertiary banana roots thus reducing the yields by more than 50% and significantly reducing the productive life of banana fields (Isaac et al., 2012). Heavy nematode infestation may also cause severe necrosis and toppling of banana plants (Queneherve et al., 2006; Isaac et al., 2007). The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is an important pest of bananas in all production regions in the Kenya with associated yield losses ranging from 40% to 100% (Wachira et al., 2013). This study further established that only 20% of farmers had adopted chemical pest control with majority of them applying traditional methods like application of ash to control nematodes. Banana thrips and moles were also recorded among the most common pests in the study area with an occurrence of 24% and 21% respectively. Wachira et al. (2013) also reported high incidence of thrips in Maragua sub-county of Murang’a County. The sampled farmers also mentioned other minor pests including squirrels, birds and bats which scratch and blemish banana fingers lowering the quality.
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Green bananas treated with various fungicides without symptoms showed white fungal colonies at the fingertips after 48 hours of storage. Fungal multiplication structures on fingertips from plantations would not be susceptible to of fungicides applied to postharvest bananas. The mode of action of antifungal molecules can be summarized in inhibition of the essential functions of target fungi (Bonnemain, 2003). However, storage structures are non-living and senescent. This is a limiting factor in the mechanism of action of fungicide hence the development of fungal colonies at the end of banana fingers. These banana fingers ends could also be a reservoir of conservations structures of fungi that might develop in favorable conditions. The flowers are constantly moist and sweet could be favorable to the development of heterotrophic fungi in the air, but also carried by insects while foraging. A senescence of flowers, reproductive organs such as
Enjoy bananas straight out of the peel as a snack. They‟re also delicious on top of cereal, in banana bread or in a smoothie. Try this recipe from Mayo Clinic for a blueberry-banana smoothie: In a blender, mix two medium bananas, one-half cup of blueberries and one cup of low-fat vanilla yogurt. Blend until smooth. To help bananas last longer, keep them in a cool place. Bananas ripen faster in hot dark places, such as in the bottom of a purse or backpack. Bananas are packed with nutrition that help your health. This tasty yellow fruit is heart-healthy, may help prevent depression and can even soothe an upset
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Table 4 showed that marginal physical product (MPP) of the farm inputs that were concerned was negative except that of banana suckers. The efficiency ratio of banana suckers was equal to one. This indicates that banana suckers were efficiently allocated by the farmers. While the efficiency ratio of family labor and hired labor were less than one, which indicates that the farmers are over-utilizing family and hired labor in the production of banana and these resources were inefficiently used by household farmers. The results showed that farmers in the area are yet to achieve absolute degree of allocative efficiency in the use of family and hired labor. The allocative efficiency index of inputs like family and hired labor indicates that farm operators could profitably reduce the quantity of these inputs that they employ. The reason is that their marginal productivity has passed zero or the optimum point (stage III of the production function). This also suggests that unit price of labor in the area is high, and a reduction in it would increase net farm returns.
Banana is a major fruit among all fruits which available throughout the year in Bangladesh. It is the fruit which under the purchasable limit of all income levels people in the country. The consumption of banana is mainly domestically and a small part shares in the global market. A major part of the population of the study area is engaged with banana cultivation. Their livelihoods are mainly depends on banana cultivation. So, the study was undertaken with a random sample of 100 banana growers of Salmara village of Gaibandha district of Bangladesh. We observed that that majority of the banana growers had medium level of knowledge, adoption and attitude towards banana cultivation technology. The 62.00% banana growers belongs to medium level of adoption of banana cultivation technology, whereas 21.00% banana growers had high level of adoption and 17.00% of them had low level of adoption. The findings suggest that a special program should be taken by the government to improve the level of knowledge, adoption and favorable attitude towards banana cultivation technology.
Banana industry plays important roles in the economics of southern China, where is always blown by typhoon in summer and autumn. After typhoon passed through, fresh banana seedlings are often required. That is a problem for companies on culturing banana seedling, since culturing banana seedlings takes about four months and typhoon cannot be predicted so early. If the growth of banana seedlings can be slowed down and the seedlings can be cultured in nursery shed for more time, this problem will be solved. In this research, seven treatments (paclobutrazol, diniconazole, paclobutrazol + brassins, paclobutrazol + diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, diniconazole + bras- sins, diniconazole + diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, chlormequat chloride) were performed on banana seedlings and the growth was measured. Results showed that in all of the treatments, the values of plant height, leaf length, pseudostem diameters, root length, root weight, root volume, fresh weight of above-ground tissues and fresh weight of seedlings were significantly less than those corresponding values of control. The reducing powers of roots of seedlings sprayed with paclobutrazol and paclobutrazol + diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate were remarkably higher than those of seedlings treated with water. Total chlorophyll content in leaves of seedlings sprayed with paclobutrazol was remarkably higher than that of seedlings treated with water. Total chlo- rophyll contents in leaves of seedlings treated with paclobutrazol + diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate and chlormequat chloride were lower than those of control. For delaying the growth of banana seedlings, chlormequat chloride was the best among the seven treatments. The mechanism might be that the enzyme CPP-synthase in seedlings was inhibited by chlormequat chloride.
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The machine consists of a rigid frame on which the roller rotates. The roller consists of twenty seven mild steel or stainless steel horizontals blades (6 mm size) with blunt edges all around and rotates on a free moving shaft. The roller could be driven by a standard one horse power single phase electric motor by belt and pulley arrangement, which is fixed over the rigid frame. The machine reduces drudgery and increases fibre production by 20-fold as compared to manual process. An additional net income of Rs.12,000/- per ha is assured to the banana cultivators.
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Molecular characterization of the 22 dessert banana genotypes was done by using ISSR markers. Forty primers were tried for initial screening of which ten primers (USB-810, USB-811, USB-815, USB-835, USB- 836, USB-838, USB-841, USB-842, UBC-818, UBC- 864) were found suitable to form polymorphic banding pattern for the genotypes. With these ten primers, the 22 banana genotypes produced a total of 76 amplification products (bands) out of which 40 were monomorphic and 36 were polymorphic (Table 2). The primers USB-835 and USB-841 produced the highest number of polymorphic bands each (6), while USB-836 produced only one polymorphic band. Different levels of polymorphisms were detected since as the percentage of polymorphic bands (% PB) ranged from 14.3 for USB-836 to 66.6 for UBC primers, with an average of 57.78%. All ten primers were effective in bringing out differences among the 22 genotypes in terms of presence or absence of the polymorphic bands. The size of DNA bands varied from 100 bp to 3000 bp. The lowest band size (100 bp) was produced by the ISSR markers UBC-818 and UBC-864 whereas the highest band size (3000 bp) was generated by USB-811 followed by USB-842 (Table 2).
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