Objectives: Comparison of the Goal attainment scale and the Berg Balance Scale for Assessing Balance impairment People With acute right side stroke Design: A Validation study, Physiotherapy and rehabilitation centre. Subjects: This study was carried out with 7 patients of age between 40-70 years who had acute right side stroke. Intervention: Score was evaluated using Goal Attainment scale (VAS), and Score was evaluated by Berg Balance Scale which was recorded at base line and at the end of week. Outcomes: Balance control and impairment was evaluated using Goal Attainment Scale and Berg Balance Scale in acute right side stroke patients who were recorded at the base line and at the end of fifth day. Results: Both the Goal Attainment Scale and Berg Balance Scale showed significant improvement score in acute middle cerebral artery stroke patients. Conclusion: Goal Attainment Scale is a better scale to assess balance impairment in acute middle cerebral artery stroke patients.
The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) was developed to measure balance among older people with impairment in balance function by assessing the performance of functional tasks. It is a valid instrument used for evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions and for quantitative descriptions of function in clinical practice and research. The BBS has been evaluated in several reliability studies. A recent study of the BBS, which was completed in Finland, indicates that a change of eight (8) BBS points is required to reveal a genuine change in function between two assessments among older people who are dependent in ADL and living in residential care facilities.
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To determine the concentration of serum albumin 5 ml blood was drawn from each study participant at baseline and after intervention. Serum was separated and albumin concentration was determined using stand- ard protocols. Various functional assessments were per- formed. The assessment of the physical domain utilized the Modified Physical Performance Test (MPPT) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). MPPT consists of nine com- ponents each with a minimum score of zero and max- imum of 4 (total:36) . Participants scoring between 0 and 16, 17 – 24, 25 – 31 and 32 – 36 are classified as severe, moderate, mild and non-frail, respectively. The BBS measure of balance consists of a 14-item scale designed to measure balance of the older adult in a clinical setting out of a total score of 56. Based on the scoring between 0 and 20, 21 – 40 and 41 – 56, participants were catego- rized into ‘ low risk ’ , ‘ medium risk ’ and ‘ high risk ’ group respectively . The assessment of daily living
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The results of his clinical assessment are summarized in Table 1 and Figure 1. As shown in Table 1 and Figure 1, the Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Rating Scale (PSPRS) score gradually decreased from 69 to 63 points throughout the six months of follow-up after AdMSC treatment. The clinical rating scale scores gradually increased from 3 to 9 points in the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), from 15 to 17 points in the Korean Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), and from 7 to 21 points in the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) throughout the six months of follow-up after AdMSC treatment compared to baseline (Table 1 and Figure 1). The grip strength, Box and Block Test (BBT), and Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT) were also performed to measure the strength or functional performance of the upper limbs. The grip strength was maintained from 8 to 8kg on his right hand and increased from 8 to 10kg on his left hand (Table 1 and Figure 2) after stem cell treatment. His results improved from 9 to 14 numbers of blocks transported on his right hand and from 13 to 16 numbers of blocks transported on his left hand during BBT (Table 1, Figure 3). Throughout the six months of follow-up, in NHPT, he performed faster, and the run time was shortened from 202 to 79 seconds on his right hand and from 127 to 94 seconds on his left hand (Table 1, Figure 4) after AdMSC treatment compared to baseline.
is the focus of rehabilitation for the people with chronic stroke . In addition, maintaining balance has been found to be a strong predictor of independent living  and was highly correlated with the perceived disability at the time of discharge from the rehabilitation . Assessment of the bal- ance can assist the therapists in the diagnosis, selection of appropriate interventions, and outcome measurements . Various outcome measures are used for the assessment of balance and mobility in patients with stroke [7, 11 – 17]. The Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) are reliable and valid scales that clinicians commonly used to evaluate the functional abilities of lower limbs in patients with stroke. Flansbjer et al.  reported that the TUG test is a single-task measure involves a single 180-degree turn and straight pathway walking. In a systematic review study,
part of their normal documentation processes. Comple- tion of the secondary outcomes was as follows: Podiatry Objective Clinical Score (100%), Berg Balance Scale (100%), Timed Up and Go Test (93.4%), Barthel Index (100%), EQ-5D (95.3%), Nursing Home Falls Self- Efficacy Scale (100%) and ankle strength (98.7%), 100% completion was achieved for the Barthel Index. This was because we employed proxy completion of the Barthel Index by care home staff, which would be regarded as normal practice for this measure. Simi- larly, full completion was achieved for the Podiatry Objective Clinical Score because this relied upon clin- ician report following examination of the feet. Com- pletion rate of the EQ5D was 95.3%. The issue preventing full completion was a number of residents having difficulty in understanding how to complete the visual analogue subscale of the EQ5D. Timed Up and Go Test had a completion rate of 93.4%. Dyna- mometry to measure ankle strength had a completion rate of 98.7%. We obtained data on every item within the Berg Balance Scale, and the Nursing Home Falls Self-Efficacy scale – if residents were unable to complete a particular section they simply received the minimum score possible for that particular manoeuvre or domain, as per the guidance for these measures.
