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Quality of rapeseed bio-fuel waste: optical properties

Quality of rapeseed bio-fuel waste: optical properties

As seen from Table 1, samples analytical grade com- mercial glycerine and distilled glycerine show similar parame- ters L* and a* but different values for b*. This indicates that their luminosity and the colour on green-red a* scale are similar, while the reference sample is bluish and sample DG is yellowish. Such a phenomenon may be clear indication of impurities in the distilled glycerine expressed only slightly by its UV-Vis and FTIR spectra, expressed mainly by the changes in the samples turbidity. It is not possible to tell the difference between these two samples from the straight visual observation which is also indicated by a small distan- ce DE of the sample marked DG from the reference. Inte- restingly, visibly transparent and comparable high purity commercial glycerol as well as distilled glycerine show Fig. 3. FTIR – ATR spectra of rapeseed oil bio-fuel production
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Sustainability of Bio-Fuel Energy System

Sustainability of Bio-Fuel Energy System

From the above analysis, various contextual factors, variables and issues appear to be influencing the emergence of bio fuel policy. Policies are influenced by different factors depending on how powerful these are, not only in terms of what the factors are conveying but also the context and issues these are talking about. This appears to be the case for bio fuel policy. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial bio-fuel e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others. It is requiring attention to understand the impacts of these factors specifically from the socioeconomic point of view as it affects on very fundamental aspects of the ways in which food security, land availability, profit to people and their health, population, environment, and rural development issues. Moreover, there is the realization that use of bio fuel has the potential for job creation, energy independence, regional development and the development of economy of the nation. Food security being a strategic, moral and social issue, need to make a national policy on bio fuels, which inevitably would involve the issue of land use change especially agricultural and wastelands.
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Performance Characteristics of Neem Bio Fuel Blends with Kerosene Using Domestic Kerosene Stove

Performance Characteristics of Neem Bio Fuel Blends with Kerosene Using Domestic Kerosene Stove

ABSTRACT:Biodiesel is one of the most popular fields and it reached good height in automobile sector [1]. Biodiesel made huge changes in domestic applications. It has huge changes in fuel economy. One of the best options is replacement of kerosene to biodiesel. In India, in cooking stove kerosene is used as fuel. Kerosene causes environmental degradation. Because of it contains impurities like sulphur, aromatics and hydro carbons. This paper contain burning pressure stove using Neem bio diesel without changes in design of kerosene cooking stove. This paper contains comparison of blends of bio fuel with kerosene. B20, B40, B60, B80, B100 and kerosene. This experiment is done on stove without any modification in design.
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An experimental investigation of micro 
		explosion in bio fuel emulsion

An experimental investigation of micro explosion in bio fuel emulsion

Compression ignition (CI) engines are more efficient and possess higher torque capacities than spark ignition engines. Importance of alternative fuels has been emphasized than before because the depletion of fossil fuels (diesel) and its adverse impact on the environment. NOx and particulate matter (PM) are one of the important diesel engine exhaust pollutants need to be tackled. Usage of bio fuel in diesel engine helps to reduce PM, CO and total hydrocarbon (THC), adversely it increases the NOx emissions. Alternatively, when water in diesel emulsion (WiDE) is combusted in diesel engine, it enhances the reduction of NOx and PM simultaneously. WiDE contains base fuel and water with different vapour pressure values resulting in a phenomenon called microexplosion during combustion. When such emulsions are sprayed into a high temperature combustion chamber, the volatility difference leads to a violent microexplosion of the emulsified droplets. The presence of water aids to reduce the combustion temperature, therefore NOx is also reduced. The microexplosion phenomena results in the formation of smaller droplets with very high surface-to-volume ratio which result in better mixing with air leading to more complete combustion and lower particulate matter (PM) exhaust.
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Impacts of Bio-fuel use: A Review

Impacts of Bio-fuel use: A Review

World-wide production of bio-fuel has been increasing rapidly in the last decade, but the viability of first-generation bio-fuels, which are produced primarily from food crops such as grains, sugar cane and vegetable oils, has been increasingly questioned over concerns such as displacement of food-crops, effects on the environment and climate change. Second-generation bio-fuel have potential to provide benefits such as promote rural development and improve economic conditions in emerging and developing regions by making use of wasteland. At the same time second-generation bio fuel production could become unsustainable if they compete with food crops for available land. Second-generation bio-fuel are not yet produced commercially, but a considerable number of pilot and demonstration plants have been announced or set up in recent years, with research activities taking place mainly in developing countries like India, Brazil, Indonesia (Anselm, 2010; Fargione et al, 2008; Searchinger et al., 2008).
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Investigation Of Bio-Fuel Production And Performance Characteristics Of Ci Engine

Investigation Of Bio-Fuel Production And Performance Characteristics Of Ci Engine

Abstract— The Present research work studies about the production of biodiesel using karanja (Pongamia pinnata) seeds as a raw material), study of its characteristics and potential as a substitute for Diesel fuel in CI engines. Increasing the consumption and the price hike of petroleum fuel day to day is really problems for developing countries those are dependent on foreign suppliers and pay huge amount of import bill. During the last decade, the use of alternative fuel in diesel engines has received renewed attention. In the last few years interest & activity has grown up around the globe to find a substitute of fossil fuel. According to Indian scenario the demand of petroleum product like diesel is increasing day by day hence there is a need to find a solution. So by using bio fuel as an combustion element this problem can be sorted so we have formulated a process which involves transesterification of karanja oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst (NaOH), to yield biodiesel as the main product and glycerin as by-product. Crisis of petroleum fuel and import of fossil fuel is giving a high impact on the economy and development. Besides the economy and development, fossil fuel also leads to a major problem like global warming and change. The emission of harmful gasses like CO, NOx, CO2, and smoke density causes acid rain, health hazard and also global warming. The high oil price, environmental concern and supply instability. Biodiesel is part of the solution which reduced many of the problems. The objectives of this study are the production process, fuel properties, oil content, engines testing and performance analysis of biodiesel from karanja oil which is known as Karanja oil methyl ester (KOME). Engine tests have been carried out in a water cooled four stroke diesel engine and experimental investigation have been carried out to examine properties, performance and emission of different blends of KOME.
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Dual Bio-Fuel As An Alternate Fuel For CI Engines With Enhanced Physical And Chemical Properties

Dual Bio-Fuel As An Alternate Fuel For CI Engines With Enhanced Physical And Chemical Properties

conducted an experiment using blends Pongamia pinata oil and mustard oil with diesel oil. B10 shows 0.32 kg/kWh specific fuel consumption and diesel shows 0.31 kg/kWh. Bhupendra et al. [10] have described that using Jatropha biodiesel along with engine performance, combustion characteristics, and variations in emissions. Srithar et al. [9] have stated that in the past lots of work has been done by researchers on biodiesel production from the blending of vegetable oil with mineral diesel. But no work has been reported in biodiesel preparation by combining two different biodiesel blends with mineral diesel at different blending ratios. Dual biodiesel fuel enhances the low temperature properties and reduces the emissions of the diesel engine. Hanny Johanes Berchmans et al. [11] revealed that low temperature properties of Jatropha Biofuel are better, so in this research, we’ve selected the Jatropha biodiesel and Mahua biodiesel for the preparation of the dual-fuel biodiesel. Amr Ibrahimhas [12] studied and reported that blends of 5% diethyl ether and diesel can improve the engine performance mostly at all engine loads. Senthur Prabu et al. [13] experimented on diesel and Palm oil to produced biodiesel by blending them. Biodiesel produced from Palm oil with antioxidants has shown better engine performance and reduction in emission levels for different blends. A DI diesel engine was used for testing. Nalgundwar et al. [14] have taken a combination of Palm and Jatropha biodiesel and blended it with diesel to perform an experiment on a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Senthil et al. [15] used a catalytic cracking technique for biodiesel produced from Mahua oil biodiesel. Potassium hydroxide and activated red mud were used as catalysts. Activated red mud catalyst has shown a reduction in engine exhaust emission as well as consumption of fuel. Sanjid et al. [16] have performed experimentation on the 1-cylinder diesel engine to measure engine combustion, engine out emissions, noise, vibrations and harshness characteristics. Further, the power output of engine fueled by dual biodiesel of Jatropha and Palm biodiesel blends was also determined. Mahua oil has a calorific value of 5% inferior to the diesel fuel [17], [18]. Both Mahua raw seed oil and Jatropha raw seed oil have high FFA (Free fatty Acid) content which is around 19%-20% [19]. To reduce the FFA content of both crude oils, the pretreatment
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Algal Oil Potential as a Bio Fuel and Food Supplement