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(ADL): Activities of daily living; (BI): Barthel index; (BBS): Berg Balance Scale; (CBS): Caregiver Burden Scale; (ESD): Early supported discharge; (EQ-5D): EuroQol Quality of Life Scale; (FES): Falls efficacy Scale; (FMA): Fugl-Meyer sensory motor assessment; (HADS): Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; (IPA-E): Impact on Autonomy and Participation; (MoCA): Montreal Cognitive Assessment; (mRS): modified Rankin Scale; (NIHSS): National institute of health stroke scale; (SIS): Stroke Impact Scale; TOAST: Trail of Org 10172 in Acute Treatment; (TUG): Time up and go.
Balance To cover the risk of falling, which is increased up to 75% after iSCI [38,39], we measured balance, which is considered important for functional ambulation after iSCI . Barbeau and Visintin showed that man- ual BWSTT improves balance in patients with stroke . However, as participants are strongly fixated in the robot, it remains questionable whether balance becomes trained during RAGT, as recently discussed for patients with stroke [9,42]. As a performance-based measure of balance, we used the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) . As a marker of static balance, we measured the maximal mediolateral amplitude of the center of pressure move- ment over 30 s on a force plate (Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur, Switzerland). Participants were asked to stand as still as possible and to fixate a given object with their eyes. The distance between their feet was 10 cm. The test was done twice, and the best try counted. To assess fear of falling while performing different activities of daily living, we applied the international version of the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES-I) .
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The long-term objective of this work is to optimize bal- ance assessment in clinical practice, in order to identify relevant impairments, inform treatment planning, and in turn, maximize the effectiveness of exercise interventions to improve balance and reduce falls in high risk popula- tions. We have previously reported initial findings from a 2010 survey of PTs practicing in Ontario, Canada , in which most respondents regularly used at least one stan- dardized measure in their assessment of balance. The most commonly used measures were the Single Leg Stance Test , Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test  and Berg Balance Scale . However, the most commonly used method of balance assessment overall was non-standardized move- ment observation. We also found that most respondents regularly evaluated many components of balance, but some important components related to fall risk were not regularly assessed by most PTs. In particular, reactive pos- tural control – postural reactions following a loss of bal- ance induced by external perturbations [21,22] – was regularly assessed by less than half of respondents. These results suggest that there may be gaps in comprehensive assessment of balance and use of standardized measures in clinical decision-making.
Background/objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disease that results in airflow limitation and respiratory distress, also having many nonrespiratory manifestations that affect both function and mobility. Preliminary evidence suggests that balance deficits constitute an important secondary impairment in individuals with COPD. Our objective was to investigate balance performance in two groups of COPD patients with different body com- positions and to observe which of these groups are more likely to experience falls in the future. Methods: We included 27 stable COPD patients and 17 healthy individuals who performed a series of balance tests. The COPD patients were divided in two groups: emphysematous and bronchitic. Patients completed the activities balance confidence scale and the COPD assessment test questionnaire and afterward performed the Berg Balance Scale, timed up and go, single leg stance and 6-minute walking distance test. We analyzed the differences in the balance tests between the studied groups.
Background: Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is a recessive neurological disorder with cerebellar, pyramidal and neuropathic features. Natural history data are urgently needed to increase trial readiness. This study aimed to describe the clinical phenotype including dexterity, coordination, strength, mobility, balance, disease severity, participation, and quality of life observed in adults with ARSACS homozygous for the c.8844delT mutation. Methods: Cross-sectional study with comparisons between disease stages and with reference values. Outcome measures included Standardized Finger-to-Nose Test, Grip/pinch strength, LEMOCOT, Six-Minute Walk Test, 10-Meter Walk Test, Berg Balance Scale, Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia, LIFE-H, and SF-12.
forty-two patients with PD will be randomly assigned to a Tai Chi group (n = 71) or routine exercise group (n = 71). Subjects will participate in supervised study programs 3 times per week for 2 months and will be followed for an additional 6 months after formal training stops. The primary outcome measures include Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go Test and Six-Minute Walk Test, which are known to be valid and reliable clinical instruments. The Unified Parkinson ’ s Disease Rating Scale Motor Section and Parkinson ’ s Disease Questionnaire-39 will be used as the secondary outcome measure. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, 2 and 8 months. The sample for this trial (N = 142) will provide relevant information to detect the improvement of balance, gait and quality of life in either of the 2 exercise groups.
They assessed the effects of an exercise program on balance and trunk proprioception. The researchers recruited 38 patients with diabetes having peripheral neuropathies. They were randomized and subdivided in two groups with the experimental group practicing a balance exercise program. The control group did not participate in the exercise program but both groups received health education on diabetes. The results showed that the experimental group experienced significant decrease in postural sway, an increase in one-leg stance test, and dynamic balance from the Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, Timed Up and Go test, and 10-m walking time improved significantly after balance exercise. A decrease in errors of trunk repositioning was also observed with training. The authors concluded “These results suggest that a balance exercise is suitable for individuals with diabetic neuropathy.