Algal Oil Potential as a Bio Fuel and Food Supplement

Recently, algae as alternative sources have gained a lot of attention. Some of the special features that distinguish algae from other biomass sources are high biomass yield per unit area, have a high oil, do not need farm land, nor fresh water is essential, and nutrients can be supplied through waste water and released from combustion of gas. Algae cultivation less than 3 % of India’s whole land can fulfil the requirements of . Estimated algal production is 30 times greater than Jatropha in 4046.86 square m of wasteland, along with this algae also a good source of carbohydrate, Protein, and lipids. The key benefits of algal based bio fuels can be notable
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Performance of Diesel Engine using Bio Fuel From Sesame Oil

Performance of Diesel Engine using Bio Fuel From Sesame Oil

Biodiesel is an “alternative or additive to standard diesel fuel that is made from biological ingredients instead of petroleum (or crude oil). Biodiesel is usually made from plant oils or animal fat through a series of chemical reactions. It is both non-toxic and renewable. Because biodiesel essentially comes from plants and animals, the sources can be replenished through farming and recycling. Biodiesel can be made from numerous natural resources. Although animal fat can be used, plant oil is the largest source of biodiesel. Soya bean oil, rapeseed oil, canola oil, palm oil, cottonseed oil, sunflower oil etc, are already used to produce biodiesel.
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A study of the combustion chemistry of petroleum and bio-fuel oil asphaltenes

A study of the combustion chemistry of petroleum and bio-fuel oil asphaltenes

Heavy fuel oils are burned as sprays with individual droplets up to 1mm diameter in large combustors. On entering a hot combustion chamber the lighter components evaporate and ignite the droplets which then burn. The heavier components in the droplet thermally decompose to form a carbonaceous char or cenosphere and fine particulate soot. The extent of their formation during the combustion of heavy oils is associated with the asphaltene content. This is defined[4,5] as the oil fraction insoluble in an n-alkane solvent such as n- heptane but soluble in an aromatic solvent such as toluene ; attempts have been made [4] to characterise asphaltenes in general from their number-average molecular weight, M n , their
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Performance Investigation of Pongamia as Bio Fuel on Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Performance Investigation of Pongamia as Bio Fuel on Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

The variations of the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with load for some Pongamia blends are shown in Graph. Brake Thermal efficiency of an engine is defined as the ratio of the brake power output to that of the chemical energy input in the form of fuel supply. It is the true indication with which the thermodynamic input is converted into mechanical work. For all blends tested, BTE increases with increase in load.

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Wooden and bio-fuel

Wooden and bio-fuel

Pasauliniu mastu didėjanti energijos paklausa, kylančios iškastinio kuro kai- nos, klimato kaitos neigiami reiškiniai ir nepriklausomumo nuo energijos impor- to siekis skatina vyriausybes, regionines ir tarptautines organizacijas atkreipti dėmesį į alternatyvius energijos šalti- nius. Oro užterštumas ir klimato kaitos poveikis šiuo metu yra pagrindinis iššū- kis mūsų planetai. Tikėtina, kad šis nei- giamas poveikis atsiranda dėl iškastinio kuro, kurio ištekliai yra riboti, deginimo. Siekiant sušvelninti klimato kaitos po- veikį ir užtikrinti apsirūpinimą „žaliąja energija“, vis didesnis dėmesys skiriamas energetikai iš atsinaujinančių energijos šaltinių – išteklių, kurių atsiradimą ir atsinaujinimą sąlygoja gamtos procesai (saulės, vėjo, geoterminė, vandens, bio- masės energija). Biomasė, kuri gali būti panaudota kurui, šiuo metu Lietuvoje yra pagrindinis atsinaujinančios energi- jos šaltinis. Anglies dvideginio emisijų
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A Study on Energy Related GHG Mitigation Scenario in Thailand

A Study on Energy Related GHG Mitigation Scenario in Thailand

alternative clean energy. In the case with additional plan, the result also shows significantly the improvement of energy intensity, while the case without plan does not make a difference with the reference case. However, the energy efficiency scheme has been proved to be the major mechanism for GHG mitigation. In this study, regulation of fuel economy standard and bio-fuel option in transportation as well as nuclear power generation are considered as the most effective measures in term of GHG mitigation among the selected potential policies. It must be noted that the conclusions are derived by the potential of GHG reduction without taking other indirect impact into the account, e.g. impact of land-use change and food pricing for biofuel, nuclear waste and decommission cost and etc.
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Impacts and Challenges of Biodiesel Use in Transport sector – An overview

Impacts and Challenges of Biodiesel Use in Transport sector – An overview

Biodiesel can be easily used in existing diesel engines in its pure form or in any blend ratio with conventional diesel fuels. It can be directly used in diesel engines without any modifications for short term with slightly interior performance than that of diesel. Bio-fuel costs and the impact of their use on oil demand and greenhouse gas emissions are important components in the overall assessment of bio-fuels for transport. But there are other important factors, such as the impact of bio-fuels on the vehicles that use them and the pollutant emissions from these vehicles, which are also relevant to this analysis. Standard compression-ignition engines designed to operate on petroleum-based diesel fuel is suitable for biodiesel. A blend of 20% bio-diesel fuel in diesel does not affect any of the measured performance (Murugesan et al., 2007; Agarwal, 2007). A 20% or less biodiesel blends or low level can be used as a direct substitute for diesel fuel in all heavy-duty diesel vehicles without any adjustment to the engine or fuel system (Rakopoulos et al., 2008; Agarwal et al., 2008; Stan, 2005).
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Pulmonary function and fuel use: A population survey

Pulmonary function and fuel use: A population survey

In a study conducted in Turkey a highly significant (p < 0.00001) reduction of FEV 1 , FVC, FEV 1 /FVC and FEF 25–75 was observed in case of biomass fuel users [9]. A study conducted in an urban Indian slum showed significantly lower FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 % and PEFR values in bio-fuel using women in comparison to modern fuel users (kerosene and LPG) [10] whereas a similar study undertaken involv- ing rural Indian women could show the prominent adverse effect of biomass fuel use on FVC only [11]. This deterioration of pulmonary function in biomass fuel users has been attributed to the fact that the amount and con- centration of particulate matter and other toxic gases emit- ted during biomass combustion while cooking are more than those emitted during combustion of LPG [16]. This study has come up with the finding that biomass fuel use (especially wood use) is an important factor for dete- rioration of pulmonary function. Wood, animal dung, coal and kerosene users (female) were having compara- tively lower pulmonary function values than their respec- tive non-users whereas LPG users were having comparatively higher values. Comparison of only bio-
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A Study On 5 % And 10 % Bio-Blended Diesel Fuel Spray Deposition

A Study On 5 % And 10 % Bio-Blended Diesel Fuel Spray Deposition

esters, is defined as a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long–chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oils or animal fats, for used in compression-ignition (CI) diesel engine [5]. It is a type of alternative fuel that had the potential to reduce emissions and green house effect. It is known as “advanced bio-fuel” through the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 [3].

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To Study of Vegetable Oils and Their Effects on Diesel Engine Performance

To Study of Vegetable Oils and Their Effects on Diesel Engine Performance

n recent time, the world is facing problems with energy crises due to depletion of conventional energy sources and increase environmental problems. This situation has led to the search for an alternative energy resources, which should be not only in exhaustible but also less harmful to environment. For developing countries, fuels of bio origin such alcohol, vegetable oils, bio- mass, bio-gas, synthetic fuels etc. are becoming most popular. Such fuels can be used directly, while others need some modification before they are used as fuel. And also by the application of the bio-fuels the harmful emission from engine such as CO, SO2, soot, hydro carbon, etc. can be controlled.Increasing air pollution is the most important problems of developed countries today.Exhaust emission from motor vehicle have a main role in this pollution. It is not enough to change the design of engine of vehicle to cope with the legal regulation, so it is quit necessary to focus on alternative fuels. These alternative fuels can be produced from renewable energy sources such as sugar-cane, cassava, jetropha, karanja, soybean oil, sunflower oil, cotton seed oil, ground nut oil, sesame oil, palm kernels oil, castor oil.Furthermore bio-fuels have some advantages’ over petroleum fuels, such as the reduction CO and hydro carbon emissions and well antiknock performance, which allow the use of higher compression ratio of engines. And also self -ignition temperature and fleshing point of bio-fuel are higher than those of petroleum fuels.
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Biomass Briquette System: Pollution Free Thermal Energy Resources