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Methods/Design: This single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 216 participants with stroke will compare the effectiveness of a 12-week YMCA community-based wellness program (FIT for FUNCTION) specifically designed for community-dwelling persons with stroke to persons who receive a standard YMCA membership. The primary outcome will be community reintegration using the Reintegration to Normal Living Index at 12 and 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include measurement of physical activity level using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity and accelerometry; balance using the Berg Balance Scale; lower extremity function using the Short Physical Performance Battery; exercise capacity using the 6-min walk test; grip strength and isometric knee extension strength using hand held dynamometry; and health-related quality of life using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimension Questionnaire. We are also assessing cardiovascular health and lipids; glucose and inflammatory markers will be collected following 12-h fast for total cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. Self-efficacy for physical activity will be assessed with a single question and self-efficacy for managing chronic disease will be assessed using the Stanford 6-item Scale. The Patient Activation Measure will be used to assess the patient ’ s level of knowledge, skill, and confidence for self-management. Healthcare utilization and costs will be evaluated. Group, time, and group × time interaction effects will be estimated using generalized linear models for continuous variables, including relevant baseline variables as covariates in the analysis that differ appreciably between groups at baseline. Cost data will be treated as non-parametric and analyzed using a Mann – Whitney U test.
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To compare PD patients before training (PD-Pre) to HCs, the sway measures as well as the model parameters were compared using a 2 × 2 × 2 mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mixed model ANOVA included two groups (PD and HC) as between-subject factor as well as two visual levels (eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC)), and two surface conditions (rigid (R), foam (F)) as within- subject factors. The Tukey test was used for post hoc multiple comparisons. In order to evaluate the patients’ improvements, the paired sample t-test was done, com- paring different clinical (TUG, and FRT) and posturo- graphy measures, and model parameters before and after training. Clinical improvement in BBS was tested with non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The signifi- cance level was set at 0.05. Moreover, the relationship between the percent changes of sway measures and clin- ical improvements were calculated with Pearson correl- ation test.
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Chang, Kim, & Park., 2015  (among others) used the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scale, whose index improved 6.27% in the experimental group compared to sham stimulation. On the other hand, Manji et al., 2018  did not observe significant differences in the FMA between the sham and experimental groups, but an im- provement of 5.29% was noted in the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). Costa-Ribeiro et al., 2017  did not obtain an improvement in the TUG either. Furthermore, Raithatha et al., 2016  observed an improvement in the sham group versus a non-significant improvement in the inter- vention group. However, the number of included subjects for this variable was only two and four for the control and intervention groups, respectively.
boxes on the left or right space), 4) One Ball Roll (using the left and right hands reciprocally to throw a ball to knock over bottles), 5) Pin Push (using the left and right hands alternately to throw a ball to knock a bottle in vari- ous directions), 6) Super Saver (side-stepping to prevent the ball hit to the goal), 7) Target Kick (kicking a ball to hit the targets), 8) Play Paddle Panic (using one or both hands to catch and strike a ball), 9) Body Bally (using hands, feet, and head to strike a ball), and 10) Bamp Bash (stepping forward, backward, sideward with moving trunk to avoid objects thrown by the opponents). In 30 min of playing, participants chose 6 games involving upper and lower limb movements, and balance training. Participants progressed in game play when they obtained the highest score in a level of the game, and the game allowed the players to advance.
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The present study concludes that there is correlation between physical activity, balance & cognition in geriatric population. Thus, it can be used in our daily clinical practice. Geriatric individuals can be educated about the importance of physical activity in their sedentary life-style for prevention of balance affection & cognition impairment. Light physical activity can be incorporated in treatment protocol for geriatric population. People should adopt physical activity and exercise as a part of their lifestyle to alleviate the negative impact of aging on the body and the mind.
The first foot type was fitted during the first visit. After one week of accommodation period, subjects return to the laboratory for assessment. This period was reported sufficient for below-knee amputees before functional assessment of the prosthesis . All subjects completed the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale  at each testing session to rate their balance confidence of a particular test foot. The overall score out of 100 was calculated by taking the average score of all items. After all test procedures were completed for the first foot, the foot was removed and replaced with the second test foot. Subsequently, the third test foot was attached to the prosthesis in the following week. The test was counterbalance across subjects to negate order effects. Finally, subjects attended the final visits to change the test foot with their original foot.
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only two studies have reported that RAGT is superior to CPT; however, they failed to achieve clinically meaningful changes in BBS scores [24, 40]. The sub- jects of Bang and Shin’s  study were patients who were already able to walk independently, so there might be a limit to the degree of improvement of bal- ance ability. The treatment group of Yoshimoto et al.  underwent robot-assisted gait intervention once a week for 8 weeks (20 min/session), for a total of eight sessions, which may not be sufficient to achieve ad- equate improvement in balance. Conversely, in our study, RAGT facilitated clinically meaningful changes in balance function among individuals with infraten- torial stroke. These results led to the improvement of SARA gait and stance scores in the RAGT+CPT group. This appears to be due to the SARA gait and stance evaluation reflects ataxia properties such as dysmetria and dysdiadochokinesia in individuals with infratentorial stroke.
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