Biomass Briquette System: Pollution Free Thermal Energy Resources

ABSTRACT: Biomass Briquette, a dense form of bio-fuel has gained a large popularity in poor developing countries as an alternate cooking fuel. Within a short period it has replaced traditional fuels for its availability and high acceptance in user level. In a country like India, where 67% people relay on traditional bio- fuel for energy, briquette has received an immense response. Although large volume of work has been done on developing its production process, little data is available on its physical and fuel properties and reasons behind its high acceptance. The paper consists summery of the findings gained from a research conducted on briquette in India, its physical and fuel properties and field survey on local acceptance. The idea is widely in innovation globally. One can browse “n” number of development that is being taking place regarding biomass briquettes. Our search for such development led us to conclusion that all the biomass around the world, surely there is a way of recycling, providing clean environment. Moreover, as we have seen very few have utilized bio waste, providing clean environment. We were encouraged to find the reason behind it. We decided to look into the possibilities of recycling through such wastage.
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Isolation and Characterization of an Entophytic Ethanol Resistant Bacterium from Sap of Saccharum officinarum for Efficient Fermentation

Isolation and Characterization of an Entophytic Ethanol Resistant Bacterium from Sap of Saccharum officinarum for Efficient Fermentation

Abstract: Bio fuel is one of the emerging industries around the world due to arise of crisis in petroleum fuel. Fermentation is a cost effective and eco-friendly process in production of bio-fuel. One major problem in microbial ethanol fermentation is the low resistance of conventional microorganisms to the high ethanol concentrations, which ultimately lead to decrease in the efficiency of the process. In the present investigation, an ethanol resistant bacterium was isolated from sap of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). The optimal cultural conditions such as, temperature, incubation period, and microbiological characteristics, morphological characteristics, biochemical characteristics, ethanol tolerance, sugar tolerance were investigated. Isolated microorganism was tolerated to 18% (V/V) of ethanol concentration in the medium and 35% (V/V) glucose concentration in the medium. Biochemical characteristics have revealed as Gram negative, non-motile, negative for Indole test, Methyl Red test, Voges- Proskauer`s test, Citrate Utilization test, and Urease test and positive results for Oxidase test. Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, Dextrose, Arabinose, Raffinose, Lactose, and Sachcharose can be utilized by this particular bacterium. It is a significant feature in effective fermentation. The fermentation process was carried out in glucose medium under optimum conditions; temperature 30°C, and incubated for 72 hours. Maximum ethanol production was recorded as 12.8±0.4% (V/V). Methanol was not detected throughout the fermentation process. This bacterium is especially useful in bio- fuel production due to high ethanol tolerance of this microorganism; it can be used to enhance the fermentation process over conventional microorganisms. Investigations are currently conducted on establishing the identity of the bacterium.
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Rape methyl esther as a renewable energy resource in transport

Rape methyl esther as a renewable energy resource in transport

This type of bio-fuel for diesel engines was intro- duced in the Czech Republic from 1997. The higher costs and lower energy efficiency of the bio-fuel component were offset by the direct subsidies to manufacturers of RME and fuel blends in the period 1999–2001 (Table 4). From 2001 to April 30, 2004, the compensation took the form of price rebates for the raw material (oilseed rape) grown on the set-aside land and the limit on the RME production was partially increased to 230 000 t of the processed rapeseed oil; in addition, RME producers received a direct support for processing rapeseed oil for non-food uses. The aid was paid by the State Agricultural Intervention Fund (SZIF) in the framework of the compensation aid and the set-aside support. This support will be continued in the form of the national aid from the SZIF in the context of the non-food uses of agricul- tural production.
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